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of which Conrad Weiser, our interpreter, gave me the following instance. He had been naturalised among the Six Nations, and spoke well the Mohock language. In going through the Indian country, to carry a message from our governor to the council at Onondaga, he called at the habitation of Canasetego, an old acquaintance, who embraced him, spread furs for him to sit on, placed before him some boiled beans and venison, and mixed some rum and water for his drink. When he was well refreshed, and had lit his pipe, Canasetego began to converse with him, asked him how he had fared the many years since they had seen each other, whence he then came, what occasioned the journey, &c. &c. Conrad answered all his questions; and, when the discourse began to flag, the Indian, to continue it, said:—" Conrad, you have lived long among the white people, and know something of their customs. I have been sometimes at Albany, and have observed that once in seven days they shut up their shops, and assemble all in the great house; tell me, what is it for? what do they do there T "They meet there," said Conrad, "to hear and learn good things." "I do not doubt," said the Indian, "that they tell you so; they have told me the same; but I doubt the truth of what they say, and I will tell you my reasons. I went lately to Albany to sell my skins, and buy blankets, knives, powder, rum, &c. You know I used generally to deal with Hans Hanson, but I was a little inclined this time to try some other merchant: however, I called first upon Hans, and asked him what he would give for beaver. He said he would not give more than four shillings a pound; 'but,' said he, 'I cannot talk on business now; this is the day when we meet together to learn good things, and I am going to the meeting.' So I thought to myself, since we cannot do any business to-day, I may as well go to the meeting too; and I went with him. There stood up a man in black, and began to talk to the people very angrily. I did not understand what he said; but, perceiving that he looked much at me and at Hanson, I imagined he was angry at seeing me there; so I went out, sat down near the house, struck fire, and lit my pipe, waiting till the meeting should break up. I thought too that the man had mentioned something of beaver, and I suspected it might be the subject of their meeting. So, when they came out, I accosted my merchant: 'Well, Hans,' said I, 'I hope you have agreed to give more than four shillings a pound.' 'No,' said he, 'I cannot give so much: I cannot give more than three shillings and sixpence.' I then spoke to several other dealers, but they all sung the same song,—' three and sixpence—three and sixpence.' This made it clear to me that my suspicion was right; and that whatever they pretend of meeting to learn good things, the real purpose was to consult how to cheat Indians in the price
of beaver. Consider but a little, Conrad, and you must be of my opinion. If they met so often to learn good things, they would certainly have learnt some before this time: but they are still ignorant. You know our practice: if a white man, in travelling through our country, enters one of our cabins, we all treat him as I treat you; we dry him if he is wet, we warm him if he is cold, we give him meat and drink, that he may allay his thirst and hunger, and spread soft furs for him to rest and sleep on. We demand nothing in return.' But, if I go into a white man's house at Albany, and ask for victuals and drink, they say, 'Where is your money f and, if I have none, they say, 'Get out, you Indian dog!' You see they have not yet learnt those little good things that we need no meetings to be instructed in, because our mothers taught them to us when we were children; and, therefore, it is impossible their meetings should be, as they say, for any such purpose, or have any
'It is remarkable that in all ages and countries, hospitality has been allowed as the virtue of those whom the civilised were pleased to call barbarians. The Greeks celebrated the Scythians for it; the Saracens possessed it eminently; and it is to this day the reigning virtue of the wild Arabs. St. Paul, too, in his relation of his voyage and shipwreck on the island of Melita, says, "the barbarous people showed us no little kindness : for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold."—Acts, chap. 27
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such effect: they are only to contrive the cheating of Indians in the price of beaver."
OBSERVATIONS ON MAYZ, OR INDIAN CORN.
It is remarked in North America, that the Eng lish farmers when they first arrive there, finding a soil and climate proper for the husbandry they have been accustomed to, and particularly suitable for raising wheat, they despise and neglect the culture of mayz, or Indian corn; but observing the advantage it affords their neighbors, the older inhabitants, they by degrees get more and more into the practice of raising it; and the face of the country shows from time to time that the culture of that grain goes on visibly augmenting.
The inducements are, the many different ways in which it may be prepared, so as to afford a wholesome and pleasing nourishment to men, and other animals. 1st. The family can begin to make use of it before the time of full harvest; for the tender green ears, stripped of their leaves, and roasted by a quick fire till the grain is brown, and eaten with a little salt or butter, are a delicacy. 2dly. When the grain is ripe and harder, the ears boiled in their leaves and eaten with butter, are also good and agreeable food. The tender green grains dried, may be kept all the year, and, mixed with green haricots,1 also dried, make at any time a pleasing dish, being first soaked some hours in water, and then boiled. When the grain is ripe and hard, there are also several ways of using it. One is to soak it all night in a lessive or lye, and then pound it in a large wooden mortar with a wooden pestle; the skin of each grain is by that means skinned off, and the farinaceous part left whole, which being boiled swells into a white soft pulp, and eaten with milk, or with butter and sugar, is delicious. The dry grain is also sometimes ground loosely, so as to be broke into pieces of the size of rice, and being winnowed to separate the bran, it is then boiled and eaten with turkies or other fowls, as rice. Ground into a finer meal, they make of it by boiling a hasty-pudding, or bouilli, to be eaten with milk, or with butter and sugar; this resembles what the Italians call polenta. They make of the same meal with water and salt, a hasty cake, which being stuck against a hoe or other flat iron, is placed erect before the fire, and so baked, to be used as bread. Broth is also agreeably thickened with the same meal. They also parch it in this manner. An iron pot is filled with sand, and set on the fire till the sand is very hot. Two or three pounds of the grain are then thrown in, and well mixed with the sand by stirring. Each grain bursts and throws out a