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wholly under ground, it is evident that RESTORATION, the fame with restauthe pavement of this temple is only a re- ration. See RESTAURATION. ftauration made in the time of Septimus In Eogland, the atturn of king Chules Severus.

II. in 1663, is, by way of eminence, RESTAURATION, in sculpture, is the re. called the Restoration; and the 29th of pairiog a mutilated statue, &c.

May is kept as an aniversary festival, in Many of the antique statues have under- cominemoration of that event, by which gone a restauration; as the wrestlers, in the regal and episcopal government was the gallery of the great duke of Florence; restored. the farnese Hercules; the Faunus in the RESTORATIVE, in medicine, a remedy villa Borghese, at Rome; and the Venus proper for restoring and retrieving the of Arles, in the gallery at Versailles : itrength and vigour both of the body and but these reftaurations have all been made animal spirits. by the ableft sculptors.

All under this class, says Quincy, are raRESTINCTION,' in chemistry, is the ther nutrimental than medicinal; and are

quenching a metal or mineral, in some more administered to repair the waites of liquor, in order either to correct or exalt the conftitution, than to alter and rectify it, by giving it some new power or qua- its disorders. Whatsoever can answer lity.

this end, must be both endued with a dire RESTITUTION, in physics, is restoring position to enter into, and mix with, the

an elaftic body, forcibly bent, to its na- most subtile of the animal fluids, and to

tural itate. See the article ELASTICITY. fall into and adhere with such interftices RESTITUTION, in a moral and legal sense, of the folids, as have been wore away by

is restoring a person to his right ; or re- action, and stand in need of recruit. turning something unjustly taken or de. Thele are one of the classes of baliamics, tained from him.

and are distinguished by the term anaIn the romilh church, usurers, &c. are leptics. See the articles ANALEPTICS, obliged to a reftirution of their ill gotten BALSAMICS, &c. goods; otherwise the priest has no au- Some of the principal medicines of this thority to give them absolution.

intention are the leaves of white and black RESTITUTION IN INTEGRUM, the same maiden-hair, eruca, colis foot, piitachiowith refciffion. See RESCISSION.

nuts, Icabious, baliam of Tolu, bdelliRESTITUTION of medals, or RESTITUT. um, benzoin, eryogo, forax, barley, &c.

ED MEDALS, is a term used by antiqua- lioffinan obferves, that a true and ries, for such medals as were ftruck by nuine restoration of the natural strength the emperors, to retrieve the memory of depends upon proper aliments, both of their predecessors.

the earable and drinkable kind, being Hence, in several medals we find the let. converted into good blood, and laudable ters rest. This practice was first begun juices, which afterwards generate that by Claudius, by bis striking afresh several subtil fluid which is secreted in the medals of Augustus. Nero did the fame; brain ; and being carried through the and Titus, after his father's example, nerves lo the muícies and muscular coare, ftruck reftitutions of most of his prede- principally supplies the body, and its feceffors. Gallienus ftruck a general re- veral parts, with strength and vigour. ftitution of all the preceding emperors, Those outrisives, therefore, which afford on two medals, the one bearing an aitar, a matter molt proper for this purpose, are the other an eagle, without the REST. ise bett analeptics; of which kind are giu• See the article MEDAL.

tincus broths of flesh, capuns, and bones RESTITUTIONE TEMPORALIUM, is a with their mirrow, boiled in a close vel

writ that lies when a man is elected and sel, with water, a little wine, some slices confirmed bishop of a diocese, for the of lemon, a little talt, powder of mace recovery of the jemporalities of the bi- and cloves; broths also made of coarse hopyric. .

westphalian bread, water, wine, and This writ is directed from the king to eggs; chocolate, with or without milk, the escheator, or rather theriff of the alles milk, &c. But thole nutritive and county.

Itrengthening aliments, he adds, are not RESTIVE, or Resty, in the manege, a to be used in the very time of the disease,

tubborn, unruly, ill-broken horse, that nor when the whole mais of blood and tops, or cuns back, instead of advancing humours are impure; but wb n the dirforward,

temper is over, and where, by a preceita


ing disease, or by long watching, fa- fish feeding on a man, and another mani tigue, and labour of body, or large he. afterwards feeding on the fish, part of morrhages, the strength is wasted and the body of the first man becomes incora impaired; but even then a proper mode- porated with the fish, and afterwards ration is to be observed and kept up to, with the body of the last man. Again, because these aliments pass very speedily instances have been known of one man's into the blood, and augment its quan- immediately feeding on the body of antity.

other; and among the cannibals in the RESTRICTION, among logicians, is li- Welt-Indies, who devour their enemies,

miting a term, so as to make it fignify the practice is frequent. Now it is alless than it usually does.

ledged, where the substance of one is thus RESTRINGENT, in medicine, the same converted into the substance of another,

with aftringent. See ASTRINGENTS. each cannot arise with his whole body; to RESULT, what is gathered from a confe- which then thall the common part be al.

rence, inquiry, meditation, or the like; Joted ?

or the conclufion and effc&t thereof. To this objection fome answer, that as RESUMMONS, in law, is the second fur. all matter is not capable of being affimi.

mons or calling of a person to answer an lated to the body, and incorporated with a&tion, where the firit fummons is de- it, human fieth may very probably be of feated by any accident, as the death of this kind; and, therefore, what is thus a party, or the like:

eaten, may be again excreted and carried RESUMPTION, a word used in various off.

fenfes: thus, in law, it fignifies the king's But Mr. Leibnitz obferves, that all that taking again into his own hands, such is essential to the body, is the original lands, &c. as he had before, on fille ftainen, wbich exifted in the femen of the fuggestions, granted to a person by let. father: ihis may be conceived a' the most ter's patent.

minute point imaginable, and therefore In the schools, resumption figrihes a fum- not to be reparated, nor any part of it mary repetition of an argument, in order united to the ftamen of any other man. to confute it.

That all this bulk we see in the body, is The same word is also used by logicians only an accretion to this original Ramen; for the reduction either of fome figurative and therefore there is no reciprocation of or quaint propofition, to one more plain the proper matter of the human body. or intelligible; as, the meadows fimile; Another objection is, that we know, by that is, look pleasanta

the late discoveries in the animal æcoRESURRECTION, in theology, rifing pomy, that the human body is continu

again from the dead; or a perion's re- ally changing, and that a man has not furning to a second life, with new bodia entirely the lame body to day, as he had ly organs, adapted to the fate of its new

yesterday; and it is even competed that existence.

in lets than seven years time, the whole One of the greatest arguments for the body undergoes a change. Which of truth of christianity is drawn from the those many bodies then, which the same refun ection of our Saviour ; the circum- person has in the course of his life, is it tances of which are handed down to us that fall riie? or does all the matter in so plain and distinct a manner, by the that has ever belonged :o him, rise again? evangelifts, as make the evidence of this or does only fome particular lyttem there. important sruth amount to a demonftra. of? the body, for example, he had at tion,

twenty, at forty, or at sixty years old ? Christians generally believe, that at the If only this or that body arise, how shall day of judgment, the very identical body it be rewarded or punished for what was they have now, with the same fet, done by the other ? and with what justice blood, and bones, will be raised from does one person fuffer for another ? the dead. But, in opposition to this To this it has been answered, on the opinion, many texts of scripture have

principles of Leibnitz, that notwithitandbeen urged, particularly the account gi- ing these fuccefiye changes, this ftamen, ven of this important event hy St. Paul; which is the only effential part of the besides several philosophical objections, body, has always remained the same; the principal of which are these.

and that on Mr. Locke's principles, perThat the same fubitance may happen to sonal iden'ity, or the lameness of a ra. be a part of two or more bodies i thus a tional being, confifts in telf-consciousness,

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in the power of confidering itself the it in the rising body, a body will rise till same thing in different times and places. it has lost all its motion; which it does By tbis, every one is to himself what he in the same time wherein a body falling calis self; without confidering whether would have acquired a velocity equal to that fell be continued in the fame, or in that wherewith the body was projected several substances. It is (he same self now, upwards. it was then; and it was by the same self RETE MIRABILE, in anatomy, a small wbich now reflects on an action, that ac- plexus, or net-work of vessels in the tion was performed. Now it is this per- brain, surrounding the pituitary gland. sonal identity that is the object of rewards The rete mirabile is very conspicuous in and punishments, which, it is observed brutes, but either not existent in man, or may exiit in different successions of mat. so very minute that its existence is fairly ter; so that to render the rewards and pu. doubted. See the article Brain. nifhments juit and pertinent, we need RETENTION, is defined, by Mr. Locke, only to rise again with such a body as that to be a faculty of the mind, whereby it we retain the consciousness of our patt keeps, or retains, thote timple ideas it actions.

has once received, by fenfation or reflecRESUSCITATION, the same with resur- tion,

rection and revivification. See the pre- This is done two ways; first, by keepceding article.

ing the idea which is brought into the The term resuscitation, however, is more mind for some time in view ; this is particularly used by chemilts, for the re- called contemplation. See the article producing a mixed body from its alhes; CONTEMPLATION. an art to which many have pretended, as Secondly, by reviving those ideas in our to reproduce plants, &c. from their athes. minds which have disappeared, and have RETAIL, in commerce, is the felling of been as it were laid out of light; this is

goods in small parcels, in opposition to memory, which is as it were the reposie

wholesale. See the article COMMERCE. tory of our ideas. See MEMORY. RETAINER, in law, a servant who does RETENTION is also used, in medicine, &c.

not continually dwell in the house of his for the state of contraction in the folids master, but only attends upon special oco or vascular parts of the body, which cafions.

makes them hold tast their proper conRETAINING fee, the first fee given to tents. In this sense retention is opposed to

a ferjeant or counsellor at law, in order to evacuation and excretion. See the armake him fure, and prevent his pleading ticles EVACUATION and ExcRETION. on the contrary side. See FEE.

Retention and excietion make two of the RETALIATION, among civilians, the non-naturals.

act of returning like for like. See the ar- Retention is also frequently considered as ticle Talio.

a disorder, and defined to be the act of RETARDATION, in physics, the act of retaining the excrements, humours, &c.

diminihing the velocity of a moving bo- so as they cannot be voided out of the dy. See the article MOTION.

body. See the article CoSTIVENESS, It bodies of equal bulk, but of different For the relention of the urine, see the dengties, be moved through the same re. articles DYS UR Y, IS CHURY, and fitting medium, with equal velocity, the STRANGURY. medium wiit act equally on each, so that RETIARII, in antiquity, a kind of gla. they will have equal reúftances, but their diators, thus denominated from a net "motions will be unequally retarded, in which they made ute of against their anproportion to their denlities. See the ar- tagonists, who were called secutores, and ticle RESISTANCE.

sometimes mirmillones. See the article Retarded motion from gravity, is pecu• GLADIATOR. Jiar to bodies projected apwards, and this This net they carried under their buckler, in the same manner as a falling body is and when opportunity served, cast it over accelerated; only in the latter, the force the head of their antagonist, and in this of gravity acts in the same direction with condition killed him with a trident which the motion of the body; and in the for. they bore in the other hand, mer in an opposite direction. See the RETICENCY, reticentia, a figure in article ACCELERATION,

rhetoric whereby we make oblique menAs it is the same force which augments tion of a thing, in pretending to pass it the motion in the falling, and diminishes over unmentioned.


RETFORD, a borough-town of Notting- cannot be removed out of their places,

hamshire, situated twenty-five miles north and has some share in preserving the softof Nottingham.

ness of the papillæ, which renders them It fends two members to parliament. fit for the sense of feeling. See the ar RETICULA, or RETICULE, in astrono. ticles Cuticle and Cutis.

my a contrivance for the exact measure RETICULAR PLEXUS, plexus reticularis, ing the quantity of eclipses.

sometimes denotes the choroides, which The reticule is a little frame, consisting is thus called because its fibres are interof thirteen fine filken threads, equi- woven like a net. See CHOROIDES. distant from each other, and parallel, RETICULUM, the caul or omentum, a placed in the focus of object glasses of name sometimes given to this part, from telescopes; that is, in the place where its net-like structure. See OMENTUM. the image of the luminary is painted in RETIFORMIS LACIS, in anatomy, the its full extent: of consequence, there- same with the rete mirabile, See the arfore, the diameter of the fun or moon is ticle RETE MIRABILE. hereby feen divided into twelve equal RETINA, in anatomy, the expansion of parts or digits; so that to find the quan. the optic nerve on the internal surface of tity of the eclipse, there is nothing to do the eye, whereupon the images of obe but to number the luminous and the dark jects being painted, are impressed,

and parts. As a square riticule is only by that means conveyed to the common proper for the diameter, not for the cus sensory in the brain, where the mind cumference, of the luminary, it is some- views and contemplates their ideas. See times made circular by drawing lix-con- the article Eye. centric equi diftant circles. This sepre. Diseases of the Retina. The retina is

fents the phases of the eclipse perfectly. Tiable to two sorts of diseases; the firft is RETICULAR BODY, corpus reticulare, a separation of some parts of this mem

in anatomy, a very fine inembrane, per- brane from the choroides. At the place
forated, in the manner of a net, with a where this separation is made, there fol-
multitude of toramina. It is placed im- lows an elevation or fold which stops the
mediately under the cuticle, and when light, and hinders its passage to that part
that is separated from the cotis, whether of the choroides which is covered by
by art or by accident, this adheres firmly this fold: this occalions a sort of shade
to it, and is scarce poflible to be parted which the patients lee in the air. The
from it, seeining rather to be its inner second dilease of the retina is an atrophy,
fuperficies than a distinct substance, In or walting of that membrane.
regard to this, we are to oblerve, filt, The caule of the first disease may be ac-
the places in which it is found, being counted for, from the blood vesels of the
all those in which the lente of feeling is retina's turning varicous; for it is easily
molt acute, as in the palms of the hands, conceived that the dilatation of these
the extremities of the fingers, and on the vefsels may separate the retina from the
foles of the feet. The tongue, however, choroides, in that part which answers to
is the part where it is most accurately to the dilated vessels, This disease is observed
be observed: it is more easily distinguish to proceed from a cold in the head after
able there than any where else, and its some violent exercise, or whatever else
nature and structure are mult evidently may have put the blood in a violent
feen there.

motion. His figns are certain appearIts colour in the Europeans is white, but ances in the air, more or less distant from in the Negroes, and other black nations, the patient's eye, being a kind of fhait is black ; in the tawny it is yellowish: dows of different figures, modified acthe skin ittelf in both is white; and the cording to the fize and form of the parts blackness and yellowness depend alto. of the retina, which are separated. A gether on the colour of this membrane. further account of this disease, and the The uses of the corpus reticulare are to manner of treating it, may be seen in preserve the structure of the other parts of Aloms and flies appearing before the the integuments, and keep them in their

EYES, under the article Eye. determinate form and ftuation. Its aper- In an atrophy of the retina, as the rays tures give pasage to the hairs, and let

of light are not sufficiently modified in through the papillæ and excretory duels that membrane, they make too vivid an of the skin : it retains these in a cer. impression on the choroides, which is rain and determinate order, that they very detrimental to it. Hence ensues a



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