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Isthoductioii.—Importance of the object proposed in the following work, and its practicability. Reasons why it has never yet been accomplished. Prospects of future improvement, - m

PART L
ON EDUCATION.

PiELiniBABY Remarks.—Importance of education—subject too much overlooked—deficiency in the arrangements made in reference to this object—desirable that a taste for intellectual pursuits be induced—what should be the grand object of education, - 12

CHAPTER I.

PRESENT STATE OF EDUCATION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES.

Education during the dark ages—erection of colleges—era of the Reformation and the effects produced by it. Education in the United States of America—in Silesia, WirtemVerg, Bavaria, Prussia, &c.—in France—Spain—Russia—Switzerland, - - 14

CHAPTER II.

STRICTURES ON THE MODE IN WHICH EDUCATION HAS GENERALLY BEEN CONDUCTED

Different views of the object of education—absurd practices in relation to it—deficiencies in the mode of religious instruction—summary of the usual scholastic process. Errors and deficiencies. 1. No communication of ideal. 2. School-books not adapted to the capacities of youth—specimens of their contents—immorality and absurdity of some of these selections. 3. Injudicious exercise of the memory-Shorter Catechism, &c. 4. Absurd attempts at teaching Grammar—Mr. Smellie's remarks on this subject. Fastidiousness in regard to the art of Writing. Strictures on the mode of teaching Arithmetic. Various circumstances which render education disagreeable to the young,—want of ample accommodation—long confinement in school—undue severity—hurrying children from one book to another—attempts to teach several branches at one time, &c. Glaring deficiencies in the present practice—attributable to the system more than to the teachers. Miscellaneous remarks, -----.-..22

CHAPTER III.

HINTS IN REFERENCE TO A COMPREHENSIVE AND IMPROVED SYSTEM OF EDUCATION.

General view of what an enlightened education should embrace. Defects in our treatises on this subject. Man's eternal destiny overlooked, &c., - - - -37

Section I. On the Education of the young during the period of infancy.—Gradual opening of the infant mind. Manner in which its ideas are increased—rapidity of its progress and acquisitions. 1. Physical education of infants, importance of,—Food of infants; remarks on nursing. Propriety of paying attention to the effects of air and light. Clean' lines*—aneedote of a Russian. Clothing of children, simplicity of dress—covering of the feet—directions in regard to shoes, illustrated by figures. Sleep and exercise of children. Attention requisite to direct their pronunciation. 2. Moral instruction of infants. Means of acquiring an absolute authority over them. Plan recommended by Dr. Witherspoon. Aneedote of Mr. Cecil—rule for securing authority—obstacles which prevent mothers from acquiring it—general violation of parental authority illustrated—^ Abbot's "Mother at Home" recommended—aneedote extracted from that work. Importance of attending to truth in the education of children,—truth and falsehood in pictorial exhibitions. Illustrative aneedote from Mr. Abbot General rules on this subject. Habit of incessantly finding fault with children. Children should feel the consequences of their conduct, and be guarded against vanity and self-conceit. Danger of frightening children, illustrated by an appalling fact. Necessity of harmony in the conduct of parents towards their children. 3. Intellectual instruction of infants. Objects, natural and artificial, which should be presented to their view—mode of conveying a knowledge of the qualities of objects—communication of ideas by engravings. Experiments on this subject, with a boy about two years old. Importance of imparting correct ideas to the infant mind. Maternal associations, .... ....38

CHAPTER IV.
ON INFANT SCHOOLS.

Object! of infant tchoola. Proper situation for such institutions, and the apparatus requi-
site for conducting them. Method of teaching vocal music, the alphabet, arithmetic, and
the facts of sacred history—figure of the Arithmeticon. Advantages which would flow
from the universal establishment of infant schools—increase of useful information—for-
mation of intellectual hahits—foundation laid of moral conduct—certainty of success
when judicious moral training is attended to. Moral effects of infant teaching, illustrated
by examples. Infant schools, beneficial to general society and counteractive of juvenile
delinquency. Social hahits cultivated with safety. Influence of infant schools on Mis-
sionary operations—infant schools in Africa—such institutions ought to be universally
established for all ranks. Qualifications of teachers in order to render them efficient.
Origin and progress of infant schools, - - ..--.57

CHAPTER V.

ON SCHOOLS FOR YOUNG PERSONS FROM THE AGE OF FIVE OR SIX TO THE AGE OF

FOURTEEN TEARS.

Introductory remarks—plan, situation, and arrangement of school-room, illustrated with cuts. Idea of a seminary on a large scale. School furniture—Apparatus and Museum— systematic sets of engravings. Description of a new Optical Diagtnal Machine, with figures,—suggestions to engravers on this subject. Beneficial effects of such schools. School books, and the principles on which they ought to be constructed. Specimens of subjects for elementary books,—objections obviated. Outline of a school-book for the advanced classes, drawn up twenty-six years ago,—capacity of children for understanding judicious selections,—third series of school-book, comprising popular systems of the sciences, &c. Historical class-books, with remarks on the manner in which history should be taught,—propriety of embellishing school-books with engravings—Dictionaries and portable Cyclopedias, - ..-.-..67

CHAPTER VI.

METHOD OF TEACHING, AND THE DEPARTMENTS OF KNOWLEDGE WHICH SHOULD BE TAUGHT IN EVERY SEMINARY.

Sectxon I. English Reading.—Specimen of lessons for children, and the mode in which they should be taught. Lesson on the Peacock, with an engraving. Lesson on the philosophical toy termed the Sagacious Swan, with remarks. Lesson for the advanced classes—description of volcanos, with engravings. Questions on the lesson. Manner in which such questions should be formed and arranged. Sets of miscellaneous questions. Lessons on objects, ...... - 78

Section II. Writing and Composition.—Mr. Buchanan's plan for teaching writing on slates, (with a cut.) Professor Jacotot's plan. Specimens of sentiments and statements of facts for copy lines. Mode of training the young in the art of composition, - 85

Sectxon III. Drawing.—Mode of procedure in learning this art. Fancy landscapes, &c., should be discarded; drawing from the objects of nature and art. Utility of this accomplishment, ----------88

Section IV. Arithmetic.—Mode of conveying ideas of numbers; the relative value of money; the measures of length and capacity, of time, and the divisions of the circle, (with figures.) Sensible illustration of arithmetical operations, ;with cuts.) Illustration of the value of fractions. Miscellaneous hints, - - - - - 88

Section V. Grammar.—Absurdities in relation to this subject; Lord Kaimea' opinion on our mode of teaching grammar. Simple mode of communicating the elements of grammar. Origin of language, suggests the proper method of teaching it. Fundamental rules of syntax; complexity of some of our " English Grammars." General remarks, - 94

Section VI. Geography.—Utility of this science. Deficiencies in the mode of teaching it. Mode of proving the globular form of the earth, illustrated with figures. Mode of conveying an impressive idea of its magnitude. Quantity of solid matter it contains; how many mountains, such as Etna, would be required to form a mass equal to the earth. Diversified scenery on the earth's surface, quantity of water in the rivers and seas, &c. Projections and delineations requisite for illustrating Geography. Maps exhihiting rte ranges of mountains / the proportional length and breadth or rxvers; comparative sixe of countries, lakes, and seas ; Isothermal charts j charts of geographical Zoology j chart of moral and religious geography, &c. j views of the cities, grottos, &c.; slate globes; delineations of the comparative heights of mountains; wax models of particular countries, 8tc. Mode of descrihing countries. Geographical class-books, what they should contain. Directions for commencing this study. Characteristies of certain Geographical class-books lately published in America, - - - - . - 98

Section VII. Geology.—Its practical utility. Classification of the rocks and strata of the globe, illustrated with a plate. Specimens for illustrating geological facts; books on Geology, .......... 106 Psge.

VIII. Aitronomy.—Object and utility of this science. Mode of communicating to the young a knowledge of celeatial phenomena. Observations on the motion of the tun, and the phases of the moon ; the principal stars and constellations; apparent motion of the celeatial vault; apparent annual motion of the aun; measures of the celestial sphere. Apparent motion of the planets; experiment which solves the apparent irregularities. Proofs of the Earth's diurnal rotation ; of its annual revolution. Mode ol explaining the variety of seasons. Manner of exhibiting the phenomena of the planets, and the magnifying powers best adapted to this purpose. Circumstances to be attended to in exhibiting the moon through a telescope. Mode of exhibiting the solar spots. Imperfect conceptions conveyed by orreries and planetariums. Manner of representing the proportional magnitudes and distances of the planets. Mode of explaining a parallax, illustrated by figures. Books on Astronomy; Burrett's "Geography of the Heavens," &c. - - - . - - - - - - 108

Section IX. Experimental Philosophy and Chemistry.—Departments of Experimental Philosophy. Mechanical Powers. Experiments illustrative of Hydrostatical principles, (with figures). Simple experiments illustrative of Pneumalical subjects ; pressure, elasticity, and compressibility of air; principle of the diving-bell; siphons; effects of the expansion of air, &c. Methods of cutting glass tubes and bending them for siphons. Optical experiments, for explaining the principles of telescopes and microscopes. Description of a diagonal eye-piece. Camera obscura, on a large scale. Phantasmagoria, solar microscope: manner of procuring animalcula. How a compound microscope may be formed from a common telescopic eye-piece. Experiments with concave mirrors. Chemical subjects and apparatus; Books on Natural Philosophy and Chemistry, - 117 Section X. Mathematics.—General remarks on the plan and order in which a knowledge

of this subject should be communicated to young persons, - 126 Section XI. Physiology.—Inconsistency of omitting this department in a general course of education. Evils which arise from ignorance of this subject. Distortions of the human frame caused by absurd practices. Means by which a general knowledge of the human system might be communicated. Figure exhibiting the thorax and abdomen. Evidences of design in the human fabric. Practical purposes to which a knowledge of Physiology might be applied, - -- -- -- - 127

Section XII. Logic or the Art of Reasoning.—Utility of this subject. Outline of a comprehensive system of Logic. Popular Logic—examples of reasoning with remarks. Subjects for exercising the reasoning powers. Aneedotes of Gassendi, when a boy, and his mode of reasoning with his companions. Analysis of Gassendi's reasoning. Reasoning to prove that, " air exists"—that '* all should enjoy a moral and intellectual education." Sources of Error illustrated. Sophisms illustrated. Particular species of false reasoning. Importance of an early exercise of the rational faculty—evils which have arisen from false reasoning. Diabolical reasoning—reasoning by physical force—by torture—by fines and imprisonments—reasoning of persecutors, of mobs, &c. Powerful influence of Gold in producing conviction, ...... 130

Section XIII. Natural Theology.—An appropriate study for the young. Summary of subjects and facts connected with this study. Other departments of knowledge briefly noticed, Natural History, Botany, Political economy, Vocal music, Domestic economy. Bodily exercises—amusements—and excursions. Female education—illustrious females —energy of the female mind, and its influence in society. Prevailing misconceptions. Reasons for universal instruction, ------ 133

CHAPTER VII. MORAL AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION. Instruction in the knowledge of the Deity. Mode of illustrating the Divine perfections, exemplified in reference to the Wisdom and the Immensity of God. Instruction in the history of the Divine dispensations—religion to be taught chiefly from the Scriptures— doctrines and precepts of Christianity—propriety of a specific application of Scriptural precepts to the conduct of the young. Moral training particularly exemplified. Manner in which the young should be directed in the study of the Scriptures. Scripture

144

CHAPTER VIII.

SABBATH SCHOOLS.

Defects which adhere to the present system of Sabbath Schools. Qualifications of Sabbath School Teachers. Necessity of their being trained to their office. Departments of knowledge they should study—Sacred History, Ancient Geography, Biblical Criticism, kc. General remarks on Sabbath Schools—practices to be avoided, &c. Books on this subject, 161

CHAPTER IX.

SCHOOLS FOR YOUNG PERSONS FROM THE AGE OF FOURTEEN TO THE AGE OF TWENTY OR UPWARDS. Necessity of such institutions. Subjects to which this class of young persons should ba directed. Pre-requisites to their establishment, ..... 156 Pafe.

CHAPTER X.

ON THE QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS AND SEMINARIES FOR THEIR
INSTRUCTION.

Deficiency in the qualifications of Teachers—honourable nature of the office—necessity
of training. PrKeptoral Colleges, and the subjects to be studied. Examination of can-
didates. Importance of training candidates for teachers. Infant School Teachers.
Prussian Normal Schools, - -- -- -- - 158

CHAPTER XI.

ON THE PRACTICABILITY OF ESTABLISHING SEMINARIES FOR INTELLECTUAL
EDUCATION.

Number of schools requisite to oe established in Scotland and England. Importance of
such institutions, and the necessity for philanthropic exertions. Liberality under the
Jewish economy. Enormous sums expended in war. Pension list. Contested elec-
tions. Savings which might be made in personal expenditure. Sums spent on spirituous
liquors. Appeal to Christians. Contributions of the Jews, and predictions in relation
to the Christian Church. Means requisite for exciting attention to this subject. Limited
views of education taken by statesmen. Voluntary and compulsory education, - 161

CHAPTER XII.

ON THE UTILITY OF ESTABLISHING SEMINARIES FOR UNIVERSAL EDUCATION.

I. They would tend to the prevention of Crime. Number of thieves in London—trials at the Old Bailey—erroneous views of legislation—inefficiency of severe punishments— juvenile delinquency—deficiency of Education in England and Scotland. Beneficial tesults of education—Schools, publications, &c. in Boston and New York. Expense of punishing crime. II. Universal education would elevate the general character of map. Contrast between the majority of mankind, and celestial intelligences. Native dignity of man—security of property dependent on education. III. Universal education introductory to the Millennium. Manner in which this era will be introduced—when it will commence. Exertions preceding the Millennium. Christian generosity and heroism. Story of St. Pierre. Contributions for the tabernacle and temple. The Pilgrims of New England, . 169

CHAPTER XIII.

PRINCIPLES ON WHICH A NATIONAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION SHOULD BE
ESTABLISHED.

Difficulties—Brougham's " Education Bill" of 1821. Liberal views in the establishment
of education. Superintendence of education. Mode of religious instruction. Efficiency
of Scriptural instruction. Harmony of Sectaries in America. Proposed plan of estab-
lishing education, -------- 179

CHAPTER XIV. MAXIMS, OR FIRST PRINCIPLES IN EDUCATION. Ideas should precede wordstasks—exhilarating associations—principle of emulationcorporal punishments—confinement—fixing the attention, &c. ... 154

CHAPTER XV. MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS. The author's communications on this subject, in 1814. Condensed view of them. Admission of members. Subjects of discussion, and mode of conducting it. Funds of the Society, and their application. Publications of the Society. Correspondence with other Societies. Defects in the objects of Mechanics' Institutions as presently constituted. Suggsstions for their improvement, ------- 186

PART II.

MISCELLANEOUS HINTS IN REFERENCE TO THE DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE
AND THE IMPROTEMENT OF SOCIETY.

Introductory remarks, 192. I. Improvements in preaching, 193. II. Union of the Christian
Church, 198. III. Scriptures illustrated by engravings, 199. IV. Abridgment of the
hours of labour necessary to improvement—plan suggested, 200. V. Knowledge pro-
moted by public exhibitions, 201. VI. Erection of Observatories, &c. 202. VII. Im-
provement of towns and villages, 203. VIII. Itinerating Libraries—their origin, plan,
and effects, 205. IX. Delineations and inscriptions on articles of furniture, 206. X.
Changes requisite in certain laws, regulations and customs, 207. XI. Friendly intercourse
between nations, 208. XII. Intellectual and religious improvement of Seamen—Number
of, in the British service, 209. XIII. Formation of societies for promoting improvements,
210. XIV. Counteraction of Avarice, ------- 21,

Appendix.—Insanity from excessive study, - - - - - -211 ON THE

MENTAL ILLUMINATION

AND

MORAL IMPROVEMENT OF MANKIND.

INTRODUCTION.

BtroRt we attempt to accomplish any in numerous instances, no public affair of great and extensive enterprise, it is requi- any importance was undertaken, without site to ascertain, in tho first place, whether first consulting the stars. This fallacious the object we propose be attainable, and, in art has likewise been proved impracticable, the next place, whether, if attained, it would and inconsistent with the peace and happibe productive of beneficent effects. If these ncss of mankind. The researches which points are not ascertained, previous to our were long made after the panacea, or unicngaging in any undertaking, we may exert versa! remedy for all disorders—the search our intellectual faculties, and active powers, for an universal menstruum and ferment— and spend our time, our wealth, and our the search for a medicine which will confer labour, to no purpose, and in tho end meet immortality even in this world—the attempts with nothing but disappointed expectations, to discover mines by means of divining-rods The history of the world, and even the —and to cure palsies, inflammations, obstrueannals of science, would furnish hundreds tions, and other disorders, by animal magof facts to corroborate this position. The netism and metallic tractors—and, above all, object of the Alchemists was to transmute the attempt to conduct mankind to happiness earthy substances and the baser metals into by discarding the idea of a Divine Being and gold, and, by the fortunate labour of some every species of religion from the plans prohappy day, when the stars were propitious, posed—with hundreds of similar schemes,— to realize vast treasures of wealth, to enable may be regarded nearly in the same light as them to live in splendour and opulence the foolish arts of astrologers and alchemists, during the remaining period of their lives, and could easily be shown to be equally In this visionary pursuit, which, for several unprofitable and vain.

centuries, occupied the attention of princes, In endeavouring to promote a general

statesmen, ecclesiastics, physicians, and ex- diffusion of knowledge among the various

perimenters of various descriptions, thou- ranks of society, it becomes us likewise to

sands of fortunes were irretrievably wasted, inquire, whether the attempt would be ae

and the dupes of this fallacious science kept companied with such beneficial effects as to

in perpetual anxiety, and amused with vain warrant the labour and expense which must

and unfounded expectations. Even although necessarily attend such an enterprise—and,

such schemes had been practicable—which whether any insurmountable difficulties

experience proves they are not—it would stand in the way of its accomplishment

not he difficult to show, that, had they been There are not wanting, even amidst the

successful, they would have produced more light of science which is now shining around

misery than happiness among mankind, us, many individuals in the higher classes

The study of the heavens, with the view of society who are bold enough to insinuate,

of foretelling future events, and the desti- that an increase of knowledge would be

nies of men, from the different aspects of injurious to tho lower ranks of the commu

the planets and the signs of the Zodiac, was nity—that its accomplishment is both unanother scheme which, for many ages, ab- desirable and impracticable—that the moral

sorbed the attention of kings, legislators, world will proceed onward as it has hitherto popes, cardinals, and even men of science, done—that there is no possibility of melio

u well aa that of the illiterate vulgar,—and, rating the condition of the great mass of

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