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EXPLANATORY.

In the present Work the aim has been to give ALL the words in the English language now in use, with their several significations re-investigated, re-classified, arranged afresh, and illustrated by examples, a large number of them having been brought together by independent research.

In addition to these, a very large number of obsolete words have been introduced, which, it is hoped, will afford readers much assistance in the perusal of Old English authors. Obsolete spellings and significations of existing words have also been given, the latter chronologically arranged, so as, if possible, to show the process by which the present meaning has arisen. Obsolete words and significations are marked with an asterisk,*; those which have not dropped altogether out of use, but are only rarely found, with an obelisk, f.

Special attention has been given to scientific and technical terms.

COMPOUND WORDS in which complete adhesion has taken place between the two or more constituents have been arranged as independent words; while those still so loosely united as to be usually connected by hyphens, have been placed under the first word of the compound.

THE PRONUNCIATION is indicated by diacritical marks, a key to which will be found at the foot of the several pages. The division into syllables has been made solely with reference to pronunciation, and with no reference to the etymology of the word. In syllables wherein two or more vowels come together, not forming diphthongs, only that one of them which gives its sound to the syllable bears a diacritical mark, the others being treated as mute. Thus, in brěad, sēa, ibat, the a is mute, the syllables being pronounced as if spelled brěd, sē, flot. Words of more than one syllable bear a mark upon the accented syllable, as âl’-tēr.

The ETYMOLOGY will be found enclosed within brackets immediately following each word. To understand the plan adopted, let it be noted (1) that retrogression is made from modern languages to ancient; and (2) that when after a word there appears such a derivation as this—“In Fr. .... Sp. .... Port. .... Ital. .... from Lat. ....," the meaning is, not that it passed through Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and French before reaching English, but that there are or have been analogous words in French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian, all derived, like the English, from a Latin original.

The illustrations are intended not for the purpose of embellishment merely, but also to impart a conception of the objects represented clearer than any mere verbal definition could afford.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS WORK.
A. N. Anglo-Norman.
Slav. Slavonic.
der. derived, derivation.

naut, nautical.
Arab. Arabic.
Sp. Spanish.
dimin. diminutive.

nomin. nominative. Aram. Aramaic. Sw. Swedish. dram. dramatically.

numis. numismatology.
Arm. Armorican.
Syr. Syriac.
dynam. dynamics.

obj. objective.
A.S. Anglo-Saxon.
Teut. Teutonic.
E. East.

obs. obsolete.
Assyr. Assyrian.
Turk. Turkish.
eccles. ecclesiastical.

ord. , ordinary. Bohe. Bohemian, or Czech. Walach. Walachian. econ. economy.

ornith. ornithology. Bret. Bas-Breton, or Celtic of Brite Wel. Welsh.

0.8. exempli gratia=for example. palæont. palæontology. tany.

elect. electricity

pass. passive. Celt. Celtic.

entom. entomology.

path. pathology. Chal. Chaldee. a., or adj. adjective. etym. etymology.

perf. perfect. Dan. Danish. adv. adverb. ex. example.

pers. person, personal Dut. Dutch. art. article. f., or fem. feminine.

persp. perspective. E. Eastern, or East. conj. conjunction. fig. figurative, figuratively.

phar. pharmacy. E. Aram. East Aramæan, generally interj. interjection.

fort. fortification.

phil. philosophy. called Chaldee. particip. participial. freq. frequentative.

philol. philology. Eng. English, or England. pa. par. past participle. fr. from.

phot. photography. Eth. Ethiopic. pr. par. present participle. fut. future.

phren. phrenology. Flem. Flemish. prep. preposition. gen. general, generally.

phys. physiology. Fr. French, pro. pronoun. gend. gender.

pl., plur. plural. Fries. Friesland. 8., subst., or substan. substantive, or genit. gen’tive.

poet. poetry, or poetical. Fris. Frisian.

noun.
geog. geography.

polit. econ. political economy. Gael. Gaelic. v. i. verb intransitive. geol. geology.

poss. Possessive. Ger. German. v. t. verb transitive. geom. geometry.

pref. prefix. Goth. Gothic.

gram. grammar.

pres, present. Gr. Greek.

her. heraldry.

pret. preterit. Gris. Language of the Grisons. ablat. ablative. hist. history.

prim, primary. Heb. Hebrew. accus. accusative. hor. horology.

priv, privative. Hind. Hindustani. agric. agriculture. hortic. horticulture.

prob. probable, probably. Icel. Icelandic. alg. algebra. hydraul. hydraulics.

pron. pronounced, pronunciation. Ir. Irish. anat. anatomy. hydros. hydrostatics.

pros. prosody. Ital. Italian. antiq. antiquities. i. e. id est=that is.

psychol. psychology. Lat. Latin. aor. aorist. ichthy. ichthyology.

pyrotech. pyrotechnics. Lett. Lettish, Lettonian.. approx. approximate, -ly. Ibid. ibidem=the same.

q. v. quod vide=which see. L. Ger. Low German, or Platt arch. architecture. imp. impersonal.

rhet. rhetoric. Deutsch archeol. archæology. imper. imperative.

Scrip. Scripture. Lith. Lithuanian. arith. arithmetic. indic. indicative.

sculp. sculpture. Mediæv. Lat. Mediæval Latin. astrol. astrology. infin. infinitive.

sing. singular. Mag. Magyar. astron. astronomy. intens. intensitive.

S. South M. H. Ger. Middle High German, auxil. auxiliary.

lang. language.

sp. gr. specific gravity. Mid. Lat. Latin of the Middle Ages. Bib. Bible or Biblical.

Linn. Linnæus.

spec. special, specially. N. New. biol. biology. lit. literal, literally.

suff. suffix. N. H. Ger. New High German, bot. botany. mach, machinery.

sup. supine. Norm. Norman. carp. carpentry. m., or masc. masculine.

surg. surgery. Norw. Norwegian, Norse. Cent. Centigrade. math, mathematics.

tech. technical. 0. oid. class. classical. mech. mechanics.

theol. theology. O. H. Ger. Old High German. Ch. hist. Church history. med. medicine, medical.

trig. trigonometry. O. S. Old Saxon. cf. compare.. met. metaphorically.

typog. typography. Pers. Persian. C.G.S. Centimetre-gramme-second. metal metallurgy.

var. variety. Phonic. Phoenician. chem. chemistry. metaph. metaphysics.

viz. namely. Pol. Polish. chron. chronology. meteorol. meteorology.

W. West. Port. Portuguese. cogn. cognate. meton. metonymy.

zool. zoology. Prov. Provençal. comm. commerce.

mil., milit. military. Provinc. Provincial comp. comparative.

min., miner. mineralogy. Russ. Russian. compos. composition. mod. modern. .

• Obsolete words. Rabb. Rabbinical. conchol. conchology, myth. mythology.

† Words rarely used. Sam. Samaritan. contr. contracted, or contraction. N. North.

=Equivalent to, or sigpifying. Sansc. Sanscrit. crystallog. crystallography. n., or peut. nenter.

( Nota bene=take notice.

A work of immense utility, a Dictionary, Encyclopædia, Atlas and Gazetteer."

THE AMERICAN
Encyclopædic Dictionary.

A THOROUGHLY ACCURATE, PRACTICAL AND
EXHAUSTIVE WORK OF REFERENCE TO THE
ENGLISH LANGUAGE, DEFINING OVER 250,000
WORDS, WITH A FULL ACCOUNT OF THEIR
ORIGIN, PRONUNCIATION AND USE. COM-

PRISING ALSO

A comprehensive Encyclopædia of the Arts and Sciences, with Encyclopædic
definitions of 55,000 important words and topics, embracing subjects

not found in the ordinary Encyclopædias.

CONTAINING

OVER ONE HUNDRED MAPS AND DIAGRAMS NĖ LY FOUR THOUSAND ILLUSTRATIONS

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EDITED BY ROBERT HUNTER, A. M., F. G. S.

JOHN A. WILLIAMS, A. M., S. J. HERRTAGE, A. B., Associate Editors.

Assisted by over one hundred special contributors, among whom are the following

eminent specialists:

R. A. PROCTOR, Astronomy
PROF. HUXLEY, Physiology.
FRANCIS WALKER, A. M. 2

Chemistry.
WILLIAM HARKNESS, F. 1. C. S
T. DAVIES, F. G. S., Mineralogy.
Lieut.-Col. COOPER KING, Military Matters.
SIR JOHN STAINER, Music.
F. BRITTEN, F. L. S., Botany.

DR. GUENTHER, F. R. S., Zoology.
Hon. SCOTT WIKE, Ex-Assistant Secretary of the

U.S. Treasury.
J. M. SAMUELS, Chief of the Horticultural Depart-

ment, World's Columbian Exposition.
Prof. J. P. BARRETT, Expert Electrician City of

Chicago.

Hon. JAMES H. ECKELS, Ex-Comptroller of the

Currency, U. S. Treasury Department.
Maj. MOSES P. HANDY, Chief of the Editorial Staff

of the Chicago Times-Herald.
F. J. V. SKIFF, Curator of the Field Columbian

Museum, Chicago.

PUBLISHED BY
R. S. PEALE AND J. A. HILL
CHICAGO AND NEW YORK

1897

BUHR musm

COPYRIGHT, 1894, BY OGILVIE PUBLISHING COMPANY.

COPYRIGHT, 1896, BY W. B. CONKEY COMPANY.

COPYRIGHT, 1807, BY R. S. PEALE AND J. A. HILL.

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06/1/61

THE AMERICAN
ENCYCLOPAEDIC DICTIONARY.

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