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person spoken of.
MERRY TALES FOR LITTLE FOLKS Edited by Madame de Chatelain. (London: Lockwood and Co., 7, Stationers' Hall Court.)The name of the Editress of this attractive little volume is a sufficient guarantee for the careful selection of its contents. It is brimful of stories; beginning with such standard rythmical ones as "Little Bo-peep," "Old Mother Hubbard," &c., and gradually including many less well-known ones from the charmed pens of Southey, Anderson, Madame D'Aulnoy, Grimme, Tieck, Arnds, and many other deft writers of uvenile romance. When we say that it contains
no less than forty tales, traditional and modern our young readers may take our word for it that its red jacket (or, rather, binding) is as full of fun and delightful adventures with giants, elves, fairies, and other creatures of the times of eld, as will last its possessor for many a day to come. But this is not all: the embellishments are more numerous than the stories, and many of them exceedingly pretty, while others are equally funny and bizarre. We particularly notice, as coming under the first description, the illustrations of the little fisher-boy (which are very charmingly designed); the boat full of children; of Halden and the little Nix, and of the little transformed Goldhair when threatened with being returned to the sea, are specially graceful. We shall make many a nursery glad by the introduction of this amusing little volume, which appears just in time to take its place amongst juvenile gift-books.
THE NEW THEATRES-THE "GAIETY" AND THE "GLOBE."
We are beginning to recognize the force of So much is a mock pugilistic encounter enjoyed the fact that a revolution has been effected in on the stage. There is nothing very reprethings theatrical." The "old playgoer" has hensible in all this, if we except the occasional become an almost extinct animal, or a petrifac obtrusion of a coarse reality in the form of a retion that society wonders at as a curiosity when volting crime on the scene. The rest is mere it intrudes itself into a western theatre. En- "leather and prunella." The burlesques suffice tirely new classes of playgoers have sprung up, to divert and amuse, and create risibility-voila much less critical than the old, and satisfied tout !-but what shall we say of audiences who with any kind of drama that will divert the eye. can do as well, or better, without poetry, wit, It is by no means indispensable that the mind or satire at the theatre, as with intellectual reshould be addressed by noble thoughts or ele- sources once so popular? We believe the prevated sentiments; but by way of a change, and sent play-going public is, sui generis, a very to satisfy the demand for variety, a "poetical different class to that which of old supported play" may take its turn on the stage, like any theatres. The capital is always thronged other play, only, as a rule, lighter pieces are with foreign and provincial visitors-especially preferred; and people care not to criticise any-Americans, who, since the close of the American thing superior to a "set scene," such as a civil war, have come over in shoals. Now bustling railway-station, a murder on the house-holiday-makers are, of course, amusementtops, a suicide on a steamboat-pier, or another seekers, and so "The Play's the thing!" Our on the underground-railway. These practicable American cousins are especially fond of theat"effects" need not be associated with any dra- ricals, without being choice as to the fare. It matic works of art, but may simply constitute is a fact, that, whereas four or five years ago the the piece of the evening associated with a London theatres were neglected and nightly modicum of realistic pantomime and everyday- empty, since then they have completely recovered life dialogue. There is another form of piece their popularity, and there are not new theatres which delights its peculiar audience, and that is enough. To supply the demand for more the "extravaganza," which abounds in music theatrical amusement, which exists chiefly we and dancing to coryphees in fancy-dresses, and believe among the throngs of strangers to the plenty of horse-play and buffoonery amongst metropolis, several new theatres have been lately the male characters. built, and are now open and drawing large audiences.
The HOLBORN, the QUEEN's, and the New AMPHITHEATRE have been some time open, but to these have just been added the new and handsome edifices erected in the Strand, now
A make-believe "set-to with the gloves" at the STRAND theatre, in "Darnley; or, the Field of the Cloth of Gold," has drawn large audiences for more than two hundred successive nights, and is likely to "run" as many more!
flourishing under the names of the GLOBE and the GAIETY. The style of these establishments, and the nature of their entertainments are of that continental character to convince us that they are adapted more to the tastes of foreigners than to English audiences, pure and simple. The Gaiety (situated near Catherine-street, Strand) is like one of the newest Parisian houses-partly a play-house, partly a restaurant. The pieces produced, namely, the vaudeville of "The Two Harlequins;" a new melodrama, entitled, "On the Cards;" and a new extravaganza, on the opera of "Robert le Diable," are peculiarly French. The style of acting is also imitated from the Parisian stage, and there are one or two actual French actors performing in the newly-imported pieces. We have nothing to find fault with in these French wares, they are light elegant, and amusing productions, well acted, with the most artistic and lively surroundings. Mr. Alfred Wigan is the principal artist, and performs the scambling, vagabond-like character of a French mountebank, in the new melodrama, admirably. He is well supported by Mr. Stuart (from the Paris theatres), Miss Madge Robertson, Miss E. Farren, Miss Loseby, &c. The vaudeville of "The Two Harlequins" introduced an agreeable singing actor in Mr. Lyall, and an equally pleasant singing actress in Miss Constance Loseby. In the extravaganza Miss E. Farren (from the Olympic) plays one of her characteristic "tunic" parts, and is magnificently attired. The piece abounds in ballet dances, and there is plenty of light music, "patter songs," and minstrel serenading to delight the ears of the admirers of such pieces.
THE CHRISTMAS AMUSEMENTS.
It is too early in the month at the commencement of the New Year for us to review the pantomimes of the Christmas season. But we will say, that "Puss in Boots" at DRURY LANE and "Robinson Crusoe" at COVENT GARDEN, are, as usual, magnificent, elaborate, and costly, productions well worth seeing.
We have not yet visited any one of the minor houses, but a certain authority on minor "theatricals" (our friend "Diggles"), who acts as fugleman in the gallery, and is the oracle of that region, reports well of the LYCEUM pantomime, "Humpty Dumpty," and also of the SURREY annual, "Harlequin Jack and Gill." Diggles has written a burlesque of his own, on the career of an east-end Nero, which is replete with smart rhyme and clever songs, such as the "gods" love, and mortals sigh after.
We consider, therefore, as we have already said, that Diggles should be heard in Burlesque, Extravaganza, and Pantomine lore. * His "Cat" chorus is sung on all Boxing Nights in the galleries of theatres; and we have heard it in society of an equally clubbable, but of more refined tastes. E. H. MALCOLM.
SOUND.-As a ship was sailing along the coast of Brazil, about 100 miles from land, the persons walking on deck heard most distinctly the sound of bells varying as in human rejoicings. The phenomenon was mysterious and inexplicable, until some days afterwards it was ascertained that at the time of obser
vation, the cathedral bells of St. Salvador had been ringing on the occasion of a festival. The sound favoured by a gentle breeze had travelled over 100 miles of smooth water, and striking the wide-spreading sail of the ship, rendered concave by the wind, had been brought to a focus and rendered perceptible.
The GLOBE THEATRE, which opened last month, is situated in Wych-street. The drama produced (written by H. J. Byron) is entitled "Cyril's Success," and is a very excellent little comedy of the French school, if we may be allowed the definition. We mean, rather, by it, that the piece is put upon the stage after the manner of a Parisian comedy. Cyril's Success" is performed by a smart English Company, amongst whom we recognize Mr. David Fisher, Mr. J. Clarke, Miss Clara Thorne, Miss Henrade, &c,, &c.; and there are several debutantes, including Mr. W. H. Vernon, who is likely to become a permanent London actor in the jeune première line of roles. The drama of the evening is in accordance with the present custom, commencing near upon 8 o'clock, being preceded and followed by a light vaudeville and farce. Visitors will discover in the Globe a remarkably handsome theatre, furnished with every regard to personal comfort and con
FRIENDSHIP. When I see leaves drop from their trees in the beginning of autumn, just such, think I, is the friendship of the world. While the sap of maintenance lasts, my friends swarm in abundance; but in the winter of my need they leave me naked. He is a happy man that hath a true friend at his need; but he is more truly happy that hath no need of his friends.
* "Diggles."-A legend of the Victoria Dock; a Burlesque Poem. Bemrose and Co., Paternosterrow, 1869.
THE LADIES' PAGE.
COLLAR IN FLORAL CROCHET.
MATERIALS-Penelope Crochet Hook, No. 4, and Boar's-head Crochet Cotton, No. 24, of Messrs. Evans and Co., Derby.
This little collar is intended to tack inside the top of the dress, and the leaves and flowers to stand up.
1st Leaf: Make a chain of 17, turn, miss 5, and work 1 single in the 6th stitch, then 2 chain, miss 2, and 1 treble twice, 2 chain, miss 2, and 1 double, leaving 2 chain for the stem; cross the stem, and through each of the 1st 3 loops 2 chain, work 1 double, 1 chain, 5 treble, I chain, and 1 double; through the 6 chain at the point, work 1 double, 1 chain, 4 treble, 1 chain, and 1 double, and through each of the 3 loops of 2 chain, work 1 double, 1 chain, 5 treble, 1 chain, and 1 double, then 2 single on the 2 chain for the stem.
*. 1st Spray of Flowers.-1st Flower: 20 chain, turn, miss 5, and work 1 single in the 6th stitch to make it round, leaving a chain of 14 for the stem, cross the stem, work 2 chain, and through the round loop, 1 double, 5 chain, 1 double twice, 2 chain, join to the centre of the last 5 treble but one of the leaf, 3 chain, 1 double through the loop, then 5 chain, and 1 double twice, and 2 single on the stem.
2nd Flower: 12 chain, turn, miss 5, and work 1 single in the 6th stitch, cross the stem of 6, and through the round loop work 1 double, 2 chain join to the last 5 chain of the 1st flower, 3 chain, and 1 double, then 5 chain, and 1 double 4 times through the round loop, and 5 single down the stem, leaving 1 chain.
3rd Flower: 8 chain, turn, miss 5, and work 1 single in the 6th stitch, cross the stem, and through the round loop work 1 double, 2 chain join to the last loop of 5 chain of the 2nd flower, 3 chain, 1 double through the loop, then 5 chain, and 1 double 4 times through the loop, and 2 single on the stem, and on the main stem work 5 single, leaving 7 chain, then 24 chain for the 2nd leaf, turn, miss 5, and work 1 double in the 6th stitch, then 2 chain, miss 2, and 1 treble twice, 2 chain, miss 2, and 1 double; cross the stem, and through the 1st loop of 2 chain work 1 double, 1 chain, 5 treble, 1 chain, and 1 double; through the next loop of 2 chain, work 1 double, 1 chain, 2 treble join to the centre 5 chain of the last flower, and through the same loop of 2 chain work 3 treble, 1 chain, and 1 double; through the next loop of 2 chain work 1 double, 1 chain, 5 treble, 1 chain, and 1 double, and through the 6 chain at the point work, 1 double, 1 chain, 4 treble, 1 chain, and 1 double, and down the side, work through each of the 3 loops of 2 chain, 1 double, 1 chain, 5 treble, 1 chain, and 1 double, then 2 single on the chain for the stem. Repeat from * 11 or 12 times more, just according to the size required, and finish with a double row along the chain, and then a treble row, which will from the band. In black silk and beads this would form a pretty trimming.
MATERIALS:-One ounce of scarlet double Berlin Wool.
The cuff is very easy to make; it is knitted in rounds in brioche knitting with scarlet wool. 1st round. Throw the wool forward, slip 1, as if you were going to purl it, knit 1; repeat from *.
2nd. * Purl together the stitch formed in the preceding round by throwing the wool forward and the next stitch, throw the wool forward, slip 1, repeat from *.
These two rounds are constantly repeated. Cast on 50 stitches, divide them upon 4 needles, and knit 20 rounds in brioche stitches as before
described, then 12 rounds alternately, 1 round knitted, 1 round purled, and then again 64 rounds of brioche knitting, 12 rounds alternately, 1 knitted, 1 purled, and finally 20 rounds brioche knitting. The lower edge of the cuff is formed by a round of black scallops in crochet. This is worked by taking together, in the last knitted round before casting off the stitches, the slipped stitch, the stitch formed by throwing the wool forward, and the knitted stitch, with 1 double stitch in crochet, and working 5 chain stitches between.
MATERIALS:-Tatting Shuttle and Tatting Cotton, of Messrs. Walter Evans and Co., Derby.
Commence by filling the shuttle, but do not cut the thread off the reel, as it will be required for a straight thread.
1st Circle: Use the shuttle, leaving the reel to the left. Commence a loop, work three
double stitches, then one pearl and six double; then one pearl and three double; draw close. Reverse the work, turning the circle down under the left thumb.
A CHAPTER ON FROGS.
The frog's dress is a genuine hunter's costume, green as the grasses among which he lives, changing its hue according to season and circumstances. With the foliage paler and darker, the little tree-frog alters his colour-even every three or four weeks-so that he passes his time unobserved among the leaves during the summer and autumn. Several times a year his garb is entirely changed, and his vest so thin, if received on a sheet of paper. it hardly leaves behind a mark like that of a lead-pencil, still it is generally eaten by the frogs themselves.
Linnæus imagined that nature, which had endowed all other animals in so wonderful a manner, had not been so liberal with the reptiles. If beauty were the only or even the highest law in the formations of nature, there might be something in this reflection. But some Amphibia, when studied impartially, cease to be repelling or ugly, and become even attractive. This is principally the case with the Batrachians, the most numerous of the amphibious animals, and to which the toad and salamander belong. A single toad lays over a thousand eggs; a frog, five hundred, at least. They may become a scourge in the land. When Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt," the frogs came up and covered the land," filling the houses, bed-chambers, the ovens and kneading-troughs. Other historians beside Moses have related how whole tribes of people were compelled to leave their residence on account of the immense increase of these animals. In nearly every zone they are to be found. In the tropical forest the bull-frog sends forth at night-fall his hollow bellowing, while a Lapland summer is not destitute of its croaking, marshy chorus. Eighty species of the frog tribe are now known, from the Bellower of Louisiana, nearly twelve inches long, to our common little tree-frog (Rana arborea) of an inch and a-half. We need not mention those monsters which once peopled the slime of our earth, when it arose from the waters. The ancient Rabbis, whose views of nature sometimes degenerated into grotesque monstrosities, speak of a frog as large as sixty houses!
We class the frogs among the comic types of the animal creation, from his resemblance to man. Who has not seen men with frog-like countenances? Such are generally beardless, with bald pates, short-necked heads, obtuselyshaped faces, partly flattened nose, with a wide mouth, receding chin, prominent eyes and puffed-out cheeks. Join such a physiognomy to a fair, round-bellied, abbot-like stature, and not a single feature will be wanting to perfect the resemblance. The eyes as well as the cheeks serve mainly to produce the likeness. Look at his eyes! They are unmistakably important, large, round, and in some species, surrounded by lids, their colour varying from deep black to a flaming yellow; and to this fact a Greek author refers when he says the frog is an animal void of shame, and never blushes, save in his eyes The iris of the toad's eye is most beautiful, really playing in its golden colouring. Like that of a cat, the owl and other nocturnal animals, it exercises the electric power. It is known that men who have endeavoured to withstand the gaze of a toad's eye have almost sunk fainting to the ground, overcome by its piercing power. It is brilliant and intelligent, but harmless. Sir Joseph Banks states: "I have from my childhood been in the constant habit of taking toads in my hand, holding them there some time, and applying them to my face and nose, as it may happen. My motive for doing this very frequently, is to inculcate the opinion I have held, that the toad is actually a harmless animal." It is a vulgar error, and an act of in
Our chapter will be concerning the waterfrog, (Rana Esculenta,) the most widely-spread and interesting of all the race; he is, in fact, a character, often playing no unimportant part in popular stories and fairy-tales, and sometimes with the poets. Who does not remember the myth of the frogs of Latona; * and also the fable of their election of a king? When Pisistratus had usurped the Government, sop related it to the Athenians; the middle ages repeated this fable from the Latin authors, and hardly a poet but has used it; and in our day it has been worked into a political drama. Two thousand years ago Aristophanes brought the frog people on the stage; two thousand years after it furnished a welcome subject for one of
the greatest German satirists, Fischart's "Fros-humanity to treat such a reptile with disgust or cruelty. Place one in a damp case, lined with mat, feeding it once a day with worms or flies, and the toad will live happily and become an object of amusement and instruction, instead of disgust.
show how inexhaustible the subject was. Thus has this race of animals obtained a place in poetry, beginning with fable and riddles and running the whole round of song.
*Ovid, metam, vi. 315.
In the frog's head, the mouth is most conspicuous-it is an "Os magna sonans;" but, having no iips, properly so called, it seems closed in silence, and is sometimes marked only by a coloured line, and the under part of the
chin, which is generally white. In his head, mere indications of a nose and ear are to be seen; and the head not raised upon a freely moving neck, delicately joins the trunk. The hind-leg is lengthened to an extraordinary degree, and with its immense toes no other animal can exhibit so human-looking a leg as the frog. Then the formation of the bones and muscles is also the same as in man, the latter forming a perfect calf, while the nakedness of his body causes this resemblance to appear more strikingly. Mr. Frog is truly an "anthromorphite." Who, when bathing, has not been reminded by the skilful swimmer of the green-coated paddler as he leaps from the bank with regular strokes dividing the water? To this very striking resemblance, a natural philosopher of the last century described the petrified skeleton of a frog of a former age, as "the bones of an antediluvian man. He was a Swiss physician, and in 1726 described it to his astonished contemporaries as "the Homo diluvii testii." Strange enough, for nearly a century this error was promulgated, until the far-sighted Cuvier recognized the truth. The learned philosopher's name was Tcheuchzer; and since then this remarkable fossil has been called "Andrias Tcheuchseri."
When, in the early spring, the sun sends down his first warm rays upon our earth, all the sleepers of the deep awake, and with them the f.og. The winter sleep is over, and he beholds the golden light pouring through the bright mirror of water, now freed from its icy fetters; his heart expands, he stretches his limbs, and rises to the surface. Now he puts forth his obtuse angled head, immovable as a stone, and stares upon the new wide world germinating in greenness around him. But he is yet faint and dumb, except some passer-by throws a stone into the water, which putting it into commotion, his locomotives then begin slowly to strike out. As the golden orb mounts higher in the heavens, the frog displays new energy: soon he is heard, when the strange chorus answers from the surrounding waters. What lover of the country is not fhmiliar with this music? It is not the merry, rejoicing cry of the tree-frog, "kek! kek! .kek!" nor the hoarse croak of the toad, but a comfortable, broad, long-drawn tone, followed by piercing, quick peals of laughter, that you would imagine the merry company would "crack their sides." The musicians look droll enogh, as they puff their cheeks while uttering these fervid sonnds: the "buffo" is truly excellent.
An old superstition declares that the frog's cry forebodes pestilence, and the sleepless complain of his disturbing their rest; so did Horace on the road to Brundusium:
"Mali culices ranæque palustres Avertunt somnos."
Aristotle, too, pronounces it garrulous and foolish. St Johu in the Apocalypse beheld
"unclean spirits, like frogs, come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of he beast, and out of the mouth of the falset prophet." Some good critics apply this to Vespasian and his pretended miracles, but others to false teachers. The pious Mussulman reckons the frog among his sacred animals, because he proclaims the praise of Allah.
Who that has travelled in America forgets the summer nights of the Southern States? On the extensive plain all life is asleep, when the lonesome deep groan of the moor-frog sounds from afar, like a summons from the other world; then on a sudden an agreeable tenor begins in the ponds. He summons others, as it were, to nocturnal prayers: around him sits the synagogue, and presently a deeper voice, evidently of advanced years, chimes in, then a third joins the chant, when the recitative begins. After a little while a pause ensues, when the precentor again sings his solo, some responses long drawn following, then suddenly a topsy-turvy, hurly-burly from every throat bursts forth on the midnight air. This lasting some minutes, single solos follow in a minor key; but the scattered tones soon break forth again in a stormy chorus. An ardent lover of nature, it has been our good fortune to hear such music, lasting throughout the whole night, and hearing it for many miles. But this must be gentle music compared to the uproar which travellers relate, when, on the shores of the Caspian Sea and the Volga, in myriads, the frogs celebrate their marriage festivals. It is a complete jovial Bacchic rejoicing.
The lady-frogs on these occasions have also a voice. When the sun begins to brood on the surface of the water, the female will sit beside her dots of spawn, floating by hundreds; and in gentle murmurs, not unlike the purring of a cat, she pours forth her maternal feelings.
The young are curiosities in nature, frognovices merely, consisting only of a head and tail, and swimming about quite unprotected. At last, however, the tail is cast off by selfacquired strength, and, the toga virilis put on, they enter upon their frogdom. These too now delight in joining the noisy chorus of their parents, basking on the green banks with them. They idle away hours on the moist grass, yet keep a sharp look-out; or take a siesta among the bulrushes or the shady roof of the mushrooms. Hence these, with fungi, are called "toadstool." If a fly approaches, suddenly the curious sticky tongue darts forth, and the victim is caught. There is no chance of escape from the clammy snare, for in an instant it is drawn back. To the frog, as with most animals whose safety consists in flight, Nature has bestowed a most susceptible ear and hearing. Let only a footstep rustle through the grass, when plump! plump the whole row leap and dive into the water, and swim from the shore. Now they feel safe, but as soon as the coast seems clear they return with noisy gaieties, or rival each other in all sorts of hydraulic tricks and pastimes.