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Address exciting them to a Revolt—General WAshington convenes and addresses the Officers—Their resolutions—Preliminary articles of peace received —Cessation of Hostilities proclaimed—General WAshington addresses a Circular Letter to the Executives of the several States—Army disbanded— New Levies of Pennsylvania revolt—The Commander in Chief enters New-York—Takes leaves of his Officers—Resigns his Commission to the President of Congress—Retires to Mount Vernon 26


General WAghingtoN in Retirement—His Pursuits—Votes of Congress and of the Legislature of Virginia respecting him—His Visitors and correspondents—His Plans to improve the Navigation of the Potomack and James' Rivers—Declines the grant of Virginia—-His Advice to the Cincinnati—State of Publick Affairs—National Convention—General WAshington its President—Federal Constitution recommended and adopted—General WAshington requested to consent to administer the Government -He is chosen President of the United States—Sets out for the Seat of Government—Attention shown him on his Journey—His reception at New-York 56


Inauguration of the President—His Address to Congress—Answers of the two Houses—The Arrangements of his Household—His regulations for Visitors—The Reasons of their adoption—The Relations of the United States with Foreign Powers—Con

gless establishes the Departments of the Govern ment—The President fills them—He visits NewEngland—His Reception—Addresses to him—His Answers—Negotiations with the Indians—Treaty with the Creeks—War with the Wabash and Miamis Tribes—-General Harmar's Expedition—St. Clair defeated—General Wayne victorious and makes a Treaty with them—Second Session of Congress—Fiscal Arrangements of the Secretary of the Treasury—Indisposition of the President—He visits Mount Vernon—Meets Congress at Philadelphia—His Tour to the Southern States—Second Congress—The President refuses his Signature to the Representative Bill—Contemplates retiring to Private Life—Consents to be a Candidate for the Second Presidency - - - - - - - - - 87


General WASHINGTon re-elected President—State of Parties—Division in the Cabinet—The President endeavours to promote union—Influence of the French Revolution—Measures to secure the Neutrality of the United States in the War between France and England—Mr. Genet's illegal practices —He insults the Government—The Executive restricts him—He appeals to the People—They support the Administration—The President determines to arrest Genet—He is recalled—Negotiation with Britain——Insurrection in Pennsylvania —Democratick Societies—British Treaty—Communication between the French Executive and

the Legislature of the United States—The Procł. l +

dent refuses to the House of Representatives the Papers respecting Diplomatick transactions—His interpositions in favour of the Marquis La Fayette —Takes the Son of the Marquis under his Protection and Patronage - - - - - - - - 1:5


The President calumniated—His Letter to Mr. Jefferson—Statement of the Secretary of the Treasury— The French Directory's attempt to control the American Government—Review of the transactions with France—The President declares his resolution to retire from Publick Life—Meets Congress for the last time—Describes the Letters that had been forged—Attends the Inauguration of Mr. Adams— Retires to Mount Vernon—Threatening attitude of France—General WASHINGTon appointed Commander in Chief of the American Forees—His opinion of Publick measures—His indisposition and

Death—Conclusion - - - - - - - - 166

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Arnold is appointed a Brigadier in the British Service and invades Virginia-Plan to capture him—Mutiny in the American Cam – Violence of the Pennsylvania Line–Order restored—Wea State of the army—The French Court grants a Loam to the United states-Éxertion of the States to enable the General to open the Campaign—The French Troops march to the American Camp— Plan to surprise the British Post at King's Bridge—Expedition to Virginia—Count de Grasse arrives in the Chesapeak—Yorktown besiegod—British Redoubts stormed—The British make a Sortie– Lord Cornwallis attempts to esca He capitulates and surrenders his Posts—Indecisive Action between the French and English Fleets—Sir Henry, too late, embarks his Troops for Yorktown— Thanks of Congress to the American and French Commanders, and to the Army—General St. Clair despatched to Carolina---The other corps of the Army return to the Neighbourhood of NewYork, and go into Winter Quarters.

1781. ARNOLD, having been appointed a Brigadier General in the British army, was with about sixteen hundred men detached to invade Virginia. With his armed ships he sailed up James' river, and at Richmond and other places destroyed publick and private property to a great amount. He at length indicated a design to establish a permanent post at Portsmouth.

The French fleet since its arrival on the American coast had been blocked up in the harbour of Newport, and the land forces had remained inactive in that town. But about this time the British blockading squadron suffered by a violen, storm, and a temporary superiority was given to the French.

General WashingtoN thought that a fair opportu

nity presented to strike a decisive blow at the British detachment in Virginia, and to obtain the person of Arnold. In pursuance of this scheme, the General detached the Marquis La Fayette to Virginia with twelve hundred of the American infantry: at the same time he requested the co-operation of the French from Rhode Island. The commanding officers gladly embraced the opportunity to engage in active services, that might prove advantageous to their American allies. On the death of Admiral Ternay, at Newport, the command of the fleet devolved on Destonches. In compliance with the request of General WASHINGton, he sailed with his whole squadron for the Chesapeak, having eleven hundred land troops on board. The British Admiral Arbuthnot having repaired the damages sustained by the storm, immediately followed the French, and on the 25th an action took place between the two hostile fleets. The hattle ended without loss to either fleet, but the fruits of victory were on the side of the English. The joint expedition was frustrated, the French returned to Newport, and Arnold was rescued from the fate which he merited. The winter of 1781 in a degree renewed the privations and sufferings of the American army. The men were badly clothed and scantily fed; and they had served almost a year without pay. Without murmuring they long endured their accumulated distresses. But the fortitude of the firmest men may be worn down. Dis heartened by their sufferings, despairing of relief, and dissatisfied, that their country did not make more ef. fectual exertions for their support, the spirit of mutiny broke out with alarming appearances. The Pennsylvania line stationed at Morristown, with the exception of three regiments, revolted. On a concerted signal, the non-commissioned officers and privates turned out with their arms, and announced the

MARch 8.

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