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have been completed in other States, and at an expense which will be much less, than has been there incurred. From these preliminary and indispensable elements, there cannot be a doubt of its being practicable to open a line of intercommunication between the commercial emporium of Maine and the vast region of the great Lakes, which is commensurate with the grandeur and cost of such a work.

The importance of establishing greater facilities of intercourse between the distant points of a State, as well as with other States, by roads, canals, railways, and the improvement of the navigation of rivers, has been so universally conceded and illustrated in the examples of not only the ancient and modern nations on the eastern continent, but by every State in the Union, that it may seem to be an act of supererogation to enter, at this time, into investigations for the purpose of confirming the correctness of a position which has been so generally assumed as correct, by the most enlightened governments which have ever existed, and which has been for the last half century, and now is, so zealously acted upon.

The unexampled prosperity of Great Britain since the close of the war of our revolution, in agriculture, navigation, commerce, manufactures, and all other branches of industry, is to be mainly attributed to the construction of the very best roads which exist in the world, cutting canals, laying down Railways, and rendering the natural water courses and havens more accessible and safe for the transit of vessels and boats of all kinds. And this has been done in such extensive and diversified directions, that the whole Island has been traversed and intersected in such an ample manner as to afford every city, town, hamlet, and estate, as well as the proprietors of the innumerable iron, coal, copper, tin, and other mines, the means of a safe, cheap and rapid transportation of persons and an interchange of products of all kinds, both of a foreign and domestic character.

Although the area of the Island of Great Britain is only about a third greater than that of the States of New England, the aggregate length of the canals and Rail Roads of that Kingdom is 4,240 miles, while that of the immense number of well constructed roads, on which the science, talents and genius of a Telford, McAdam, and other eminent engineers, were exhausted with the increased extent of navigation, given to the numerous rivers, by the removal of obstructions, and other modes of rendering their capacities available for the purpose of transportation, is more than decuple that vast extent of line of artificial conveyance.

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, there was not an Englishman in London who followed the exclusive business of an importer and exporter. That trade was almost entirely prosecuted by foreigners,

and even the coasting vessels were manned by foreign sailors; but so great has been the change, that the commercial fleet of Great Britain now amounts to over 25,000 sail; and in 1835 there entered the single port of London, 4,837; which with their cargoes were estimated at 1,261,447,500 dollars. As late as 1739, just one century from this time, not only all the linen and silk fabrics consumed in England, were imported from France, Holland and Germany, but nearly all the bar iron used was brought from Sweden, Denmark and Russia; and now there is one establishment in Wales, owned by a single individual by the name of Crozier, and who appropriately is called the iron king, where 75,000 tons of iron are annually made; and the whole product of the island has augmented to 1,400,000 tons.

If France has not evinced as much energy in the construction of like works of internal improvements, when the extent of her territory, and the large amount of her population are taken into consideration, still, since the reign of Louis XIV. down to the present period, their importance has never been lost of, by the government; and during the last thirty years, such has been the effort to equal, in this particular, the flourishing and long rival Kingdom on the other side of the channel, that the length of the canals and Rail Roads has increased to 3134 miles; and so many works of both kinds have been projected, and are being prosecuted, as will involve an annual expenditure of nearly twenty millions of dollars for the next twenty-five years.

But the number of miles of canals and Rail Roads in the United Sates, most of which have been constructed within the last ten years, is nearly equal to that of all Europe, the latter being only 9,300 and the former 9,150 miles, and have cost 180 millions of dollars. Notwithstanding the example of foreign Gations, and the wonderful success with which these grand and highly interesting works have been prosecuted in almost every State in the Union, the government of Maine has not as yet exbibited that determination for the actual commencement of those invaluable channels of intercourse, which the large area of her rich and diversified territory for agriculture, manufacturing and commercial purposes, require, and which a large majority of the people cannot long fail of demanding. But the first step, , which is ever the most important on all great occasions, has been taken by directing the explorations and surveys which have been executed for ascertaining facts; and the next decisive movement, it may be confidently expected, will soon be made.

The navigation of Maine amounts to over 270,000 tons, which is one eighth of that of the whole United States, and nearly half as much as that of the Kingdom of France. The products of the vessels employed in the fisheries alone, amounts to

at least three millions of dollars, and much the largest portion of which are sent to the western country, from New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and New Orleans, to which places they are transported coastwise. To this valuable, perpetual and inexhaustible source of wealth, is to be added the cotton, woolen, iron, leather and other manufactured articles, which are now very considerable, and may and will be speedily augmented, from the facility for founding such establishments, which the extensive water power of the numerous rivers and streams so abundantly afford. But all the articles of foreign origin required for the interior, can be as abundantly and profitably imported by the merchants of Maine, and sent by the proposed route, as directly and cheaply as from any other part of the sea coast.

The interesting facts in relation to the other natural resources of Maine which have been developed by the very able, scientific and instructive Geological Report of Dr. Jackson, are well deserving of the most profound consideration, as connected with the subject of Internal Improvements, and the prosperity of the people, and cannot fail of attracting universal interest, from the quantity and variety of the rich mineral deposits, which are so abundantly scattered over the State.

Besides the numerous marble, granite and lime quarries, whose materials are so indispensable for the various architectural, agricultural and other

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