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prices of all things, shall judge meet to times used for the os frontis. See the arimpose on the people, to pay for the sub- ticle FRONTIS OS. fistence of their representatives.

RATIPOR, a town of Bohemia, in the RATIONABILI parte bonorum, in law, dutchy of Silesia, situated on the river

is a writ which lies for the widow against Oder, fixteen miles north-east of Tropthe executors of her deceased husband, paw. who deny to give her the third part of RATIPor is also a city of hither India, his goods after the debts and funeral capital of the province of Malva, situated charges are paid. It is observed, that eait long. 80°, north lat. 25o. by the common law of England, the RATISBON, a city of Germany, in the goods of a deceased person, bis debts be- circle of Bavaria, situated at the coning first paid, shall be divided into three fluence of the rivers Danube and Regen, equal parts, and go to the wife, her in east longit. 12° s', north lat. 49o. children, and executors ; wherefore this This is a free imperial city, and here writ may be brought by the children the assembly or diet of the states of the as well as the widow. But it has been empire meets. See the article Diet. held that the writ only lies where the RATLINES, or as the seamen call them, custom of the country warrants it.

RATLINS, those lines which make the BATIONABILIBUS divisis, in law, a ladder steps to get up the shrouds and

writ that is brought where there are two puttocks, hence called the ratlins of lords in different towns, who have signo- the throuds, ries adjoining together, and one of them RATTLE, among the antients, a musical finds his waste by little and little to have inftrument of the pulfative kind, called been incroached upon; then the lord on by the Romans crepitaculum. The tinwhose ground the incroachment was tinnabulum, crotalum, and fiftrum, were made shall have this writ against the other by the same esteemed only so many difto re&tify the bounds and divisions. In ferent kinds of rattles. See the articles which respect it is said by Fitzherbert, to BELL, CROTALUM, and SISTRUM. be in its nature a writ of right.

What we commonly call rattles now, is RATIONAL, reasonable. See REASON. no more than a ftick of wax in a filver RATIONAL is also applied to integral, handle, to which is suspended a number

fractional, and mixt numbers ; thus we of little bells of the same, or some other say rational fraction, rational integer, inetal, serving in the hands of children and rational mixt number ; for the ex. to make a rattling or tinkling noise, or planation and doctrine of which, see otherwise to play withal. Number and FRACTION.

Ratiles for children the gross, contain. Rational is applied to the true horizon, ing twelve dozen, pay, on importation, in opposition to the senfitle or apparent

18.1103 d. and, on exportation, draw one. See the article HORIZON.

back is, dd Rational is also applied to quantity, ra- RATTLE-SNAKE, crotalophorus, in

tio, &c. See QUANTITY, Ratio, &c. zoology, a genus of serpents, having RATIONALE, a solution, or account of scuta that cover the whole under-sur

the principles of some opinion, action, face of the body and tail, and having hypothesis, i hænomenon, or the like, See

the extremity of the body terminated by PRINCIPLE, PHÆNOMENON, 6c.

a kind of rattle, formed of a series of H-nce rationale is the title of several urceolated articulations, which are movebooks.

able, and make a noise. See plate RATIONALE is also the latin name for an CCXXVIII. fig. 1. antient facerdotal vestmen:, worn by the

Of this serpent, there are two species, high priest, under the old law, being a

the greater one with the scuta of the ab. piece of embroidered ftuff, worn on the domen a hundred and seventy-two, of breast, about a span square. A rationale

the tail twenty-one; and the lesser rattleappears to have been antiently worn by

snake, having the scuta of the abdomen the b'fhops, under the new law; but au

a hundred and fixty-five, of the tail Thors are in doubt about its form ; rome

twenty-eight. The larger is a very having it to resemble that of the Jews ; terrible, and, at its full growth, a very others taking it to be only the pallium. See the article PALLIUM.

large serpent, growing to eight feet in

length, with a proportionable thickness : RATIONIS

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of a pale brown : the iris of the eye is RAVENGLAS, a port town of Cumber-
red; the back is of a brown colour, land, fituated on the Irish Channel,
with an admixture of a ruddy yellow, thirty-eight miles south-west of Carlisle.
and variegated with a great many ir- RAVENNA, a city of Italy, in the pope's
regolar tranfverse lists, of a deep black: territories, capital of the province of
the belly is of a palith blue; the rattle Romania, situated east long. 13°, north
is of a firm, and as it were of a horny lat. 44° 30'.
fubftance, and brown colour, composed RAVISHMENT, in law, denotes an un.
of a number of cells, which are articu. lawful seducing either of a woman, or
lated one within another, which articu- an heir that is in ward : sometimes it is
lations being very loose, the included also used in the same sense as a rape.
points Atrike against the inner surface of See the article Rape.
the rings they are admitted into, and RAVISHMENT de garde, in law, was a
make that rattling noise, when the fer. writ that formerly Jay for the guardian
pent vibrates, or takes its tail. This by knight's service, or in focage, against
serpent is frequent in the woods of a person who took from him the body
America : the bite is fatal, but it is easy of his ward.
to avoid it, the creature being lluggish, RAUVOLFIA, in botany, a genus of the
moving lowly, never attacking a man pentandria-monogynia class of plants,
unless provoked, and giving notice be- the corolla of which consists of a single
fore it bites by taking its rattle.

funnel fashioned pera!, with a large limb, The lefser species of this serpent grows divided into five lanceolated segments : to about seven feet in length, and in the fruit is a very large, roundish and most particulars is like the former one, fleshy bilocular drupe, with a single ovat

and its bite is equally mischievous. ed nut in each cell. RATTLE-SNAKE-ROOT, the same with the RAY, in optics, a beam of light, emitted

senega, a species of polygala, See the from a radiant, or luminous body. See article POLYGALA.

the article LIGHT. RAVA, a city of Great Poland, capital Rays are defined by Sir Isaac Newton,

of the Palatinate of Rava, fituated fifty to be the least parts of light, whether miles fouth-east of Warsaw,

fucceflive in the same line, or cotempo., RAUCEDO, boarseness, in medicine. See rary in several lines. For that light conthe article HOARSEXESS.

lifts of parts of both kinds is evident, RAVELIN, in fortification, was antiently fince one may stop what comes this mo.

a flat bastion, placed in the middle of a ment in any point, and let pass that curtin; but now a detached work com- which comes presently after : now the posed only of two faces, which make a leaft light, or part of light, which may saliant angle, without any Aanks, and be thus stopped, he calls a ray of light. raised before the curtin on the counter- A ray, or right line, drawn from the scarp of the place. A ravelin is a tri. point of concourse of the two optical angular work, resembling the point of axes, through the middle of the right a bastion, with the flanks cut off. See line, which passes by the centers of the the article FORTIFICATION.

two pupils of the eyes, is by some called Its use before a curtin is to cover the a common ray. See the article VISION. opposite flanks of the two next bastions. As for dire&t, converging and diverging It is used also to cover a bridge, or a rays; rays of incidence, inflection, rea gate, and is always placed without the fraction, curvature, &c. see the articles moat. There are allo double ravelins DIRECT, CONVERGING, &c. that serve to cover each other : they are RAY-FISH, raja. See the article RAJA. faid to be double, when they are joined RAYLEIGH, a market town of Essex,

by a curtin. See the article CURTIN, ten miles south-east of Chelmsford. RAVEN, in ornithology, a species of the RAYONANT, or Cross RAYONANT, in

corvus, of the bigness of a common hen, heraldry, one which has rays of glory of a black colour, with a blue back ; the behind it, darting out from the center head is small, depressed on the crown, to all the quarters of the escutcheon, as and Aatted on both fides ; the eyes are represented in plate CCXXVIII. fig. 2, large, bright and piercing; the beak is RAŽANT, or RASANT. See Rasant. conliderably long and thick, and some. RAZOR, a well known inftrument, used what rigid on the back, and Mharp af

by surgeons, barbers, &c. for shaving off the point. See the article Corvus, the hair from various parts of the body.

All lat. 179.

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All razors are prohibited to be imported. REAL, or CHIAPA, a city of Mexico, in RAZOR-BILL, alka, in ornithology. See Norih America, capital of the province the article ALKA.

of Chiapa, situated west long. 97°, north. RAZOR-FISH, dactylus, a species of solen. See the article SOLEN.

REALEIO, a port-town of Mexico, in RE, in grammar, an inseparable particle added to the beginning of words, to

the province of Niacaragua, situated on

the bay of the Pacific Ocean, in west double or otherwile modify their mean. long. 91° 30', north lat. 12°. ing; as in re-action, re-move, re-ex. REALGAR, rihgallum, in the materia

port, &c. REACH, in the sea-language, fignifies

medica, a name whereby the sandarach

has been a long time known in the shops. the distance between any two points of It has been also attributed to the facti. land, lying nearly in a right line.

tious red arsenic. See the articles SANRE-ACTION, in physiology, the resistance DARACH, and ARSENIC,

made by all bodies to the action or im- REALISTS, realisie, a feet of school pulse of others, that endeavour to change philosophers, formed in opposition to the its state whether of motion or rest. See nominalills. See NOMINALS. the articles Action and MOTION, Under the realifts are included the scotifts, The cause of the re-action of bodies is thomists, and all excepting the follow.

no other than their inertia. See INERTIA. ers of Ocham. Their distinguishing READING, a borough-town in Berkshire, tenet is that universals are realities, and

fituated forty miles west of London, near have an actual existence out of an idea, the confluence of the rivers Kennet and or imagination ; or, as they express it Thames; it sends two members to par. in the fchools, a parte rei ; whereas the liament.

nominalists contend that they exilt only READINGS, or various READINGS, va. in the mind, and are only ideas, or

riæ lefliones, in criticilm, are the different manners of conceiving things. manner of reading the texts of authors REALITY, realitas, in the schools, a diin antient manuscripts, where a diversity minutive of res, thing, first used by the has arisen from the corruption of time, scotilts, to denote a thing which may or-the ignorance of copyists. A great exist of itself; or which has a full and part of the business of critics lies in let. absolute being of itself, and is not contling the readings by confronting the fidered as a part of any other. various readings of the several manu- REALM, regnum, a country which gives fcripts, and considering the agreement of its head, or governor, the denomination the words and sense.

of a king. Readings are also used for a sort of com- REALMONT, a town of France, in the mentary or gloss on a law, text, paffage, province of Languedoc, fituated thirtyor the like, to thew the sense an author two miles north-east of Toulouse, takes it in, and the application he con- REAR, a term frequently used in comceives to be made of it.

position, to denote something behind, or RE-AFFORESTED, is where a forest, backwards, in respect of another, in ophaving been disafforested,

is again made position to van: thus, in a military sense, a forest. See the article FOREST.

it it used for the hind part of an army, RE-AGGRAVATION, in the romilh in opposition to the front. For the rear

ecclefiaftical law, the last monitory pub. guard, rear-half files, rear-line, rearlished after three admonitions, and be- rank, and rear-admiral, see GUARD, fore the Jall excoinmunication. Before

FILE, LINE, RANK, and ADMIRAL. they proceed to fulminate the latt ex- REASON, ratia, a faculty, or power, of communication, they publish an aggra. the mind, whereby it diftinguishes good vation, and a re-aggravation. See the from evil, truth from falfhood; whereby article EXCOMMUNICATION.

man is distinguished from beasts; and REAL, reale, is applied to a being that wherein it is evident he greatly surpasses actually exists, in which sense it coincides

them : or reason is that principle wherewib actual. See the article ACTUAL. by, comparing several ideas together, we Real, in law, is opposed to personal. See draw consequences from the relations the article PERSONAL.

they are found to have. See the article Thus real action is that whereby the REASONING, plaintiff lays title to land, &c. See the Some define reason to be the comprearticle ACTION, &c.

hension of any principles which the

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