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tract of land in the south, and was noted for its bravery during the wars between the Carthagenians and the Romans. The union was not general: only the inhabitants of the south became one nation with the Kelts; the other Iberi remained unmixed. From the great Reltic army some tribes separated, who established themselves near to the mouth of the river Anas (Guadiana.) Another portion occupied the north-west extremity under the name of Artabri. The former preserved the general name of Kelts. The Greeks established some colonies along the coast of Iberi within the columns : but, except the Saguntum of the Lakyntihans

and the Emporium of the Maffili

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Bastitani, of the south. The latguage, manners, and weapons of these people are alike: they are one people in many subdivisions. The mixed tribes may be again divided into the Keltiberi and the people of the south-coast. The former comprehend in a manner all the inland inhabitants of the south. The Kelts chiefly struggled with the Iberi in the neigh-bourhood of the river so called; but, after the incorporation they jointly occupied the mountainous country on the west of the Iber, as far as the source of the Durius and Tagus. This was Keltiberia in its narrowest import: but the nation, having multiplied greatly, dispossessed or reduced to slavery several tribes, as the Vakkaei, Karpetain, Oretani, &c. who are thence incorrectly reckoned as a part of it. The people of the coast beyond the pillars are a mixture of the patives with Phoenicians; and, within the pillars, a mixture of the natives with Greeks, Romans, and Carthaginians. Their commerce with strangers destroyed all peculiarity of character. At first, they learned the Punic, afterward the Roman language and manners. The commerce to which they were devoted, habituoted them to assume every form. For this reason, the inlanders despised them, made inroads on them, and forced them to recur for defence to foreign protečtion. The Keltiberians, on the contrary, prided themselves on retaining their native savageness of dress, weapons, language, and nmanners. 'More will be said of the peculiarities of each people, when the description of their boundaries is undertaken. . Thus much was necedary

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Of the Illyrians and Pannonians. From the same. The Illyrians are probably of the same stem with the Thracians; at least, the elder writers, who had visited the country or conversed with natives of it, confound them together : whereas the Kelts are always contradistinguished from them, even when resident among them. Of all the European nations, the Illyrians and Thracians only had the practice of tattooing their bodies. Their original language is probably preserved in the Epirotic dialect of the present times: but in Illyria itself, the Slavonian tribes have wholly extinguished every other tongue. The eastern continuation of the Alps comprised the ancient dwellings of the Illyrian nations. From the Julian Alps, the high lands spread uninterrupted between the Save and the Adriatic to the Haemus and to Macedon. Of this mountainous district, the Illyrians occupied the southern declivity, together with the sea-coast, from about Aquileia to the modern Epirus. On these very mountains, down the southern declivity towards the Save, were the oldest seats of the Paeonians, as the Greeks styled them: of the Pannonians, as the Latins called them. They extended from the Ukraine to Macedo

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tinguish the Paeonians from the other Illyrians. Herodotus, who knew them experimentally, does not indeed expressly reckon them as a branch of the Thracian stem, because he says that the quantity of fingle tribes is too great to be enumerated ; but he knows only of Thracians on the south-fide of the Danube; he describes them as covering many districts, and places among them the Paeonians by the Strymon and the Drino, without distinguishing them from Thracians;–and as he deduces the Paeonians from the Teucri of Afia, he farther corroborates the opinion of their being of Thracian race, whose Asiatic origin is certain. If the Thracians be one race with the Paeonians and Illyrians, the Kelts must not be derived from the Thracians; for the Romans constantly discriminate between the language and warfare of Kelts and Illyrians. Thucydides also notices the Paeonians in this site. Perhaps, in elder periods, they had extended their seats farther north unto the Danube, and were compressed in the southern mountains by the Kelts; who, as I shall shew, overflowed at one period the whole south of Hungary. Certain it is that the Romans found towns of the Pannonians only about the Save :-but, when the Kelts were repulsed, and the plains emptied, the Pannonians began to migrate from their mountains into the champaign, and to extend their habitations to the Danube. At this period, probably under Claudius, Pannonia obtained its constitution and boundary as a Roman province, although fortresses had long before been raised along the river. The original distrićt of the Pannonians, materially differs, it should H h bo be remembered, from the Roman province of Pannonia.

Dion Casius, himself a governor of Upper Pannonia, blames the Greeks for confounding the Paeonians near Macedon with the Pannonians near the Danube : but as he supports his opinions on slight ground , and would derive the name Pannonia from tannis, (the material of their large sleeves,) it seems more rational to rejećl his notion,-trusting rather to Strabo, Velleius, and Appian, who place the Paeonians and Pannonians all along these mountains. His error is natural enough to one who first knew the Pannonians in modern Hungary, in a tutored agricultural state, and had only heard of the rude Patonians of Macedon ; between which nations, much of Illyria and Macfia scemed to interpose. .

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