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and this storm rendered most of the arms unfit for use; and all the ammunition was damaged. The army was of consequence extremely exposed, and their danger became the greater, as many of the soldiers were destitute of bayonets. Fortunately the tempest, which produced such serious mischief to the Americans, prevented the pursuit of the British. General WAshingtoN, finding his troops unfitted for action, relinquished, from necessity, the immediate intention of a battle, and continued his retreat through the day, and most of the night, amidst a cold and tempestuous rain, and in very deep roads. On a full discovery of the extent of the damage to the arms and ammunition, the General ascended the Schuylkill, and crossed it at Warwick furnace, to obtain a fresh supply of ammunition, and to refit or replace the defective muskets. He still resolved to risk a general engagement, for the safety of the capital. He reSept. 19. crossed the Schuylkill at Parker's ferry, and encamped east of that river, on both sides of Parkyomy creek, and detachments were posted at the different fords, at which the enemy might attempt to force a passage. As the British army approached the river, General WASHINGton posted his army in their front; but, instead of forcing a passage, Sir William moved rapidly up the road towards Reading. The American Commander, supposing that his object was to destroy the military stores at that place, and to turn the right flank of the American army, marched up the river to Pottsgrove, leaving the lower road to the city open to his antagonist. Sir William Howe availed himself of the opportunity, and on the 26th, entered Philadelphia in triumph. General WASHINGton had seasonably taken the precaution to remove the publick stores from the city, and to secure for the use of the army, those articles of merchandise, which their wants rendered of primary necessity. Colonel Hamilton, then one of General

WAshington's aids, had been sent into the sity on this important business. By his instructions he was directed to proceed in his requisitions upon the stores and shops of Philadelphia cautiously but effectually. “Your own prudence will point out the least exceptionable means to be pursued, but remember delicacy, and a strict adherence to the ordinary mode of appli cation, must give place to our necessities. We must, if possible, accommodate the soldiers with such arti cles as they stand in need of; or we shall have just reason to apprehend the most injurious and alarming consequences from the approaching season.” From the landing of the British army at the head of the Elk, on the 25th of August, to the 26th of September, when they entered Philadelphia, the American troops had encountered a continued series of active operations, and the duty of the General was complicated and arduous. During this time, the soldiers were destitute of baggage, insufficiently supplied with provisions, and deprived of the comforts that administer to the support of the human frame under severe fatigue. Without covering, they were exposed to heavy rains, and obliged to march, many of them without shoes, in deep roads, and to ford considerable streams. The best British writers, who have given us a history of the revolutionary war, highly applaud the generalship of Sir William Howe in this part of the campaign. Can they then withhold applause from the American Commander, who manoeuvred an inferiour army in the face of the British General, and detained him thirty days, in marching sixty miles, from the head of Elk river to Philadelphia, in a country, in which there was not one fortified post, nor a stream that might not, at this season be every where forded, who fought one battle, and although. peaten, in five days again faced his enemv witn the intention to risk a general engagement; who, when in the moment of Voi... [. 12

cation, was providentially obliged to retreat, with muslets and ammunition unfit for use, extricated himself trom his perilous situation and once more placed himself in font of the invading foe; who at last was induccd to open the Philadelphia road to the British General, not because he was beaten in the field, but through the influence of circumstances, which no militar; address could counteract. Four regiments of grenadiers were posted in Philadelphia, and the other corps of the British army were cantoned at Germantown. The first object of Sir William was to subdue the defences and remove the impediments of the Delaware, that a communication might be opened with the British shipping. General WashingtoN made every effort to prevent the execution of the enemy's design, in the hope of forcing General Howe out of Philadelphia, by preventing supplies of provisions from reaching him. Of the attainment of this important object, he had no doubt, could the passage of the Delaware be rendered impracticable. To this purpose works had been erected on a bank of mud and sand in the river, near the confluence of the Schuylkill, and about seven miles below Philadelphia. The place, from these works, was denominated Fort Island, and the works themselves Fort Mifflin. On a neck of land on the opposite shore of New-Jersey, called Red Bank, a fort was constructed and mounted with heavy artillery, and called Fort Mercer. Fort Island and Red Bank, were distant from each other half a mile. In the channel of the Delaware, which ran between them, two ranges of Chevaux.defrise were sunk. These consisted of large pieces of timber, strongly framed together, and pointed with iron, and they completely obstructed the passage of ships. These works were covered by several galleys, floating batteries, and armed ships. Sir William Howe having detached a considerable force from Germantown to operate against the works on the Delaware, General WAshington thought this a favourable opportunity to attack the British army in their cantonments. The line of the British encampment crossed the village of Germantown at right angles, near its centre ; and its flanks were strongly covered. General WASHINGtoN now commanded a force consisting of about eight thousand continental troops and three thousand militia. The General's plan was to attack both wings of the enemy in front, and rear at the same time. The arrangements having been made, the army was moved near the scene of action on the evening of the 4th of October. The divisions of Sullivan and Wayne, flanked by Conway's Brigade, were to enter Germantown by the way of Chestnut Hill, and attack the left wing of the British. General Armstrong with the Pennsylvania militia was ordered to fall down the Manatawny road, and turning the British left flank, attack its rear. The divisions of Green and Stephen, flanked by M Dougal's Brigade, were to take a circuit by the way of Limekiln road, and entering at the market-house, attack the right wing. The militia of Maryland and New-Jersey, under General Smallwood and General Forman, were to march down the old York road, and fall upon the rear of the British right. The division of Lord Sterling, and the brigades of Nash and Maxwell were to form a corps do reserve. About sunrise the next morning, the fron, Oct. 8. of General Sullivan's column, which the Commander in Chief accompanied, drove in the British piquet at Mount Airy. The main body of this division soon engaged the British light infantry and the fortieth regiment of foot, and obliged them to give way, leaving all their baggage behind. General Green in half an hour after Sullivan reached the ground of action, attacked and drove in the troops in front of the right wing “t the enemy. Several brigades of Sullivan's and of Green's divisions penetrated the town. The enemy appeared to be surprised, and a fair prospect of eventual suecess in the assault presented itself to the mind of the American General. The flattering expectations, which the successful commencement of the enterprise excited, were soon succeeded by disappointment and mortification. As the British retreated before General Sullivan's division, Colonel Musgrave took post with six companies of light troops in a stone house, from which he severeverely galled the Americans in their advance. At: tempts were made to dislodge him, but they proved ineffectual, and the American line was checked and thrown into disorder. The morning being extremely foggy, the Americans could neither perceive the situation of the enemy, nor take advantage of their own success. The ground to which some of the British corps was pursued had many enclosures, which broke the American line of march, and some of the regiments, in their ardour to push forward, separated from their brigades, were surrounded and taken prisoners In the moment of supposed victory, the troops retreat od, and the efforts of their Generals to rally them, were fruitless. The militia were never seriously brought into action. General Washington, perceiving that victory had, on this occasion, eluded his grasp, contented himself with a safe and honourable retreat. In this bold asseult, two hundred Americans were killed, six hundred wounded, and four hundred taken prisoners. Among the killed was Brigadier General Nash. The British loss was one hundred killed and four hundred wounded. Among the killed were Brigadier Agnew and Colonel Bird. This enterprise, as far as the Commander in Chief was concerned in it, was honourable. Its ultimate failure must be attributed to the want of discipline and experience in his men Congress fully approved of the plan o' this assault, and applauded the courage displayed in ts execution

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