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made its entrance into the world, it was almost | rating employments during the hours of evensure to die before many weeks had passed; but, ing, and late into the night. did it escape this fate-and, as a child was The girls, too, what are they doing? Studyfound to shrink from the rude blast which pe. ing German, and French, and Italian, and music. netrated its tender frame, or sicken at the close Reading with a master (seldom enough without) atmosphere and noisome odours that hung all kinds of science and physiology, analyzing about its unventilated home, and turn away in words, making historic charts, &c., &c., until disgust from the coarse, strong food that co- eighteen; then casting all aside, save those vered the table—there was no change to a softer pursuits, sach as music and singing, which are climate, no suitable fare provided : the poor calculated to draw admiration, and involving little creature was probably pronounced to have themselves in a round ef drawing-room amusebeen bewitched, and instead of clearing away ments, seldom taking more exercise than a the filthy rushes amidst wbich lay long-decaying lounging walk or a waltz affords, and so conbones, excrement of dogs, and all sorts of un- ceiving the grand objects of their lives fulfilled. cleanness, throwing open windows, and pour-o that they would be wise that the ing in the living air to refresh the weary invalid, mothers and daughters of England would look in all probability some poor old man or woman around them, and see the growing evil which would be persecuted even to death for the sup- infects our land-that they wonld remember that posed crime of casting an evil eye on the squire their mission on earth is not to spend all on or parson's child, and the poor little sufferer's self and self's belongings--to learn to study that nerves be fretted with silly superstitious charms, only which may make them accomplished and and its body weakened with long fastings, learned women-to spend their time only in until it sunk into an early grave. And so the seeking something new; but that God has given weak and delicate, instead of, as in the present them all they possess to hold as stewards, and day, living on, and probably becoming the pa- to use to his glory; and that their beauty, their rents of delicate children, died; and the strong knowledge, their graceful manners, and gentle and healthy only were the propagators of our voices, are as much possessions which they are race.
bound thus to use as is their wealth or any other But it has been chiefly from such as these part of their beritage, and that it is their part and that have sprung those of fine strong nerves, duty to study how these gifts may be used to and high sensibilities, our men and women of help those beneath them in their station, how genius; and thus, though from this cause they may best employ such talent in striving to amongst others, our race has become less phy. aid the forlorn and desolate, to restore the lost, sically powerful, it has surely gained what is to comfort the sorrowful; and how they may better than brute force-I mean the high intel. best bring them to bear, healthfully and helplectual standing which is accorded to us by all fully, on cottage life around them.' But I dithe world.
gress. My object in this paper is to enlarge a Another cause of the deterioration of strength little on the games and pastimes which formed of which I speak is early and general education. the amusements of our progenitors, at a time A child who cannot read at seven or eight years
when all this book-lore was unknown, and old is, in the present day, denounced as an in- whence, as I conceive, they drew the unboundcorrigible dance; and it is expected that at ing store of wealth an physical power which that age both boys and girls shall know were as remarkable characteristics of the ansomething of several other matters besides cient Britons and Saxons as the wondertul mere reading. French and music with girls, mental energies are of men of the present age. Latin and French with boys, and with both Amongst the earliest records of our history, arithmetic and geography, etc., are, at an early after the Norman Conquest, we read of the age, beginning to make lodgements on the young noble youth of the land, one and all, being exmind. Formerly these children were running, ercised from childhood in feats of arms, and the riding, wrestling, and playing all sorts of antics practice of every kind of military exploit that in the air, thereby strengthening their bones was then known. Before the time of the inva. and sinews instead of working their brains. sion of our land by William the First, athletic Follow their course for a few years, and you sports and trials of strength were much in will find that every day of their lives presents vogue ; but for the practices of chivalry which but a stronger contrast to that of their fore-adorned the time, from the eleventh to the fathers at their age; that whereas those were seventeenth century, we are indebted to the engaged in athletic sports and exercises, rowing French, as the terms used in such sports will and riding, fencing and tilting; and then, as life show, they being all in the Norman French went on in active war service; or, in times of the language of the Conqueror—and not in peace in hunting, and the practice of all kinds Saxon, which was then the vernacular spoken of woodcraft and venery. The young men of by the people in general. our day are reading at college from eight to The wonderful taste for military prowess
and twelve hours a day, seated at a desk in some adventure that seems to have possessed the airless office or bank for a greater number of gentry of the land at that period is a curious hours; and happy for them if they are not example of the rapid growth of any new in worse places, and engaged in more deterio fashion. We see the same infectious characters pervading the amusements and employments of show themselves in their stations, and expose our day." What one does, all who would be of their helmets to view at the windows of their note or fashion must do, and thus we see all pavilions, and then they may depart to make England, in the thirteenth, fourteenth, and merry dance and live well. On the morrow the fifteenth centuries, devoting their whole thoughts champions shall be at their parades by the hour and desires to perfecting themselves in fencing, of ten in the morning, to await the commands tilting, archery, &c. Of course in times of war of the lord of the parade and the governor, who these arts were of high import, and the achieve are the speakers of the tournament. At this ments in arms performed by some of the princes meeting the prizes of honour shall be deter. and high nobility of those days were very asto- mined." nishing. But the more frequent use of thein was We are after told that he that shall best refor exhibition in the splendid tournaments and sist the strokes of his adversary, and returns jousts which formed the chief opportunity for them with most adroitness on the part of exhibition of the magnificent arms, shields, and Clarencieux, shall receive a very rich sword; other accoutrements of the knights, as well as and he who on the part of Norroys shall show of the beauty and lustre of the ladies and most prowess shall be rewarded with an helmet courtiers who acted on such occasions as spec. of equal value. On the morning of the day tators.
fixed for the tournament the arms, banners, and Tournaments were the most grand of all helmets of all the combatants were to be ex. the spectacles of the middle-ages. They were posed at their stations, where the speakers were usually exhibited at royal marriages, or when to examine all, and reject or approve at their the King would entertain a foreign prince or pleasure. The arms being returned to their ambassador, or on such other occasions as owners the challenging baron caused his banner pomp and pageantry were supposed to be espe- to be placed at the entry of the parade, and the cially called for. Sometimes, however, jousts blazon of his arms to be nailed to the roof of his were substituted for the more august tourneys, pavilion. The baron on the other side did the the former being encounters between only two same, and all the knights on either side who mounted knights; whereas, in the latter many were not then present were to forfeit their of the flower of the knighthood met as com- privileges and not be permitted to tournay. batants, each bent to overthrow as many adver- The king-at-arms and the heralds then went saries as possible, and thereby to remain con- from pavilion to pavilion, crying aloud, “To queror of the field, and receive his guerdon, the achievement, brave knights, to achievement!” prize awarded to the conqueror, from the hands At this signal the combatants crossed themselves, of the fair lady of his vows; for never could and on the heralds crying, in like manner, there be a knight without a lady-love, and that “Come forth, knights and esquires!" then the lady-love one of high degree-a “bright par- barons took their places in the lists, the cham. ticular atar,” whom, in most cases, the champion pions ranging themselves on their respective had no hope to wed, but was content that she sides under their banners, and then two cords should be recognized as the goddess of bis were stretched between them, which cords were idolatry, and bis highest aspirations were grati. to remain untii the speakers commanded the fied did she vouchsafe him a smile, or the gift commencement of the sports, when they were of a glove from her fair hand, or a ribbon from to be withdrawn. The combatants were armed her neck to place in his helmet, and, hy its with pointless swords, the edges of which were cheering influences, to carry him forward to "re-bated,” and with a baton or truncheon victory.
hanging from their saddles, either of which We find the following directions for the con. they were free to use, while the speakers con. duct of a tournament in one of the Harleian tinued to give the words “Laisseir les aler.' MSS. First the proclamation, in these terms: When the speakers saw fit to stop the sports the
Oyez! Oyez! Lords, knights and esquires, heralds cried “ Ployer vos baniers !" which was ladies and gentlemen : you are hereby ac- the signal to stop the games. quainted that a superb achievement-at-arms, The joust often formed the conclusion of the and a grand and noble tournament, will be held tournament, but it also very frequently was held in the parade of Clarencieux king-at-arms, on as a wholly separate talemail, though considered the part of the most noble baron, Lord of inferior to the tournament was a game or trial T-, and on the part of the most noble of skill with lances. It seems to have been of baron, Lord of C, in the parade of Norroys considerable antiquity, having been practised in king-at-arms." Then we have the regulations : the reign of Stephen, Edward I., &c. The “The two barons on whose parts the tourna- combatants in jousts used spears without iron ment is undertaken shall be at their lodges two heads, and the play was to strike the opponent days before the commencement of the sports, on the front of the helmet, so as either to unwhen each of them shall cause his arıns to be horse him or break the spear. In the days of attached to his pavilion, and set up bis banner chivalry jousts were more especially made in in the front of his parade; and all those who honour of ladies, who inspirited the knights by wish to be admitted as combatants on either their presence at the spectacles, and at their side must in like manner set up their arms and close dispensed the prizes and rewards. They banners before the parades allotted to them. were, as were the tournaments, exceedingly Upon the evening of the same day they shall splendid. The lists were superbiy decorated,
as were the pavilions of the knights, and the other of the sports, in which both noble and scaffold or galleries, from which the beautiful simple shared. Then came various kinds of ladies who patronized the sports, with their quintain, some of them apparently of greater attendants, princes, and relatives sate, all being antiquity than tournaments and jousts. The hung with tapestries of gold and silver, and quintain was originally nothing more than the needlework, and the dresses of the noble ladies trunk of a tree or post set up for the pracglittering with gorgeous colours and rich jewels. tice of tyros in chivalry: this was superseded We read little of flowers as decorations in those by a staff or spear stuck in the earth with a days, indeed it is probable that they were not shield hung on it, and the skill was displayed in much used, as the gardens of even noble castles 80 smiting the shield with the lance, as to break and palaces seem to have been more used for the ligatures which bound it and throw it to the the growth of such herbs and simples as were ground. Then was substituted for a shield a employed in culinary and medical purposes wooden figure which they called "& Saracen." rather than for the mere growth of “posies," This was armed at all points, and bore a shield and the art of making artificial flowers ap and club. This Saracen” was placed on a pears to be of later date. Alas! the eyes of the pivot, and so contrived as to move with facility. fair ladies of those days were not feasted with in running at the "Saracen” the horseman had the sight of such splendid geraniums and to direct his lance right to the middle of the fuchsias, and calceolarias and portulaccas, &c., forehead between the eyes ; if he succeeded in &c., as now flourishes even in our cottage- doing this, a certain number of the strokss were gardens ; nor did crystal bouses then shelter reckoned to his score, but if he failed and struck the splendour of “East and Western Ind” for wide of his aim, and especially if he struck the their delectation.
shield, round would go the image with sudden The very children in the Middle-ages were velocity, and if not very careful the prostrated initiated into the military sports, their little toys lancer would get a powerful thump on his back being made such as to lead to them. We read from the wooden sabre of the image ; a result of a wheeled toy, probably of the 15th century, that caused much laughter and mockery in the of a knight and his horse, inade of brass and surrounding spectators, and was accounted very completely equipped for the joust, with hole in disgraceful to the sufferer. its stand for a cord to be tied, that the little But the quintain was not always played by gentleman to whom it belonged might draw it mounted lancers, it was often performed on foot : about as children of the present day do a post called a " pel” (from palas a post) was their wooden horses or carts. In this toy the set up, and the practitioner armed with sword man and the horse were separate, and so ba. and shield was to assail it as he would a man lanced that a blow on the helmet would throw aiming his blows at the head, legs, &c., or rather the rider off his steed.
at those parts of the “pel' which would answer There were also boat jousts, some grave and in position to those parts of a man. Arms of some laughable and absurd. In the tourna- double weight were recominended on these ments or jousts on land none below the rank of occasions to give strength and power to the esquire could play ; but the passion for such fraine. sports took such hold of the public mind that
“This fanne and mace whiche either doubil wight these boat jousts, and other corresponding di
Of shield, or swayed in conflicte or bataile, versions were invented for the gratification of
Shall exercise as well swordsmen as knyghtes, tbe Lundon apprentices and others of inferior
And nae man, as they sayn, is seyn prevaile degree. In boat jousts the game was that two In field or in castell though he assayle ; boats impelled by rowers, and each bearing an That with the pile nathe put firste grate exercise, armed man, with spear, shield, and helmet, Thus writeth Werrouvis, olde, and wyse." should rapidly approach each other, and the conqueror was be who could dexterously turn The assailant of the “Saracen” is extolled by aside bis adversary's spear with his shield, and the same old writer to at the same time strike him with his own spear “Empeche his head, his face, hove at his gorge 80 as to overthrow him into the river without
Bear at the breste or sperne him ou the side. himself being moved. Boats were in attendance to pick up the conquered. In Queen Elizabeth's
Wounde him, make woundes wide, time, when she visited Sandwich, she was Hew of his honde, his legges, his thighs, his armys ; entertained by a boaten joust, “ wbere certain It is the Turk, though he be sleyn noon harm is.” wallounds (walloons ?), that could each swym, had prepared two boates, and in the middle of The name is probably derived from the ineach boate was placed a borde, upon which ventors of the game quinctus or quintas. It is borde there stood a man, and so they met to- spoken of by Vegetias as common among the gether, with either of them a staff and a shield Roman youth, and was by them probably introof wood, and one of them did overthrowe duced into England. There was a water quinanother, at which the Queene had good sporte.” tan, which was much of the same character as No doubt it would not unfrequently be the case, the water jousts, being played by tilting from as Stow narrates, that " for the most part one or boats at a shield erected on a post in the water. both of them were overthrown and well ducked.” Tilting, or running at the ring, was also a The quintain, or riding at the ring, was an. I fashionable amusement.
derived from the Italian, as the Floren- supported in a case or sheath by springs, but tines called it "cora alla quintana," quintana might easily be drawn out by the force of the being in Italian sometimes used to signify a stroke, and remains on the lance. The riding at ring. This seems to have been much the same the popinjay which Sir Walter Scott 80 graphigame as the quintain, only that a ring was cally describes in "Old Mortality,” seems to suspended in the place of a shield, and the post- have been the Scottish mode of running the man was to ride at full speed and thrust the quintain or ring. point of the lance through the ring which was
OUR PARIS CORRESPONDENT.
MY DEAR C-,
and a blue bonnet, of a very high shape, on a The world may turn or stand still, the horizon profusion of fair hair ; two splendid diamondsbe black or clear, we Parisians must enjoy our solitaires-for ear-rings. It was remarked by all selves, particularly at this season, when the dark, that she shook hands very cordially with the dull days are only supportable by the thoughts Prince Napoleon, who is only just recovered of the brilliantly-lighted - up rooms, the gay from a fever that has rendered him very pale and dresses, and the magic dance that is in store for thin. His wife (the Princess Clotilde) was also us as soon as night closes in. Amusement we present, very simply dressed ia grey. All the must have, and this winter seems to answer all time of the ceremony no carriages were allowed our hopes, for there are dinners and fétes every- to circulate in the rue de Rivoli. Two velociwhere, their Majesties and King Hausmann pedes (the new-fashioned two-wheeled carriages setting the example. The first ball at the Hotel for one person, and that person his own horse) de Ville was splendid, as it always is; many arrived in lull gallop. The sergent de ville prefer it to those given at the Tuileries, and pre- was puzzled to know whether he must stop tend that it is more select and the costumes them or not. His orders had not foreseen the more costly, which is very probable, because case. What should I do? asked he of a garde there is more room to show oneself in the mag. de Paris. The garde twirled his moustache at nificent saloons of the Hotel de Ville than in the gravity of the case: “One velocipede has those of the Palace, where it is generally a only two wheels, so is no carriage; but two have regular cram. But what, for the moment, most four wheels, which certainly makes a carriage, occupies us is the late opening of the Chambers, so stop them and send them back,” which was and the Emperor's speech. Was it to be peace, accordingly done, to the great annoyance of or war? Numerous and various were the ru- those who were on them, and who protested that mours abroad as to the good or bad tidings there was no fear of their horses taking fright, therein contained. Some insisted on his Ma- or doing any harm to anyone! The garde de jesty's liberal intentions for the interior of bis Paris's opinion did not coincide with theirs, so Empire, others shook their heads in doubt. And, there was no alternative but to turn back. after all, what has the speech told us ? That Our guest the Queen of Spain receives frewe are ready for war if our enemies provoke us, quent visits from the Tuileries. It is an odd and that Napoleon III, has the firm intention to occurrence, that so many of the last of the rule as he thinks fit. We can at least see that Bourbons should have now taken refuge in through the ambiguity of the language, in spite France! Some men seem to hope that the little of the skill of the commentators to turn and “ Prince des Astruries"- -as they call Isabella's explain it as their desires incite them. Those eldest son here-will be chosen by the Spanish who wish for war exult. The Emperor wishes nation, and it is said that the Emperor favours, for peace, but he lets us see that peace is far with all bis power, this solution of the Spanish from being sure. Those who desire peace find question. The royal boy accompanied the in the imperial speech substantial hopes that Prince Imperial to the theatre on the 1st of peace we shall have. It is amusing to see what January, and I believe is frequently with him. different and opposite conjectures may be drawn He is sent every morning to the College Stanisfrom one piece of oratorical eloquence. Their los-an institution half clerical, half belonging Majesties and the little Prince looked in re to the University-for his studies. They say markably good health and spirits at the that the Empress is bigoted; but really I can cereinony. The Empress in particular was all scarcely believe it, for the Prince Imperial's beauty and smiles; she was dressed in sky-blue, German master professes the Jewish faith, and trimmed with white lace, with a very long train, l an English clergyman has just been appointed to teach bim English-that does not appear very | President Seguier, late president or chief judge intolerant. It is true that the child's governor, of the court of justice at Toulouse, who has had the General Froissart, is complete master in his the courage to resign office to protest against Imperial pupil'o education, and they say half the judgment rendered in the condemnation of rules the palace.
the press in the affair for the Baudin subscripThere has been a great deal said lately on the tion. Some throne him as a hero, and deway our national riches are protected in point of putation after deputation have been to conthe pictures belonging to our museams. A fire gratulate him on bis heroism; others only see at Madame Trolong's (the wife of the President in his conduct revenge for the way his father-inof the Senate) destroyed, a little while ago, two law, the General Goyon, has been treated by pictures belonging to the gallery of the Luxem- Government. The General was for some time bourg. The public was not pleased, and our at the head of the troops in Rome, and gave papers took it up, and asked why those chef- frequent proofs of his attachment to the Pope d'ouvres, that are purchased with the public while there. He bas lately been put on pension, money for
our public galleries, are thus much to his annoyance. At the age of sixty all exposed to be burnt through the negligence officers are pensioned off, except those who have of a servant ? They also affirmed that no one gained the right to remain on full pay by having, has the right to lend those pictures to adorn before that age, commanded the troops in face the apartments of those in office. A very of the enemy, which honour the General Goyon just remark, methioks. However, no answer had never had; and as Government was not was given. A semi-official paper stated that sorry to get rid of him, I suppose his expostuall public property belongs to the Emperor, lations were not listened to. A wit says Gothat he has the right to dispose of the pictures vernment was certainly wrong: for when the as he thinks fit. The question became warmer General commanded the troops in face of the and warmer, and it was discovered that about Romans, he was most assuredly in face of the thirty other pictures had been lent by the Di- enemy. The revolt in the Réunion Island has rector des Beaux Arts to the Imperial Cercle- also occupied public attention, and we era kind of club house. Nothing governmental pect a change will be made in accordance with that! The indignation became greater and the rights of this colony, though I do not supgreater, and at last the Director des Beaux Arts pose that the Corps Legislatif will be opened to bas vouchsafed an answer. The pictures lent them as they demand. to the Imperial Cercle are of minor value, and M. de Frias inhabits the entresol (a kind were stowed away in the lumber-rooms of the of first-floor in the Hotel Bel-Respiro). The Museum. They were lent during the Exhibi- Chinese embassy, just arrived, have hired the tion when the Cercle was daily crowded with two storeys above M. de Frias. The other strangers of distinction, who could thus admire night the Chinese gentlemen made a mistake them, &c., &c. However, it is bis Excellency's and entered their neighbour's apartment, their intention to call them in immediately, and 80 key fitting perfectly well the other lock, and here the question rests. After all, it appears a without further ado they went to bed. In the strange tbing that a man placed to protect the middle of the night M. de Frias returned home, national collection of paintings should have a entered, and was about putting on his nightcap, right to dispose of them according to his fancy! when, to his horror, he found his bed occupied. I remember hearing a lady say, a little while ago, “Au voleur! au voleur!” he cried, thinking that through the medium of her cousin, then that the thief, in wishing to try his bed, had . Minister of State, she had obtained from found it so comfortable that he had fallen asleep Monsieur Nieuwerkerke two splendid pictures in it. Immediately, one-two-three Chinese for her parish church. How differently Napo- arrived, alarmed by the cries issuing from their leon I. considered the works of Art in the public companions' room. I wonder whether they had museums ! He says, somewhere in his memoirs, all their nightcaps on, and whether they havo that when Josephine, profiting by his position, adopted the European male head-dress à la Mr. had adorned their apartments with pictures from Caudle! M. de Frias rubbed his eyes to see if the public galieries, that though he had them he had not a hallucination; and what rendered daily before his eyes, it appeared to him that the scene more comical is that not one could they were stolen from him, because they were speak French, or understand a word. Gesticu. no longer in his public galleries!
lations, Chinese on one hand and French on the Mr. Jefferson Davis is now in Paris; he in other, followed, but finding it impossible to tends settling here, for the education of his make anything out on either side, both parties children. The Parisians who know him are finished by bursting out laughing. Others in delighted with bis manners and conversation. the hotel came to the rescue, and the affair was He is indefatigable in visiting our public monu. cleared up, the Chinamen leaving the apartment, ments, which he very much admires; but what and M. de Frias at length retiring to rest. astonishes us the most is that a man who bas We are soon to have a new novel from Victor been a president of a republic-a monarch we Hugo. An indiscreet person of the Paris press may say-can dine on two dishes and desire tells us that he has seen the manuscript ai tho nothing more. It is the height of philosophy. printers : "L'homme qui rit,” is the title. We But the real “lion" of the day is Monsieur le are impatient to have it ; particularly as the in.