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flanks were covered by woods and morasses, and their front could be attacked caly through a narrow pass. General WASHINGToN, even under these circumstances, determined to renew the engagement. In pursuance of this resolution, he ordered Brigadier Poor to gain the right flank of the British, and Brigadier Woodford their left. The artillery was directed to play upon them in front. Before these orders could be effectually carried into execution, the day was fully spent. The General therefore determined to deser the attack until the next morning. He ordered the troops to retain their respective positions, and to lay on their arms. The General in the course of the day had shunned no danger, and he slept in his cloak amidst his soldiers on the field of battle. At midnight, the British moved off their ground with such silence, that General Poor although very near did not perceive it. General WA shingtoN knew that the British army would reach 'ligh and unassailable ground before he could come up with them, and therefore discontinued the pursuit. He despatched small parties of light troops to protect the country from depredation and to encourage desertion. The main body of his army he marched to cover the important passes in the high lands on the Hudson. General W AshingtoN was satisfied with the behaviour of his army on this day. In his official coinmunication to Congress he mentioned that after the troops had recovered from the surprise of the unex pected retreat of the morning, their conduct could not have been surpassed. General Wayne was noticed with great commendation, and the artillery corps was said to have highly distinguished itself. In the battle of Monmouth, eight officers and sixty-one privates of the Americans were killed; and about one hundred and sixty wounded. Among the killed were Lieutenant Colonel Bonner of Pennsylvania and Major Dickinson of Virginia, officers of merit,

whose fall was much lamented. The A is ericans buried about three hundred of the British, who had been found on the field; although Sir Henry Clinton, in his official letter, stated his loss in killed and missing at four officers and one hundred and eighty-four privates, and his wounded at sixteen officers and one hundred and fifty-four privates. Among the slain was the Honourable Colonel Monckton, an officer of celebrity. The day had been excessively hot, and numbers, both British and Americans, were found among the dead without wounds, who had fallen victims to the heat. The Americans made about a hundred prisoners, and nearly a thousend privates, mostly Germans, deserted the British standard, on the march through New-Jerney. Congress highly approved of the conduct of the Commander in Chief in bringing on the action of the 28th, and was gratified with its issue. In a resolution which passed that body unanimously, their thanks were given to General WAshingtoN “for the activity with which he moved from the camp at Valley Forge, in pursuit of the enemy ; for his distinguished exertions in forming the line of battle ; and for his great, good conduct in the action.” He was requested “to signify the thanks of Congress to the officers and men under his command, who distinguished themselves by their conduct and valour in the battle.” Although the Commander in Chief disapproved of the retreat, yet could the proud spirit of General Lee have patiently borne what he considered as a reprimaud cm the field of battle, it is probable that an explanation mutually satisfactory might have taken place. Gene, al W AshingtoN continued him in coinmand on the day of action, after his retreat, and discovered no disposition to take publick notice of it. But the irritable and lofty spirit of Lee urged him to write the next day two offensive letters to General WAshington, in which, assuming the language of a superiour, he demanded satisfaction for the insult offered him on the field of battle. On deliberation, the Commander in Chief informed him “that he should have an opportunity to justify himself to the army, to America, and the world, or of convincing them that he had been guilty of breach of orders and misconduct before the enemy.” General Lee, expressing his desire for a Court Martial in preference to a Court of Inquiry, was arrested upon the following charges, 1. For disobedience of orders in not attacking the enemy on the 28th of June agreeably to repeated instructions. 2 For misbehaviour before the enemy on the same day, by making an unnecessary, disorderly, and shameful retreat. 3. For disrespect to the Commander in Chief, in two letters. The high colouring of the second charge was in consequence of complaints entered by Generals Wayne and Scott, against General Lee, which on investigation appeared to have been founded in their misapprehending his movements. Lord Sterling presided at the court, which found him guilty of all the charges, but softened the language of the second, and found him guilty of misbehaviour, by making an unnecessary, and in some few instances, a disorderly retreat. The court sentenced him to be suspended from his command for one year. Congress, with some hesitation, almost unanimously approved the sentence The suspension of General Lee was highly satisfac. tory to the army. They keenly resented his abuse to the Commander in Chief, and his continuance in sommission probably would have produced great inconvenience. Scarcely had Sir Henry Clinton reached New-York, when a French fleet appeared off the Chesapeak, under the command of Count d'Estaing. He had been Vol. I. 15

eighty-seven days in crossing the Atlantick. Had his passage been an ordinary one, he would have found Lord Howe in the Delaware, and the capture or destruction of the British sleet in that river, and probably of the army in Philadelphia, must have been the consequence. Count d'Estaing being disappointed at the Delaware, sailed along the coast to Sandy Hook. General WashingtoN moved his army to the White Plains, that he might be in a situation to co-operate with the French Admiral against New-York. In the mean time, Sir Henry Clinton employed his whole force to strengthen his lines. The French Admiral finding an attack upon New-York impracticable, a conjoint expedition was planned against RhodeIsland. At the critical moment when the success of the united action of the French and American army was reduced to a moral certainty, Count d'Estaing sailed out of the harbour of Newport to fight Lord Howe Being overtaken by a violent storm, his fleet was greatly damaged, and he thought it adviseable to repair to Boston harbour to refit. In conseqt ence of the harbour of Newport being opened to the British, General Sullivan, the commanding officer upon Rhode-Island, was compelled to retreat. He and his general officers had remonstrated against Count d'Estaing leaving Newport, and in the moment of disappointment and irritation at the failure of the expedition, General Sullivan in or ders, used expressions which were construed into a severe reflection upon the French Admiral and other marine officers, and which they resented. General WAshingtoN, alarmed at the probable consequences of a misunderstanding and jealousy between the French and Americans, so soon after the alliance was formed, and in the very commencement of their united operations, immediately adopted measures to prevent them. In letters to Generals Heath and Sulli

van, he communicated the mode of conduct which he wished might in this delicate transaction be pursued. To Heath, who commanded in Boston, he expressed his apprehension that resentment of the conduct of the Count might prevent the proper exertion to repair and victual the French fleet, and he urged Heath to counteract such prejudices. “It will certainly be sound policy to combat the effects, and whatever private opinions may be cntertained, to give the best construction of what has happened to the publick; and at the same time to excrt ourselves to put the French fleet, as soon as possible, in a condition to defend itself, and be useful to us The departure of the fleet from Rhode-Island is not yet publickly announced here; but when it is, I intend to ascribe it to necessity produced by the damage received in the late storm. This, it appears to me, is the idea which ought to be generally propagated. As I doubt not, the force of these reasons will strike you equally with myself, I would recommend to you to use your utmost influence to palliate and soften matters, and to induce those, whose business it is, to provide succours of every kind for the fleet, to employ their utmost zeal and activity in doing it. It is our duty to make the best of our misfortunes, and not suffer passion to interfere with our interest and the publick good.” To General Sullivan he mentioned “his apprehension that should the expedition fail, in consequence of being abandoned by the French fleet, loud complaints might be made by the officers employed on it. Prudence,” he said, “ dictated the propriety of giving this affair the best appearance, and of attributing the withdrawing the fleet from Rhode-Island to absolute necessity. The reasons,” he added, “for this line of conduct, were too obvious to need explanation. That of most importance was, that their enemies, both in

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