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fluctuations, and liable to be lost or perverted amidst the perpetual changes which take place in human concerns.

Under the sense of this obligation has the present selection been made, as well to fulfil the promise given in the general title, as to supply that minute account of the Life and Writings of the Author, which has hitherto been so anxiously looked for.

For the sake of uniformity and perspicuity, the papers have been distributed into a systematic arrangement according to their respective subjects, or the connexion which they bear to each other.

The First Portion is entirely miscellaneous, being composed of papers on religious and moral subjects, interspered with a variety of sententious remarks or aphorisms, calculated to make a fixed impression on the mind, and, by their simplicity of operation, to meliorate the condition of mankind in the removal or correction of evils which evidently obstruct the progress of human improvement. The third section of this part, intitled "Bagatelles," is of a sprightlier cast, and displays the cheerfulness of temper which formed so striking a feature in the character of Dr. Franklin, and uniformly enlivened his conversation amidst the cares of business and the infirmities of old age. The origin and design of these lively effusions are explained in a prefatory note, which it is hoped will prove an ample apology, if any such be necessary, for their insertion in this collection.

Those papers which relate immediately to the public character of Dr. Franklin are brought together in the Second Part, which may therefore be considered as exhibiting the rise and progress of the American Republic, from its incipient state of colonial industry and dependence, to the vigor of an internal polity, and the power of a consolidated empire. Here the philosopher, the historian, and the statesman, will find materials for the exercise of profound observation, upon the minute causes, and apparently fortuitous events, which combine in the germination of small but active communities, till they have attained the rank and influence of mighty nations.

Under the Third Part are disposed a number of Essays of a more variegated description, connected with general policy, economy, and commerce, subjects in the discussion of which the felicitous genius of this great man shone with such distinguished lustre, as to render his practical remarks, inquiries, and even casual hints on local topics, valuable for the direct tendency which they had, in common with his more elaborate writings, to promote the welfare of society.

The Fourth and last Part comprises a selection of letters and papers on philosophical subjects.

At an early period of Dr. Franklin's career, as a man of science, he occasionally imparted to some of his most intimate acquaintance in England, accounts of the discoveries made by him at Philadelphia; and though these communications were far from being intended for the public eye, the persons to whom they were addressed had a higher opinion of them than the Author, in consequence of which they were printed in London, under the title of " Experiments and Observations on Electricity, made at Philadelphia, with Letters and Papers on Philosophical Subjects." That the partiality of friendship had not over-rated the value of these papers, was quickly made evident by the reception which they experienced, not only in this country,' but on the continent of Europe, where they were translated into several languages, and by extending the fame of the Author, greatly enlarged the number of his correspondents in different parts of the world. Thus brought as it were, without his own consent, into the circle of the learned, he continued at intervals to prosecute the philosophical pursuits which had crowned

1 Five editions of this 4to volume were printed in London prior to 1775.

him with honor, and to communicate the particulars of his researches to his scientific friends, who received them with avidity. It merits observation, however, that notwithstanding the high eminence which Dr. Franklin attained as an experimentalist, he in reality may be said to have only made philosophy the amusement of his leisure hours, in which it afforded him a pleasing recreation after a variety of more laborious occupations.

Though some of the Essays contained under this head have already appeared, by far the greater portion of the contents of this part, (among which are several of the latest and most ingenious of Dr. Franklin's philosophical Writings,) are now for the first time printed from his own manuscripts.

In conclusion, the Editor trusts that the Volumes which now close his account with the public, will meet with the same favorable reception as the four that have preceded them; and that the whole will prove a lasting monument commemorative of the virtues and

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