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of it.

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of them, they should have the stones care. and more regular in the distillation, and fully taken out.

the spirit, though it hath less of the high Raiớns, on being imported, pay the fol. flavour of the grape, will be more plealowing duties : large raisins, the hun

fant and more pure.

RAITING, or Rating, the laying of dred weight, 11s. 817 d. and on expor

fax, hemp, timber, &c. when green, in

621 tation, draw back, ios, II-d. Rai

a pond or running water, to season, and

prepare it for future uses. fins of the sun, the hundred weight pay, RAKE of a ship is all that part of her on importation, 145. d, and on ex- hull which hangs over both ends of her portation, draw back, 135. ld. Of keel. That which is before, is called Lipra or Belvidera, the hundred weight the fore-rake, or rake-forward; and that

part which is at the setting on of the pay, on importation, 75. 1– -d. and on

ttern-port, is called the rake-aft, or af,

terward. exportation, draw back, 6s. 10-—*d.

RAKE of the rudder, is the hindermolt part Of Smyrna, either black or red, the hundred weight pay, on importation, RAKE, among hunters, the same with rag. 9%. 314.3 d. and, on exportation, draw Sue the article RAG. back, 88. 9d. Of Alicant, Denia, and Rake, in mining, the same with vein. See other raisins, not otherwile rated, the

the article Vein. hundred weight pay, on importation, RAKEE, in falconry, a term applied to a 72

hawk that flies out too far from the fowl, 65. 10242 d. and, on exportation, draw RAKING, of an horse, is drawing the orback, 66. 7, d. More, if in a foreign

dure with the hand out of the fundament,

when he is coltive, and cannot dung: in bottom, for every 20 s. value of the above doing which the hand should be anointed rates, 38.

with butter or fallad-oil. Raisin brandy, a name given by our dis. An horfe is also said to rake, when being

lillers to a very clear and pure spirit, pro- shoulder-Splaid, or having strained his cured from raisins, fermented only with fore-quarters, he goes so lame as to drag water. Thus treated, they yield a spi. one of his fore-legs in a semi-circle. rit scarce at all distinguishable from fome RAKING TABLE, or RakeD TABLE, a. of the wine-Spirits; for there are as ma. mong architects, is a member hollowed ny kinds of wine-spirits, as there are of in the square of a pedestal, &c. See the grapes. The coarser the operation of

article CAVETTO and SCOTIA. diftilling is performed in this case, the RALLYING, in war, reassembling or callnearer will be the resemblance of the wine. ing together troops broken and put to fpirit; that is, there will be most of this flight. Havour in the spirit, when as much as RAM, in zoology, the male of the sheep can be of the oil is thrown up with a kind. See the article Sheep, galloping heat. Dr. Shaw observes, that Ram, in astronomy, the same with aries, the distillers are very fond of the wine- See the article ARIES. spirit, with which they hide and disguise Battering Ram, in antiquity, a military the taste of their nauseous malt, and other , engine used to batter and beat down the Spirits ; and in defect of that spirit, this walls of places besieged. of railins, made in this coarse manner, The battering ram was of two forts, the will go almost as far. It is indeed sura one rude and plain, the other compound, prising how extensive the use of these fia- The former seems to have been no more vouring spirits is, ten gallons of raisin- than a great beam which the soldiers bore spirit, or somewhat less of the wine-spi- on their arms and froulders, and with rit, being often sufficient for a whole piece one end of it by main force assailed che of malt spirit, to take off its native fla. wall. The compound ram is thus devour, and give it an agreeable vinofiy, fcribed by Josephus : it is a vast beam, It is no wonder therefore, that the diftil. like the mait of a ship, strengthened at lers and ordinary rectifiers are so fond of one end with a head of iron, something this, as it is a good cleak for the de. resembling that of a ram, whence it took fects and imperfection of their proceses, its name. See plate CCXXVII. fig. I. When railin brandy is intended for com- This was hung by the middle with ropes mon use, the fire hould be kept flower to another beam, which lay across two

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pofts; and hanging thus equally balanc- body immensely greater, and requiring
ed, it was by a great number of men vally more hands to work it: for three
drawn backwards and pushed forwards, men will manage a cannon, which shall
Itriking the wall with its iron-bead. do as much execution as the above bat.
Plutarch informs us, that Mark An- tering-ram wrought by 1000. The ram,
thony, in the Parthian war, made use of whole force is here calculated, is taken
a ram fourscorce feet long : and Vitruvius at a mean; being bigger than some,
tells us, that they were sometimes an and less than others, of those uled by
bundred and fix, and sometimes an hun. the anrients.
dred and twenty feet in length; and to RAM'S HEAD, in a ship, is a great block
this perhaps, the force and Itrength of belonging to the fore and main-halliards.
the engine was in a great measure owing. It has three shivers in it, into which the
The ram was managed at one time by a halliards are put, and in a hole at the
whole century of soldiers, and they being end of it are reeved the ties.
spent, were seonded by another century, RAMADAN, a solemn season of fafting
fo that it played continually without any among the mahometans, kept in the

ninth month of the arabic year. This In order to calculate the force of the bat- fast confifts in abstaining from meat tering.ram, R, (plate CCXXVII. fig. and drink, and from lying with their 1.) luppose it to be 28 inches in diame- wives each day, from the railing of the ter, and 180 feet long; and consequent- sun till the stars appear; and is of such ly its solid content 750 cubic feet; which, ftri&t obligation, that none is excused allowing 50 pounds for each foot, will from it; for the sick, and all others who weigb 37500 pounds: and suppose its cannot observe it in this month, are head of cast-iron, together with three obliged to fast another entire month in. iron hoops, &c. to be 3612 pounds. stead of it. So superftitious are the ma. Now all these weights added together,

hometans in the observance of this lent, make 41112 pounds, equal the weight that they dare not wash their mouths, of the whole ram ; which will require or even swallow their spittle. The men 1000 men to move it, so as to cause it are, indeed, allowed to bathe themselves, to itrike against the point L of the wall on condition they do not plunge the head AHIGĚ, each man moving a weight under water, left some drops enter by the of 41 pounds. The quantity of motion mouth or ears, &c. but as for the women, produced by this action, when the ram they are frictly forbid bathing, for fear moves one foot in a second, may be ex- of taking in water at the pudendum. pressed by the number 41112 ; which mo." However, they frequently feait all night, tion or force compared with the quantity The mahometans call this month holy, of motion in the iron-ball B, mot out of and believe, that as long as it lasts, the the cannon C, will be found equal to its gates of paradise are open, and those of for a cannon ball is known to move as

hell shut. fast as found for about the space of a RAMAGE, the boughs or branches of mile; and if you multiply 36 pounds, the weight of the ball, by 1142, the RAMAGE-FALCON, or Hawk, one that is number of feet which found moves in one wild and coy, as having been long second, you will have the number 41112 among the boughs preying for itself, for the quantity of motion or force, in

All falcons retain this name when they the ball B Ariking at L. And if, after have left the aery ; being so called in a few strokes given by the battering- May, June, July and Auguft. Thefe ram, the mortar or cement is so loosen. are very rarely reclaimed. ed, that the piece of the wall A DDFE RAMAGE-VELVET. See Velvet. is at last by a troke of the ram carried RAMBERVILLERS, a city of Germany, forward from F to K, and so beaten in the dutchy of Lorrain : east long. 62 down; the same thing will be peform- 30', north lat. 48° 20'. ed by a cannon-ball, after an equal RAMEKINS, a fortress of Zeland, one number of ftrokes.

of the United Provinces, situated five This shews how advantageous the in- miles fouth of Middleburg. vention of gunpowder is; fince we are RAMERA, a town of France, in the prothereby enabled to give such a prodigious vince of Champain, eighteen miles northvelocity to a small body, that it mail east of Troyes. have as great a quantity of motion as a RAMIFICATION, the produdlion of



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boughs or branches, or of figures resem. pepper-bird, and several other species, bling branches.

See the articles TOUCAN, &c. RAMILLIES, a small town in the aus. RAMSEY, a market-town of Hunting

trian Netherlands, in the province of tonshire, ten miles north-eaft of Hun.

Brabant, ten miles north of Namur. tington,
RAMMER, an instrument used for drive Ramsey, an island in the irish channel,

ing down stones or piles into the ground; on the coast of Pembrokeshire : west
or for beating the earth, in order to ren- long. 5° 20', north lat. si° 55'.

der it more solid for a foundation. RAMSGATE, a port-town of Kent, Gtu. RAMMER of a gun, the gun-stick, a rod ated between the north and south Fore.

ofed in charging of a gun, to drive home land, eight miles south-east of Canter-
the powder, as also the shot and the bury.
wad, which keeps the shot from rolling RAMUS, in general, denotes a branch
out. The rammer of a great gun is of any thing, as of a tree, an artery,
used for the same purpose. It has a

vein, C.
round piece of wood at one end, and the RANA, the FROG, in zoology. See the
other is usually rolled in a piece of theep- article FROG.
skin, fitted to the bore of the piece, and RANA PISCATRIX, the FROG-FISH, in
is used to clear her after she has been ichthyology, a fish of a very irregular
discharged, which is called spunging figure, not unlike that of a tadpole ; its
the piece.

body being very inconsiderable in proRAMPANT, in heraldry, a term applied to portion to the vast Gze of its head, which

a lion, leopard, or other beast that stands has a very large mouth furnished with on his hind legs, and rears up his fore sharp teeth, and furrounded with Rethy feet in the posture of climbing, Mhewing tubercles, and on the under part of the only half his face, as one eye, &c. It body there are two fins resembling a is different from (aliant, in which the mole's feet. See plate CCXXVII. fig. beaft seems springing forward as if mak- 4. It is the same with the lophius. Sec

ing a sally. See plate CCXXVII, fig. 3. the article LOPHIUS. RAMPART, in fortification, is an eleva. RANA, or RANULA. See RANULA.

tion of earth round a place capable of RANCHIERA, a port-town of Terra refifting the cannon of an enemy; and Firma, situated in west long. 72°, north formed into bastions, curtins, &c. See

lat. 11° 34'. FORTIFICATION, BASTION, &c. RANCID, denotes a fatty subftance that A rampart ought to be floped on both is become rank or musty; or has confides, and to be broad enough to allow tracted an ill smell by being kept close. room for the marching of waggons and RANDIA, a genus of plants, the class of cannon, beside that allowed for the pa- which is not yet fully ascertained : its rapet which is raised on it: its thick. flower is monopetalous, and of the shape nefs is generally about ten or twelve fa. of a faucer ; the limb is divided into five thom, and its height not above three, segments: the fruit is an oval, unilocuwhich is sufficient to cover the houses lar capsule, containing numerous comfrom the battery of the cannon. The pressed feeds, surrounded with a pulp. rampart is encompassed with a ditch, RANDOM SHOT, in gunnery, is a thot and is sometimes lined or fortified on the made when the muzzle of a gun is raised infide, otherwise it has a berme, See above the horizontal line, and is not de the article BERME.

figned to shoot directly, or point blank. Upon the rampart foldiers continually The utmost random of any piece is about keep guard, and pieces of artillery are ten times as far as the bullet will go

planted there for the defence of the place. point blank. The bullet will go fartheit RAMPART, in civil architecture, is used when the piece is mounted to about 458

for the space left between the wall of a above the level range. See GUNNERY. city, and the next houses,

RANFORCE RING. See the article RE. RAMPHASTOS, in ornithology, a genus INFORCED.RING,

of birds, of the order of the picæ, the beak RANGE, in gunnery, the path of a bullet, of which is remarkably large, and with. or the line it describes from the mouth out any visible nostrils: the toes are the of the piece to the point where it lodges. same in number and the same way placed If the piece lie in a line parallel to the as in the parrot. See PARROT.

horizon, it is called the right or level This genus comprehends the toucan, the range: if it be mounted to 45°, it is said


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