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THE time is come, Fathers, when that which has long been wifhed for, towards allaying the envy your order has been fubject to, and removing the imputations against trials, is effectually put in our power. An opinion has long prevailed, not only here at home, but likewife in foreign countries, both dangerous to you, and pernicious to the ftate,-that, in profecutions, men of wealth are always fafe, however clearly convicted. There is now to be brought upon his trial before you, to the confufion, I hope, of the propagators of this flanderous imputation, one whose life and actions condemn him in the opinion of all impartial perfons; but who, according to his own reckoning and declared dependence upon his riches, is already acquitted; I mean Caius Verres. I demand juftice of you, Fathers, upon the robber of the public treafury, the opprefsor of Afia Minor and Pamphylia, the invader of the rights and privileges of Romans, the fcourge and curfe of Sicily. If that fentence is pafsed upon him which his crimes deferve, your authority, Fathers, will be venerable and facred in

the eyes of the public; but if his great riches should bias you in his favour, I fhall still gain one point,—to make it apparent to all the world, that what was wanting in this cafe, was not a criminal nor a profecutor, but juftice and adequate punishment.

To pals over the fhameful irregularities of his youth, what does his quæftorfhip, the firft public employment he held, what does it exhibit, but one continued scene of villanies? Cneius Carbo plundered of the public money by his own treasurer, a conful ftripped and betrayed, an army deferted and reduced to want, a province robbed, the civil and religious rights of a people violated. The employment he held in Afia Minor and Pamphylia, what did it produce but the ruin of those countries in which, houfes, cities, and temples were robbed by him. What was his conduct in his prætorfhip here at home? Let the plundered temples, and public works neglected, that he might embezzle the money intended for carrying them on, bear witness. How did he difcharge the office of a judge? Let thofe who fuffered by his injuftice answer. But his prætorfhip in Sicily crowns all his works of wickednefs, and finifles a lafting monument to his infamy. The mifchiefs done by him in that unhappy country, during the three years of his iniquitous adminiftration, are fuch, that many years, under the wifeft and best of prætors, will not be fufficient to reftore things to the condition in which he found them: for it is notorious, that, during the time of his tyranny, the Sicilians neither enjoyed the protection of their own original laws; of the regulations made for their benefit by the Roman fenate, upon their coming under the protection of the commonwealth; nor of the natural and

unalienable rights of men. His nod has decided all causes in Sicily for thefe three years. And his decifions have broken all law, all precedent, all right. The fums he has, by arbitrary taxes and unheard of impofitions, extorted from the induftrious poor, are not to be computed. The moft faithful allies of the commonwealth have been treated as enemies. Roman citizens have, like flaves, been put to death with tortures. The most atrocious criminals, for money, have been exempted from the deferved punishments; and men of the most unexceptionable characters, condemned and banished unheard. The harbours, though fufficiently fortified, and the gates of flrong towns, have been opened to pirates and ravagers. The foldiery and failors, belonging to a province under the protection of the commonwealth, have been ftarved to death. Whole fleets, to the great detriment of the province, fuffered to perish. The ancient monuments of either Sicilian or Roman greatness, the statues of heroes and princes have been carried off; and the temples ftripped of the images.-Having, by his iniquitous fentences, filled the prifons with the most induftrious and deferving of the people, he then proceeded to order numbers of Roman citizens to be ftrangled in the goals: fo that the exclamation, "I am a citizen of Rome!" which has often, in the most diftant regions, and among the moft barbarous people, been a protection, was of no fervice to them; but, on. the contrary, brought a fpeedier and more fevere punishment upon them.

I ask now, Verres, what thou haft to advance again? this charge? Wilt thou pretend to deny it? Wilt thou pretend, that any thing falfe, that even any thing

aggravated, is alleged against thee? Had any prince, or any ftate, committed the fame outrage against the privilege of Roman citizens, fhould we not think we had fuflicient ground for demanding fatisfaction? What punishment ought, then, to be inflicted upon a tyrannical and wicked prætor, who dared, at no greater diftance than Sicily, within fight of the Italian coaft, to put to the infamous death of crucifixion, that unfortunate and innocent citizen, Publius Gavius Cofanus, only for his having afserted his privilege of citizenfhip, and declared his intention of appealing to the juftice of his country, against a cruel opprefsor, who had unjustly confined him in prifon at Syracufe, whence he had juft made his efcape? The unhappy man, arrefted as he was going to embark for his native country, is brought before the wicked prætor. With eyes darting fury, and a countenance diftorted with cruelty, he orders the helpless victim of his rage to be ftripped, and rods to be brought; accufing him, but without the leaft fhadow of evidence, or even of sufpicion, of having come to Sicily as a fpy. It was in vain that the unhappy man cried out, "I am a Roman citizen: I have ferved under Lucius Pretius, who is now at Panormus, and will atteft my innocence." The blood-thirsty prætor, deaf to all he could. urge in his own defence, ordered the infamous punishment to be inflicted. Thus, Fathers, was an innocent Roman citizen publicly mangled with fcourging; whilft the only words he uttered, amidft his cruel fufferings, were, "I am a Roman citizen!" With these he hoped to defend himself from violence and infamy. But of fo little fervice was this privilege to him, that, while he was thus afserting his citizenship, the order

was given for his execution,-for his execution upon

the cross!

O liberty!-O found once delightful to every Roman ear!--O facred privilege of Roman citizenship!-once facred!-now trampled upon!-But what then! Is it come to this? Shall an inferior magiftrate, a governour, who holds his whole power of the Roman people, in a Roman province, within fight of Italy, bind, fcourge, torture with fire and red hot plates of iron, and at laft put to the infamous death of the cross, a Roman citizen? Shall neither the cries of innocence

expiring in agony, nor the tears of pitying spectators, nor the majesty of the Roman commonwealth, nor the fear of the juftiçe of his country, reftrain the licentious and wanton cruelty of a monfter, who, in confidence of his riches, ftrikes at the root of liberty, and fets mankind at defiance?

I conclude with exprefsing my hopes, that your wifdom and juftice, Fathers, will not, by fuffering the atrocious and unexampled infolence of Caius Verres to efcape due punishment, leave room to apprehend the danger of a total fubverfion of authority, and the introduction of general anarchy and confufion. CICERO'S ORATIONS.


Speech of ADHERBAL to the Roman Senate, imploring their protection against JUGURTHA.


Ir is known to you, that king Micipfa, my father, on his death-bed, left in charge to Jugurtha, his adopted fon, conjunctly with my unfortunate brother Hiempfal

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