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ard among the Egyptians, Hebrews, Arabians, Greeks, and Romans. The ancient weights of these nations are the subjećt of the 5th chapter; and in the 6th we have a learned account of their coins. The theory of usury and anatorism among the Greeks and Romans is laid down in the 7th chapter. In the 8th the Author treats of the whole extent of the earth's surface, of the dimensions of its parts in its division into states, of population in modern times, considered both in the whole of each state, and in its principal cities. The quantity of flour and bread produced by a certain measure of corn, the manner of grinding and baking among the ancients, the consumption . the inhabitants of a state, the wages of day-labourers, and the expences of individuals, are matters discussed in the 9th chapter. he disquisitions of the 10th and 11th chapters are elaborate and curious. Here we learn the quantity of seed that is to be employed by the husbandman, which, in the temperate zones, must be increased in proportion as the lands between the tropics and the polar circles approach towards the latter; and we learn also the different kinds of grain that were custivated by the ancients. The Author here returns to the subječt of ancient population, enlarges on the productions and riches of Babylon, the most fertile country in the world ; measures the extent of the habitable parts of Egypt; describes its fertility, its agriculture, its population, its division under Sefostris, and also the fruitfulness of the adjacent countries. He measures also and describes the Holy Land, its fertility, population, and Agrarian laws, the domains of its prince, its priests and Levites; the tithes, first-fruits, and other objećts of civil and political ceconomy. From thence he passes into Media, repasses into Spain, describes its fertility, population, the excellence of its produćtions, and the extent of its territory. Then we find him in some fruitful districts of Africa, describing the territories of Carthage and Tacape and the plains of Byzacene, Sicily comes next; from whence he carries us into Greece, Thrace, Asia Minor, the Isles of Lesbos and Cyprus, Armenia, Hircania, Margiana, the Cimmerian Bosphorus, and Illyria. Italy comes last. The description of the fertility, extent, natural produćtions, and political administration of that country, is ample and circumstantial, and is terminated by an enumeration of the principal causes of the decline of the Roman empire. The 12th chapter contains an account of the relations of ancient authors concerning the fertility and extent of Gaul, and is terminated by particular observations on agriculture, as it was pračtised by the ancients. The 13th chapter is an Introduction (as our Author calls it) to the study of the ancient coins of France. This introdućtion is a complete treatise on every thing that relates to coinage, the qualities of
the metals, the mines that produce them, the charaćters and denominations of different monies, their value, &c. Eleven ample and commodious Tables, containing the evaluation of measures, weights, and money, ancient and modern, form the conclusion of this vast and elaborate performance. These Tables, which are excellent in every respect, are the fruit of indefatigable industry and patience, and are alone sufficient to render this work an important and valuable present to the public. - XII. Le Genie de l' Architecture, ou l'Analogie de cet Art avec nos Sensations : i. e. The Genius or Spirit of Architecture, or the Consideration of that Art, as it bears an Analogy to our Sensations or natural Feelings. By M. Le CAMUs de Mez1EREs. 8vo. 270 §: with a Plate. Paris. 1780. Price 3 livres § 3. illings).--It is certain, that of all the objećts and produćtions of the fine arts, there are none concerning which our judgments of approbation or dislike are so capricious and ambiguous, so indeterminate and wavering, as those of archite&ture. It is alleged by some, as a reason for this, that imitation, which is the soul of poetry, painting, and, more or less, even of music, is not applicable to archite&ture, which has no model or prototype in nature, and can therefore have no principle or guide in its operations, but the general rules of symmetry and proportion, which belong, in common with it, to all the other arts. It has no peculiar and determinate objećt but conveniency; and therefore, in point of ornament and beauty, its operations, though often animated by taste and genius, are directed by fancy and caprice, which in numberless cases render our judgment concerning the execution ambiguous and uncertain. he Author of the Work before us endeavours to remove this uncertainty, and to establish sure principles of judging with respect to the beauties of architecture, by contemplating the happy produćtions of great geniuses, and attending to the causes by which they produce pleasing and powerful impressions on the mind. The analogy of the proportions of architecture with our sensations will suggest a series of refle&tions, on which we may establish the philosophical principles of this elegant art. Such is the design of this ingenious essay, in which the Author treats, first, of the different orders of architecture; and unfolds, secondly, the general rules of the art of pleasing in its various produćtions. He enters into an ample detail on this subječt, and ascertains his theory by a variety of examples which illustrate his discussions, and render them agreeable. XIII. De l'Elećiricité du Corps Humain dans l’Etat de Santé et de Maladie, &c. i. e. A Differtation on the Electricity of the Human Body in Sickness and Health; in which the Electri- city of above two hundred and fifty philosophical or medical writers have been laid under contribution to complete this second part, in which we find an account of all that has been hitherto written on the subjećt of animal and medical electricity. The Third Part, which treats of the influence of atmospherical electricity on different bodies, contains Tables relative to births, deaths, certain disorders and evacuations, which correspond with the alterations that happen in the state of the atmosphere. XIV. Le Brigandage de la Musique Italienne : i. e. Of the Robberies committed by Italian Music. 12mo. Paris.-This is a very fingular performance. It contains an uncommon mixture of profound musical knowledge, fine taste, and the most facetious pleasantry. The principle of the Author is, that every country has its own music; that is, a music suited to its climate, genius, charaćter, language, and manners; and that therefore the party at Paris who are for forcing the Italian music upon the French, are guilty of great absurdity. On this occasion the very elegant and witty writer enters into extensive and ingenious discussions relative to musical harmony, melody, and expression; and much instruction and many a laugh will be obtained from the perusal of his most entertaining performance. But it is no laughing matter to consider the extravagant contributions that eunuchs and fidlers have drawn from the treasures of sovereigns, which would have been much more humanely employed in appeasing the hunger of their famished subjećts, than in tickling their own royal or princely ears with tweedle dum and tweedle-dee. The late King of Poland paid an hundred thousand crowns for the representation of each new opera;-the King of Portugal threw away a million of crowns upon five or fix aegraded men, who sung a few airs to amuse his Majesty, while his people were howling misèrere; and the opera of Paris costs 35,000 pounds annually.
* The motion of respiration is repeated 28,8oo times every day, and the lungs receive in the same space of time one million one hun
dred and fifty-two thousand cubic inches of air. of
M O N T H L Y C A T A L O G U E, - For , J U : N E, 1781. P o 1, 1 T 1 c A L. Art. 14. The Revolution of America. By the Abbé Raynal, Author of the Philosophical and Positical History of the Eltalishments and Commerce of the Europeans in both the Indies. 12mo. 2 s. 6d. Davies. 178 i. --* H E R E is something mysterious in the manner in which this publication is introduced to the world. It was expected that the Abbé Raynal would subjoin, to his History of the indies, an account of the dispute between Great Britain and her Colonies. Of this defired Work, before it made its appearance from any press, the translator, on his travels was so fortunate as to obtain RE v. June 1781. H h a copy