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This alarming transaction, the General communicated to Congress, and at the same time reminded them of his repeated and urgent entreaties in behalf of his officers. Some general provision for them he now recommended as a measure of absolute necessity. “The distresses in some corps,” he observed, “are so great, either where they were not until lately attached to any particular state, or where the state has been less provident, that officers have solicited even to be supplied with the clothing destined for the common soldiers, course and unsuitable as it was. I had not power to comply with the request. “The patience of men animated by a sense of duty and honour, will support them to a certain point, beyond which it will not go. I doubt not Congress will be sensible of the danger of an extreme in this respect, and will pardon my anxiety to obviate it.” The regiment marched agreeably to orders, and the officers withdrew their remonstrance. The Legislature took measures for their relief, and they continued in the service. The situation of the hostile armies not favouring active operatons, General W AshingtoN planned an expedition into the Indian country. His experience while he commanded the troops of Virginia in the French war, convinced him, that the only effectual method to defend the frontiers from the destructive invasion of Jrdian foes, is to carry the war into their own country. To retaliate, in some measure, the cruelties the Indians had inflicted on the Americans, and to deter them from their repetition, General Sullivan, the commanding officer, was ordered, on this occasion, to exercise a degree of severity, which, in the usual operations of war, was abhorrent to the hu mane disposition of the Commander in Chief. In the course of the soummer months, General Sullivan successfully prosecuted the plan, and destroyed the Indian

towns upon the northern boundary of the state of New-York. The disposable force of Sir Henry Clinton this year consisted of batween sixteen and seventcen thousand men. The troops under the immediate command of General WAshingtoN amounted to about sixteen thousand. A view of the numbers of the two hostile armies is sufficient to show, that offensive operations against the strong posts of the British, were not in the power of General WASHINGTON. The marine force, by which these posts were supported, facilitated the designs of the British commander in predatory expeditions upon the American shores and rivers; but in the middle states, the campaign passed away without any military operations upon a large scale. The American General posted his troops in a situation the most favourable to protect the country from the excursions of the enemy, and to guard the High Lands on the north river. These High Lands were the object of the principal manoeuvres of the opposing Generals, and the scene of some brilliant military achievoments. West Point was now the chief post of the Americans on the Hudson. Here was their principal magazine of provisions and military stores. It was situated upon the western side of the river, in the bosom of the mountain, was difficult of approach, and its natural strength had been increased by fortifications, although they were not completed. Lower down at the foot of the mountain is King's ferry, over which passes the great road from the eastern to the middle states. This ferry is commanded by the points of land on the two shores. The point on the west side is high, rough ground, and is called Stony Point. That on the east side is a low neck of land projecting into the river, and der ominated Verplank's Point. On each shore General W AshingtoN had erected fortifications, and a small garrison under the command of a Captain was placed in Verplank. Sir Henry Clinton, on the last of May, moved with the greater part of his force up the river towards these posts. On his approach Stony Point was evacuated ; but the celerity of his movements obliged the garrison at Verplank to surrender themselves prisoners of war. The possession of King's ferry could not have been the sole object of Sir Henry's movement, his force was much greater than this purpose required. The possession of West Point was probably the ultimate design of the expedition ; but the excellent disposition of the American troops defeated this intention of the British Commander. Having fortified the positions of Stony Point and Verplank, and placed garrisons in them, Sir Henry returned with his army to New-York. The Americans were subjected to great inconvenience by the loss of King's ferry. To pass the North river, they were obliged to take a route by the way of Fish Kill, through a rough and mountainous country, and the transportation of heavy articles for the army by this circuitous road became very tedious. General WA shingtoN was induced by a variety of motives to attempt the recovery of Stony and Verplank Points. The very attempt would recall the British detachments that were out on predatory expeditions. Success in the plan would give reputation to the American arms, reconcile the publick mind to the plan of the campaign, and restore to the Americans the convenient road across King's ferry. In pursu ance of this intention, he reconnoitred the posts and, as far as possible, gained information of the situation of the works, and of the strength of the garrisons. The result was a plan to carry the posts by storm. The assault upon Stony Point was committed to General Wayne, and that no alarm might be given, his force was to consist only of the light infantry of the army, which corps was already on the lines. The night of the 15th of July was assigned for the attack. The works were strong, and could be approached only by a narrow passage over a piece of marshy ground, and the garrison consisted of six hundred men. About midnight the troops moved up to the works through a heavy fire of artillery and musketry, and without the discharge of a single gun, carried them at the point of the bayonet. The Americans, on this occasion, displayed their usual humanity; they put not an individual to the sword after resistance ceased. The loss of the Americans in the assault was inconsiderable, compared with the nature of the service. Their killed and wounded did not exceed one hundred men. General Wayne received a wound on the head, which, for a short time stunned him ; but he insisted upon entering the fort, which by the support of his aids he accomplished. Sixty-three of the garrison were killed and sixty-eight wounded, and five hundred and forty-three made prisoners. Military stores to some amount were found in the fort. General Howe was entrusted with the execution of the design against Verplank; but through a number of unfortunate incidents, to which military operations are always liable, it miscarried. Stony Point alone did not give the Americans the use of King's ferry. Sir Henry Clinton immediately moved up the North river with a large force to recover the post, and General WASHINgtoN, not thinking it expedient to take fiom his army the number of troops necessary to garrison it, destroyed the works and retired to the High Lands. General Clinton erected the fort anew, with superiour fortifications, and placed a respectable garrison in it, under the command of a Brigadier General. Congress embraced this occasion, by an unanimous resolve, to thank General WAshington for the wisdom, vigilance, and magnanimity, with which he conducted the military operations of the nation, and par ticularly for the enterprise upon Stony Point. They also unanimously voted their thanks to General Wayne for his brave and soldier-like attack, and prosented him with a gold medal emblematical of the action; and they highly commended the coolness, discipline, and persevering bravery of the officers and men in the spirited assault. During this summer, Spain joined France in the war against England. General Washington expecting substantial aid from these powers, and unwilling to waste any part of his small force in partial actions, contented himself with the defence of the country from the depredations of the enemy, that he might be in readiness with the greatest possible numbers, to cooperate with the allies of America in an attack upon the British posts. But the fond hcpe of effective aid from France proved delusive ; and the expectation that the war would this season terminate, failed. Effectual measures were not yet adopted by Congress to establish a permanent army. The officers generally remained in service, but a great proportion of the privates were annually to be recruited. By the delays of the general and state governments, the recruits were never seasonably brought into the field. At different periods they joined the army; and frequently men totally unacquainted with every branch of military service, were introduced in the most critical part of an active campaign. At the close of this year, General WAshingtoN, not discouraged by all his former unavailing endeavours, once more addressed Congress on this subject, which he deemed essential to the welfare of the unicii In October he forwarded to that body a minute report of the state of the army, by which it appeared, that between that time and the last of June the next year, the time of service of one half the privates would expire. With the report he submitted a plan, by which the

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