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this opportunity of declaring their fentiments on the situation of affairs between France and America. They assured him, that whatever differences had arisen between the rulin powers of both countries, the Frenc still retained their esteem for the people of the United Provinces, of whose warmth and good will to the republic of France they were thoroughly convinced, as well as of their difinclination to coincide with the measures adopted by their government. They were not less careful in testifying their highest regard for his personal merit, and their warmest gratitude for the attachment he had unvariably displaycd to the cause of liberty and the prosperity of France. | Such, however, was their resentment of the connection between the

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The Haughtiness of the Directory towards different Nations.—Particularly towards the Dutch, whom they consider, not as Confederates, but a conquered People.—Moderation of the Republic and prepondering Party in the United Provinces.—Batarian Convention.—Its Proceedings.-Affairs of Geneva. -Meeting of the National Institute of France.—Considered as an auspicious Omen of the Return of Peace and Reign of the Arts.-And Liberty of Thinking and Publishing on all Subjects.—The Alliance between the Church and Monarchy of France, in the End, ruinous to both.-The next', or com/?itutional, Clergy avow their Asent to the Separation of the Church from the State—Yet venture to condemn some Things settled, or approved, by the republican Government.—But which they considered as adverse to the Digniz, and Interests of the ecclesiastical Order.—The Settlement of ecclesiastical Affairs considered by the Generality of the French as a Matter of great


HE irritable temper of the di

rectory was experienced by other governments beside the Américan. The court of Stockholm, which had, fince the death of the late king Gustavus, explicitly re nounced his projects against the French republic, and manifested favourable dispositions to it, had lately undergone an evident alteration. Some attributed this to the intrigues of Russia; others to the resentment of the Swedish government at the duplicity of the French, who had paid the subfidy they owed to Sweden, in drafts upon the Dutch rePublic, which they were conscious would not be honoured. Another motive of dissatisfaction to the directory was, the recall of baron Ståel, the Swedish ambassador, a friend to the republic, and the replacing him by Mr. Renhausen, a gentleman hoted for his attachment to the po


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pression of the stadtholdership, in
which they had been formally pro-
mised the concurrence of the French
republic. They were, for this mo-
tive, so zealous for the success of its
arms, that, during the campaign of
1794, they had projected an insurrec-
tion in the principal towns of the
Seven United Provinces, while the
republican armies should advance,
with all speed, to their support.
Having communicated their designs
to the French government, they
doubted not of its readiness to fe-
cond them, and prepared according-
ly to execute the plans which they
had formed in virtue of that ex-
pećtation. But the uninterrupted
career of vićtory, that had given so
decided a superiority to the French
over all their enemies, had also
elated them in such a manner, that,
looking upon the co-operation of
their party, in Holland, as no longer
of that importance which it had
hitherto appeared to be, they now
received its applications with a
coldness, which plainly indicated
that they confidered the Dutch as a
people that must submit to their own
terms, and whom they now pro-
posed to treat rather as being sub-
dued by the arms of the French,
than as confederated in the same
cause. -
Such were the dispositions of the
French towards the Dutch, when
they enterred the United Provinces.
The arbitrary manner, in which
they imposed a multiplicity of heavy
contributions upon the Dutch, was
highly exasperating to the nation:
but they were too prudent to exas.
perate men, who were determined

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Several preferred the antecedent
one, that had subsisted from the de-
mise of William III, king of Great
Britain and stadtholder, with such
alteration as might secure it effectu-
ally from a re-establishment of that
office, and render it more democra-
tical: others recommended an im-
mediate adoption of the precedents,
which the French had fixed on as
the most popular. These different
parties contended with great warmth
for the superior excellence of their
various plans. . But the necessity of
settling some form of #.;
brought them, at last, a
violent dispute, to the determination
of calling a national convention.
The provinces of Zealand and Frize-
land, the two most confiderable in
the Dutch republic, next to that of
Holland, made a long and obstinate
opposition to this proposal. But
they were, at length, prevailed up-
on to concur with the others on its
The year 1795 was consumed in
altercations of this nature. But as
soon as the national convention met,
which was on the first of March,
1796, all parties agreed on a resolu-
tion to declare war against Great
Britain, which they considered as
having chiefly occasioned the man
calamities that had befallen the
United Provinces for a course of
years. Through its influence over

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ter long and

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opportunity of doing all the damage in its power to the people of the United Provinces; who had, therefore, the clearest right to confider it as their most inveterate enemy. On these confiderations, which were obvious to all impartial minds, the national convention ought to call forth the whole strength of the nation, and use every effort to recover what England had so unjustly taken from it, rather by surprize than real prowess.

Such was the language of the republican party, in Holland, which, confiding in its strength, and on the support of the French, was determined to improve to the utmost the opportunity that now offered, of extinguishing, radically, all the hopes and pretensions of the Orange family. In this determination, this party met with every encouragement from the directory, which anxiously stimulated it to form a constitution explicitly exclusive of a stadt

holder. The Dutch convention itself was sufficiently averse to the re-esiablishment of this office, which, new-modelled as it had been, by Frgland and Prussia, was become, in fact, a sovereignity. But however unanimous on this point, they varied on several others. The former independence of the Seven Provinces on each other, and their separate and unconnected authority over their respective territories and people, had so long subsisted without impairing the general union, that it appeared to many unnecessary, if not dangerous, to make any alteration in this matter, as it would affect the mode of levying taxes, and burthen one province with the expences of another. To this it was replied, that a firm and indissoluble - union,

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