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wishing to please his parents, takes, as a third wife, his first-cousin, the daughter of Ishmael, xxviii.6-9:

in X,* Jacob must have been about seventy-seven years old when he went to Charran, that is to say, Isaac and Rebekah must have endured this bitterness' thirty-six years, before they thought of sending Jacob to Padan-Aram; and at this mature age of seventy-seven Jacob deceives his father and injures his brother, xxvii.41-46, and still he keeps Rachel waiting seven years longer, xxix.20.

(xi) In E (xxxi.18), Jacob leaves Padan-Aram 'to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan'; and, according to E, he makes his way direct to his father at Hebron, xxxv.27 :

in X, he lingers much upon the way; he builds himself a house and makes booths for his cattle at Succoth, xxxiii.18; he buys a piece of land at Shechem, xxxii.19; and he receives God's command 'to go-up to Bethel and dwell there,' xxxv.1; comp. also xxxv.22, when Israel dwelt in that land,' and observe the fact, that Dinah, who was only about six years old when Jacob set-out from PadanAram on his return, xxx.21, must have been several years older, before she could have become the subject of such a narrative as that in xxxiv.

(xii) In E (xxxv.10), at Bethel, Jacob's name is changed to 'Israel,' after his return from Padan-Aram :

in X (xxxii.28), the Divine person, with whom he wrestled, had changed his name already to Israel before he crossed the Jordan.

(xiii) In E (xxxv.15), Jacob gives the name · Bethel' to the ‘place where God spake with him,' after his return to Canaan from Padan-Aram—'and Jacob set-up a pillar in the place where He spake with him, a pillar of stone; and he poured a drink-offering thereon, and he poured oil thereon,' v.14 :

in X (xxviii. 19), Jacob gives the name Bethel' to the place where Jehovah appeared to him twenty years previously, when he was on his way to Padan-Aram, * and Jacob rose-up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it,' v.18; and, accordingly, the place is spoken of as ‘Bethel' by Elohim, xxxv.1, as well as by Jacob himself, v.3, before it was so named, according to E, v.15.

(xiv) In E (X.26), all the twelve sons of Jacob were 'born to him in Padan. Aram':

in X (xxxv.18), Benjamin was born in the land of Canaan ; comp. also xxxii. 22, xxxiii.2,7, where mention is made of Jacob's eleven sons' and Rachel's one son, Joseph.

(xv) In E (xxxv.26, xxx.21), Jacob has twelve sons and one daughter, all born to him in Padan-Aram:

* Jacob was 130, xlvii.9, when he went down to Egypt, nine years after Pharaoh's dream, xlv.6, at which time Joseph was 30, xli.46; hence Joseph was 39 when Jacob was 130, and he was therefore born when Jacob was 91; but this was fourteen years after Jacob came to Laban, comp. xxxi.41 with xxx.25,26, &c.; 80 that Jacob was 77 when he went to Padan-Aram.

in X, the statements * connected with the births of the children make these births impossible, not including that of Benjamin.

(Ivi) In E (xxxvi.6,7), Esau does not leave the land of Canaan till after Jacob's return, Iwxv.27, and he then goes to Edom 'from the face of his brother Jacob;' because of the multitude of their cattle, — for their gain was much, above dwelling together, and the land of their sojournings was not able to bear them because of their cattle':

in X (wwü.3, xxi.16), Esau was already settled in the land of Edom, before Jacob's return from Padan-Aram.

(xvii) In E (alvi. 12), Er and Onan are reckoned among the seventy' out of Jacob's loins, who went down with him into Egypt:

in X (alvi.12), the substitution of Hezron and Hamul for them, in connection with the interpolated story in xxxviii, introduces the impossibility, that Judah might have been a grandfather twice over at the age of thirty-nine, as I have shown in (I.19,20).

(xvii) In E (xXxTÜ.286,36), certain Midianites appear to have kidnapped Joseph, and sold him into Egypt:

in X (wxxvi.25-27,286), his brothers sell him to a caravan of Ishmaelites, and they bring him down to Egypt, and sell him there, xxxix.l.

(xix) Lastly, there is, of course, the great discrepancy that in E the name "Jehovah' is never used, (except in xvii.1, where obviously it has crept in by some accident-probably of transcription,) and is declared in not to have been "known' to the patriarchs ; whereas in X Jehovah' is used a hundred-and-sixtythree times, and is put in the mouths of Abraham, xiv.22, Isaac, xxvi. 22, and Jacob, xxvii.16,-of Sarah, xvi.2, Rebekah, xxvii.7, Leah, xxix.35, Rachel, xxx.24,

of Lamech, v.29, and Noah, ix. 26,- of Laban, xxiv.31, and Bethuel, xxiv.50,51, of Abraham's servant, xxjv.27,-of the heathen Abimelech, xxvi.28,29; nay, it was known to Eve, iv.1, and as early as the time of Enos, Then began men to call upon the Name of Jehovah' iv.26.

* (i) Leah's first four sons (allowing two months between a birth and a conception) would require 3 years 6 months;

(ü) Bilhah's first might be born immediately after Leah's fourth, and her second, therefore, at the end of 4 years 5 months ;

(ii) Zilpah's first might be born just after Bilbab's second, and her second at the end of 5 years 4 months ;

(iv) Leah's fifth son might be born just after Zilpah's second, and her seventh ebild, Dinah, at the end of 7 years 2 months ;

(V) Rachel's first son, Joseph, could not, therefore, have been born within the seven years, even on the above supposition.



56. We have now seen that there is an essential and unmistakable difference between the contents of the Elohistio narrative and those of the remainder of Genesis, whether we look at the phraseology and forms of expression employed, or the general tone of thought which prevails in the one and the other of these two sets of passages, or observe the numerous and striking discrepancies and contradictions, which on close examination are found to exist between them. But one other fact now requires our attentive consideration, viz. that there exist some similar discrepancies between different portions of the non-Elohistic matter itself.

57. We may note the following instances of this phenomenon.

(i) In xii.14–20 we have the account of Abram's weakness and prevarication on Sarah's account at the Court of Pharaoh. It seems incredible that he should have repeated afterwards the very same conduct at the Court of Abimelech, xx.1-17.

(ii) In xiii.14-17 Jehovah promises to give to Abram the land of Canaan, which last agrees with the promise recorded by E in xvii.8.

Yet between these two passages, in xv.18, Jehovah makes a covenant with Abram to give to him the ‘land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates.'

(iii) In xiv Abraham is represented as a warlike and spirited Sheikh, who gallantly pursued and routed the whole forces of the confederate kings, which had ravaged the land of Canaan under Chedorlaomer, and carried Lot captive.

Yet in xx he is represented as weak-spirited and pusillanimous, afraid of the people of Gerar because of his wife, and sheltering himself under a mean evasion.

(iv) In xiv, again, Abraham has a great body of 318 servants, trained in his own house, whom he leads out to war.

Yet in xxi.25,26, we find him remonstrating with Abimelech about a well which Abimelech's servants had 'taken away by force,' as if he had no such body of men at his command, as he plainly cannot be supposed to have had, when he feared that the people of Gerar would slay him for his wife's sake,' xx.11.

() In xvi.7 Hagar, when she fled of her own accord from Sarah, was found by the angel 'by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring on the way to Shur,' between Kadesh and Bered,' v.14 ; and the spring receives the name Lakhai-roi’ from the divine consolation she received.

Yet in xxi.14, when expelled with her child by Abraham, who was then living 'between Kadesh and Shur,' xx.1,-evidently therefore in the neighbourhood of this notable spring,-she wanders about in the wilderness of Beersheba, ready to perish for want of water.

(vi) In xi.14 Hagar is expelled, with her son Ishmael, and Abraham gives her only a bundle of bread and a skin of water.

Yet in xxv.6 we read unto the sons of the concubines which Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and sent them away from Isaac his son, while he yet lived, eastward unto the east country.' But Abraham's concubines, apparently, consisted of Hagar and Keturah only; and the sons of the concubines must, therefore, have included Hagar's son, Ishmael, with Keturah's six sons, named in xxv.2.

(vii) In xxi.22-32 Abimelech, the king of the Philistines, and Phichol the captain of his host, pay a visit to Abraham, and Abimelech makes a covenant upon oath with Abraham.

Yet in xxvi.26-31, apparently the very same king Abimelech, and Phichol tho captain of his host, and Akhuzzath, one of his friends, pay a visit to Isaac, and make a covenant upon oath with him, a century afterwards.

(Fül) In xi.31, Abraham gives the name “Beersheba' (=well of the oath) to the place where he and Abimelech sware to one another, and accordingly Abraham, we are told, dwelt at Beersheba,' xxii.19.

Yet in xxvi.33 Isaac, about a century afterwards, gives the name 'Sheba' to the well, which his servants dug on the day when he and Abimelech sware to one another, and it is added, "therefore the name of the city is Beersheba unto this day.'

(ix) In xxxvii,27,28, Joseph's brethren sell him to the Ishmaelites.

Yet in xl.15 he says himself that he 'was stolen, or kidnapped, out of the land of the Hebrews.'

() In xxxix. 20-23 Joseph is put in prison by his master for a (supposed) very grare offence, and there finds favour with the keeper of the prison,' and has all the prisoners given into his charge.

Yet in xl.4 Joseph is merely assigned by his master, “the captain of the guard,' as a servant or slave to wait upon the two noblemen; and the chief butler speaks of him, in xli.12, not as a fellow-prisoner, but merely as an ordinary servant of the captain of the guard.'

(xi) In xli.34 Joseph advises that Pharaoh should take-up only 'the fifth part of the land of Egypt in the seven plenteous years.'

Yet in v.35 he speaks of his gathering all the food of these good years that come.' FOL. III.

(xii) In xlv.17-20 Pharaoh sends expressly Jacob's eleven sons with wagons, to bring their father and their families, and come and live in Egypt_ Take your father and households, and come unto me, and I will give you the good of the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat of the fat of the land.'

Yet in xlvii.t they speak to Pharaoh as if he had never invited them at all.

58. The above instances are sufficient to show that discrepancies exist between different portions of the non-Elohistic parts of Genesis,-although some of them would probably admit of a plausible explanation, if it were not evident, from a careful examination of the text, that they are real discrepancies, arising from a difference of authorship. For we have now to state, and as we hope to show plainly to the satisfaction of the reader, that the non-Elohistic matter of Genesis is by no means homogeneous, but consists of contributions by the hands of three (as we believe) or, as some hold, of four different writers. The evidence of this fact is fully given in the course of the Analysis. We can only here produce the salient points of it, for the information of the general reader.

THE SECOND JEHOVIST (J.). 59. First, then, it would seem that xiv is a chapter sui generis, having no special relations with any other part of Genesis. It comes in abruptly, unconnected with the story before or after, except that, by the mention of Abram's living at Mamre, v.13, and of Lot's being carried captive, it has found its place suitably in the history after xiii. 125,18. Still, it might be removed altogether without any loss to, or interruption of, the general narrative. It is, in short, a mere episode; and it brings Abram before us, as observed above, in the character of a powerful and warlike Sheikh, with 318 trained servants in his house, v.14, of which we find no trace whatever in the rest of the history. Rather, the subsequent account of his going to sojourn in Gerar. where Abimelech takes his wife from him, xx.2, and Abraham is afraid of his life, and practises a deceit to save it, v.11-13, shows plainly that, in the view of the writer of

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