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To Dr. Rush

199

To Miss Catharine Louisa Shipley

TO * * *

200

Copy of the last Letter written by Dr. Franklin :

201

PHILOSOPHICAL SUBJECTS.

To the Abbé Soulavie.-Theory of the Earth

203

To Dr. John Pringle.-On the different Strata of the Earth 207

To Mr. Bowdoin. —Queries and Conjectures relating to Mag-

netism and the Theory of the Earth

208

To M. Dubourg.-On the Nature of Seacoal

211

Causes of Earthquakes

212

To David Rittenhouse.- New and Curious 'l'heory of Light

and Heat .

224

of Lightning; and the Methods now used in America for

the securing Buildings and Persons from its mischievous

Effects

227

To Peter Collinson.-Electrical Kite.

231

Physical and Meteorological Observations, Conjectures, and

Suppositions

232

To Dr. Perkins.-Water-spouts and Whirlwinds compared 240

To Alexander Small.-- On the Northeast Storms in North

America

254

To Dr. Lining.-On Cold produced by Evaporation

To Peter Franklin.-On the Saltness of Seawater

263

To Miss Stephenson.-Salt Water rendered fresh by Distil.

lation.—Method of relieving Thirst by Seawater

264

To the same.—Tendency of Rivers to the Sea.-Effects of

the Sun's Rays on Cloths of different Colours

266

To the same.-On the Effect of Air on the Barometer, and

the Benefits derived from the Study of Insects

270

To Dr. Joseph Priestley.-Effect of Vegetation on Noxious

Air

273

To Dr. John Pringle.

On the Difference of Navigation in

Shoal and Deep Water

274

To Oliver Neale.-- On the Art of Swimming

277

To Miss Stephenson.-Method of contracting Chimneys.-

Modesty in Disputation

281

To M. Dubourg.-- Observations on the prevailing Doctrines

of Life and Death

282

Lord Brougham's Portrait of Dr. Franklin :

285

• 256

WRITINGS OF FRANKLIN.

ESSAYS,

HUMOROUS, MORAL, ECONOMICAL, AND POLITICAL.

THE WAY TO WEALTH, As clearly shown in the practice of an old Pennsylvania

Almanac, entitled, Poor Richard Improved."

COURTEOUS READER, I have heard that nothing gives an author so great pleasure as to find his works respectfully quoted by others. Judge, then, how much I must have been gratified by an incident I am going to relate to you. I stopped my horse lately where a great number of people were collected at an auction of merchants goods. The hour of the sale not being come, they were conversing on the badness of the times; and one of the company called to a plain, clean old man, with white locks,“ Pray, Father Abraham, what think you of the times? Will not these heavy taxes quite ruin the country? How shall we ever be able to pay them? What would you advise us to ?” Father Abraham stood up and replied, “ If you would have my advice, I will give it you in short; for A word to the wise is enough, as Poor Richard says." They joined in desiring him to speak his mind; and, gathering round him, he proceeded as follows:

Friends," said he, “the taxes are indeed very heavy, and if those laid on by the government were the only ones we had to pay, we might more

folly;

easily discharge them; but we have many others, and much more grievous to some of us.

We are taxed twice as much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and four times as much by our

and from these taxes the commissioners cannot ease or deliver us, by allowing an abatement. However, let us hearken to good advice, and something may be done for us : God helps them that help themselves, as Poor Richard says.

“I. It would be thought a hard government that should tax its people one tenth part of their time, to be employed in its service; but idleness taxes many of us much more; sloth, by bringing on diseases, absolutely shortens life. Sloth, like rust, consumes faster than labour wears ; while the

used key is always bright, as Poor Richard says. But dost thou love life, then do not squander time, for that is the stuff life is made of, as Poor Richard says. How much more than is necessary do we spend in sleep? forgetting that The sleeping for catches no pouliry, and that There will be sleeping enough in the grave, as Poor Richard says.

If time be of all things the most precious, wasting time must be, as Poor Richard says, the greatest prodigality; since, as he elsewhere tells us, Lost time is never found again; and what we call time enough, always proves little enough. Let us, then, up and be doing, and doing to the purpose ; so by diligence shall we do more with less perplexity. Sloth makes all things difficult, but industry all easy; and He that riseth late must trot all day, and shall scarce overtake his business at right; while Laziness travels so slowly, that Poverty soon orertakes him. Drive thy business, let not that drive thee; and Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise, as Poor Richard says.

“So what signifies wishing and hoping for better times? We may make these times better if we bestir ourselves. Industry need not wish, and he that

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