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An interesting report has lately been published of a series of experiments, made with a new stetm engine, invented by an American machinist, called the capillary steam engine. Three great objects are said to be accomplished by this invention, tightness, taffy, and economy of fuel, la an engine calculated for a four horse power, toe generator is formed of a copjier tube { inch in diameter, and 100 feet long, which weighs aoout 161bs. It is arranged in coils, one above another, in the form of a sugar loaf, 30 inches high; the bottom coil being 18 inches in diameter, and the lop one considerably less. The wood is prepared as is usual for a stove, and put within the coils. The steam cylinder is formed of sheet copper, three inches in diameter, 27 inches in stroke, and, with all its appendages, weighs about 2olbs. It has been ascertained, that the generator and main cylinder, with their contents and appendages, exclusive of fuel, need not weigh more than 201 bs. to the horse power. No harm can be done by the bursting of boilers —even a safety-valve is considered as useless. In the course of the experiments, the experimenters several times burst the tube; but, so far from doing any injury, it could not always be perceived oy the spectators. To ascertain what may be done towards aerial navigation, by steam, experiments were made on the power of wings in the air, and on the power necessary to work them. The result is, that it requires a horse power to carry 30Ibs. in the air; so that a flying engine, to be worked by charcoal, would weigh about 3Oibs. to the horse power, wings, condenser and fuel included. It was also ascertained by experiments and calculations, that a balloon could be made to carry a man with an engine, which would push it at the rate of 16 miles an hour in the air. A more particular detail of these experiments may be seen in the " London Mechanics' Magazine," No. 60, for 16th October, 1824.

No. X. p. 146.—Strictures on a certain sentiment respecting the work of Human Redemption.

The sentiment refcrred'to in this paragraph, "Thai there never was, nor ever will be, through all the ages of eternity, so wonderful a display of the divme glory, as in the cross of Christ," has been reiterated a thousand times, in sermons and in systems of divinity, and is still repeated by certain preachers, as if it were an incontrovertible axiom, which ought never to be called in question; and is, no doubt, intended to magnify the divine attributes, and the work of redemption.* But it is nothing more than a

* It is not Important to determine how often the sentiment here expressed hat been "reiterated in ■armon* and systems <f divinity." We cannot, howerer, believe that it has been related with the same fr-.-n h.-v as the author's language seems to Imply. Taol there ate Instances, iu wblch it was designed

presumptuous assumption, which has a tendency to limit the perfections of Deity, and to present a partial and distorted view of the economy of human redemption. For, in the first place, U has no foundation in Scripture. There is not a single passage from which it can be legitimately deduced. The onus probandi, on this point, rests with those who make the assertion. A gentleman, when lately conversing on this sub* ject, brought forward the following interrogation, as a demonstrative argument in proof of the position in question: " Is not redemption declared in Scripture to be Me chitf of all the works of QodV* but he was not a little surprised, when he was informed that the passage, which he had partly misquoted, is applied to the behemoth or the elephant, as stated in Job xl. 19.—Idly, the assertion is as presumptuous as it is unfounded. It takes for granted, that we know all ihe events which have already happened, and which are now taking place throughout the whole range of God's universal empire. This empire appears unbounded; and that portion of it which we can minutely explore, is but as a point in comparison

to express all the meaning here attributed to it, cannot be denied. But why may it not have been some times used todlstinguish the work of mediation from all the other favours which God has conferred on our race! In his History of Redemption, p. 34*. President Edwards says, " From what has been said, one may argue, that the work of redemption is the great est of ail God's works, of which we have any notice, and It is the end of all his other works." This view of the subject accords with the scriptures. Though it cannot be asserted, that in a single instance they directly affirm the work of redemption to be the greatest of all the works of Qod, yet they give it such an Importance and prominency, as are conceded to no other of His dispensations- In this light the apostles seem to have regarded It. Paul counted all the distinctions and honours and advantages which he had acquired among the Jews, as loss in coin parlson with the glory of the gospel. He went even farther. He declared that he counted aU things hut loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus his Lord. In this view of the subject there Is no presumption and no limitation of the "divine perfections and operations." It has no tendency either to damp the hopes, or obscure the prospects of Immortal beings.

On the other hand, who, that is not presumptuous beyond endurance, will suppose, that he now understands the full extent of the love of Christ, and Us bearings on all the other divine operations! Who will dare to assert, that this theme will not be sufficient for ever to employ the meditations and the songs of the redeemed! Has any one ascertained, that it is so limited, as to be soon exhausted! On these topics the author is happily silent; or rather he "pronounces nothing decisively;" but affirm*, that were he "to hazard a conjecture." he should say, that the converse of the proposition" undci consideration "is true." But for ourselves "we feel chained down to an obscure comer of God's domains," and possess no light except that which he has given us. In our present condition we dare not launch with the author Into the ocean of conjecture. Guided by the revelation which God has made, we are compelled to regard the work of redemption asthe greatest of all the divine works of which wc have any knowledge ; and wo are satisfied, that the development of the relations and bearings and effects of this stupendous work will be sufficient to employ all our powers of comprehension, and ever to minister to us new and constant d*Ught.— Ajiu Editor

of the whole. But before wo can, on good grounds, hazard such an assertion as that under consideration, we must lure explored all the dispensations of God, through every portion of his dominions ; and be able to form a comparison between the different displays of divine glory, made to all the different classes of intellectual Beings, under the government of the Creator. And who, among the sons of Adam, can lay claim to such high qualifications for pronouncing so sweeping a decision on this point? 3dly, It sets timiti to the divine perfections and operations. For although it could be proved, (which it cannot be,) that no such displays have hitherto been made to any other beings, yet who can take upon him to assert, that displays of divine perfection far more glorious and astonishing will not be exhibited during the countless ages of eternity which are yet to come? To set limits to the operations of almighty power and boundless benevolence, during the lapse of infinite duration, is not the province of any created intelligence, and far less of man, who stands so low in the scale of universal being. 4thly, It tends to damp the hopes and prospects of immortal beings, when looking forward to an interminable existence. For this sentiment leads them to conclude, that they are already acquainted with the greatest display of divine glory which can be made ; and that whatever scenes of wonder may be exhibited in the bin ire world, they must, of course, be all inferior to ihis, in point of extent and grandeur.

The redemption of the human race, as displayed in the Christian revelation, is a theme sufficiently grand, astonishing, and interesting, to command the attention of all who are convinced that they belong to an apostate race of intelligences, and to excite the admiration and of all who have experienced its benefits; and it stands in no need of such unfounded and extravagant assertions, to display its riches and glory. "Will a man speak deceitfully for God? Shall not his excellency make you afraid, and his dread fall upon you?"—We pronounce nothing decisively on this subject. We feel ourselves chained down to an obscure corner of God's dominions, to be in the very infancy of our knowledge, and withal, to be connected with a race of beings whose "understandings ".e darkened by reason of stnand are therefore unable to pronounce an infallible decision on what God will or will not do. Were we to hazard a conjecture on this subject, we would say, that the converse of the proposition under constderation is more probable than the proposition itself. We can conceive of worlds ten thousand times more populous than ours, and peopled with a higher order of intellectual beings, towards whom a similar display of benevolence and mercy, were it necessary, may be made; and, therefore, in point of the extent of its objects, we can conceive the love of God more illustriously mani

fested than even to the inhabitants of ou- glob* But whether such an event shall ever lake plact it would be presumption in us to determine. For the thoughts and the ways of God as lar transcenc ours, " as the heavens are high above the earth." It demands our highest tribute of grveful adoration, that the Almighty condescended lo " regard us in our low estate," and to deliver us from the moral degradation into which we had fallen; but, surely, it would be uareasonable to conclude, from this consideration, that of all the rational tribes which people the universe, man is the only favourite of the Most High, "when thousand worlds are round." Though myriads of other intelligences were to share in similar favours, it would not lessen the happiness conferred on us, nor ought it in the least to detract from our admiration of "ihe love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord."

There are a great many other vague and untenable notions which are entertained and reiterated by certain commentators and divines, as indisputable axioms, which it would be of importance to the cause of religion to discard such as—that angels are pure immaterial substances*—that they were formed on the first day of the Mosaic creation—that the wisdom of God is no where so illustriously displayed throughout tho universe as in the scheme of redemption!—that the chief employment of the future world will be to pry into Ihe mysteries of salvation}—that sin is an infinite evil§—that the

* In tho Scriptures anecla lire called sptrUs. And till some ft vale nee Is offered of their materiality, wa shall see no reason to abandon the opinion, that the/ are pure spirits.—Ed.

♦ To show that It Is important to discard this sentiment, the uuthoroiiL'ht at least to have dated some good reason fur iHjlieving It to lie without foundation. Until something more decisive of this t*mtt shall lie made to appear, thero cannot he the least occasion to abandon the sentiment In quest Inn.—Ed.

I Here substantially the same reply may lie made as in the preceding Instance. Prove that this win not be the chief employment of heaven—Show that any thins else will, for the most part, occupy the attention of the spirits of just men made i1crfect in glory, and the sentiment under consideration will be readily renounced. Till then we shall claim the right to lielic.,, und maintain, that the employment of the r-vU-eined in slary will consist, to a great c*ten1, m beholding, aduarin?, and adoring Him, who nath loved them ami died for them.—Ed.

5 Infinite is once used in the scriptures to qualify the term Iniquity, Jobxxii.5. 1s not thyirickalurss (rreal and thine iniquities infinite? Km not to Insist on i*erhnps a too literal Interpretation of the term, it will be sufficient to show what li is ordinarily used to denote.

Home authors, reijsnllne only the very limited faculties and powers of human licings, deem it 1miwsslblc, that any of their deeds can lie an infinu* evil.

Others, considering only the Infinity of the Beirut against whom sin is committed, find no difficulty in convincing themselves, that it is an infinite evil.

There Is also a third class, who, taking the word of God for their guMe, and learning that Sm exposes men to evertasting punishment, do not hesitate to denominate that an infinite evil, which brings on its guilty victim suffcrlnss Infinite in duration. L'nder* stood In this last sense, we can feel no obligation 16 whole material universe was brought into existence at the same t,me with our earth—ihat the Creator ceased to create any new order of beings in the universe, after arranging the fahric of our globe—that the whole system of material nature in heaven and earth will be destroyed at the period of the dissolution of our world—that our thoughts and affections should be completely detached from all created things, &c. &c.—Several vague notions of this description arc founded on the false assumption, that the globe we inhahit, and the rational beings that have appeared on its surface from age to age, are the chief objects of God's superintendence and care—and that the Scriptures are the only medium through which we can view the plans and operations of the Deity—assumptions, which are contrary to reason, which are unwarranted in revelation, nay, which are directly contradicted in numerous passages of Scripture, some of which have already been referred to in the course of this volume. It would be of essential service to the cause of Christianity, that its doctrines, facts, and moral requisitions were uniformly exhihited in their native simplicity and grandeur, without being obscured and distorted by the vague and extravagant representations with which they are too frequently blended by injudicious minds.

No. XL

As authority has a considerable degree of weight on some minds, I shall conclude with an extract on the subject of this volume, from that respectable and enlightened divine, Dr. Dwight, late president of Yale college :—'' The works of God were by him intended lobe, and are, in fact, manifestations of himself; proofs of his character, presence, and agency. In this light he requires men continually to regard them: and to refuse this regard is considered by him as grossly wicked, and highly deserving of punishment. Psalm xxviii. 5. Isa. v. 12—14. I am apprehensive, that even good men are prone to pay less attention to the works of creation and providence than piety demands, and the scriptures require. We say and hear so much concerning the insufficiency of these works to unfold the character of God, and the nature of genuine religion, that we are prone to consider them as almost uninstructive in moral things, and, in a great measure, useless to the promolion of piety. This, however, is a palpable and dangerous error. The works alone, without the aid of the scriptures, would, I acknowledge, be far less instructive than they now are, and utterly insufficient to guide us in the way of rightreject It. It must, however, be admitted that It Is not always used In this manner, and that It Is sometimes an occasion of ambiguity.—Ed

eousness. Thn scriptures were designed to un a comment on these works ; to explain their nature, and to show us the agency, purposes, wisdom, and goodness of God in their formation. Thus explained, thus illuminated, they become means of knowledge, very extensive and eminently useful. He who does not find in the various, beautiful, sublime, awful, and astonishing objects presented to us in creation and providence, irresistible and glorious reasons fur admiring, adoring, loving, and praising his Creator, has not a claim to evangelical piety."—System of Theology, vol. iii. p. 477.

No. XIX.—List of Popular Works on the differ* ent Sciences treated of in this volume, with occasional remarks.


"Goldsmith's History of the Earth, and animated nature," with notes by T. Brown, Esq. published at Manchester, 6 vols. 8vo. The co> pious notes appended to this edition, contain an account of the latest discoveries, and form a valuable addition to the original work—" The Gallery of Nature and Art," by Dr. Mason Good, and others, 6 vols. 8vo.—" Spectacle ds la Nature," or Nature Displayed, 7 vols. 12mo. —" Nature Displayed," by Dr. Simeon Shaw, 3 vols. 8vo. or in 6 vols. 12mo. This work, though chiefly a compilation, imbodies a great variety of interesting and popular descriptions of the most remarkable facts in the system of nature, which are illustrated with numerous engravings, both plain and coloured.—Clarke's "Hundred Wonders of the World," one vol. 12mo. and Piatt's" Book of Curiosities," contain a number of interesting selections on this subject.— Smellie's " Philosophy of Natural History," 2 vols. 4to. and his translation of "Buffbn's Natural History."—Works entitled, " System" and "Elomenis" of '' Natural History," ore numerous ; but the greatest part of them is confined to descriptions of the forms, huhils, and instinct of animals. On this department of natural science, a work is just now in course of publication, by the celebrated Cuvier, entitled " The Animal Kingdom" with engravings, chiefly from the living subjects in the Museum of Natural History at Paris.—A popular and comprehensive history of the facts which have been ascerlained respecting the earth, the atmosphere, the meteors, the heavens, &c. calculated for general readers, and interspersed with appropriate moral and religious reflections, is still a dctt~ deratum. The facts of natural history, next to the facts recorded in the sacred volume, are the first subjects to which the minds of the young should be directed in the course of a genera) education.


Pinkerton's Modern Geography, 2 vols. 4to. and the Abridgment, one vol. 8vo.—Guthrie's Geographical Grammar.—The Glasgow Geography, in 6 vols. 8vo. This work comprehends an immense mass of information, on the historical and descriptive parts of geography. It also contains comprehensive coinpends of astronomy, geology, meteorology, &c.—Malta Bran's "System of Geography," 8vo. The English translation of this work, when completed, will Comprise the fullest and most comprehensive view of universal geography that has yet appeared in our language, including details of the most recent discoveries. Five volumes of the English translation have already appeared. The first volume contains a luminous and comprehensive outline of the science of Geology, and Physical and Mathematical Geography Myer's " System of Modem Geography," with maps, views, engravings representing costumes, &c. 2 large vols. 4to.—Cooke's "System of Universal Geography," in 2 very large quarto vols, closely printed, contains a great variety of interesting sketehes in relation to Descriptive Geography, extracted from the writings of modern voyagers and travellers; the details of incidents, &c. being related for the most part, in the words of the respective authors from whom the information is collected.—Winterbotham's "Geographical and Historical view of the United States of America, &c." 4 vols. 8vo. —Morse's American Geography," 8vo.—Goldsmith's " Geography on a popular plan," contains an interesting accouut of the manners and customs of nations, for the entertainment and instruction of the young, illustrated with above 60 engravings. Of smaller systems, there is a great abundance in the English language, but most of them are extremely deficient, particulary in what relates to General Geography.—On Sacred Geography, Wells's Geography, modernized by the editor of Calmet's Dictionary, is the most complete work of its kind.—On Physical or General Geography—Playfair's System of Geography, vol. I. and Varenius's General Geography. A Modern system of Geography, in a separate form, on the plan of Varenius, is a desideratum. —Edin. Ency. Art. Geography'—Sup. to Ency. Brit. Art. Physical Geography, &c. &c. Books of Voyages and Travels, generally contain the most circumstantial details of the physical aspects of the different countries, and of the dispositions and customs of their inhahitants; and present to the view of the Christian philanthropist, those facts and incidents, from which the moral state and character of the various tribes of human beings may be inferred. The following works contain comprehensive abridgments of the most celebrated voyages and travels.—" Pinterton's General Collection of Voyages and

Travels in all parts of the World," 17 voU 4to —" Mayor's Voyages," Stc. 28 vols. ISn,o.— "The World Displayed," 18 vols. 18mo.— "Philips's Collection of Voyages and Travels," etc .

The following xre among the most respectable modern publications on this subject, arranged according to the different quarters of the world. Asia.—" Valencia's Travels in India, Arahia," &c.—" Porter's Travels in Georgia, Armenia," &c.—" Golownin's Travels in Japan."—* Staunton's Account of Macartney's Embansy to China."—"RamVs Travels in Java."—"Clarke's Travels in Asia Minor, and the Holy Land.''— "Chateaubriand's Travels in Palestine."—" Ali Bey's Travels in Arahia."—" Morier's Travels through Persia," &c. Africa .—'' Lyon's Travel* in Northern Africa.''—Burckhard's Travels in Nuhia.—Brace's Travels in Abyssinia.— Salt's Travels in Abyssinia.—Bowdich, Hutton, and Dupuis's Account of Askantee.—Leigh's Jour, in Egypt.—Belzoni's Travels in Egypt.— Sonini's Travels in Egypt.—Barrow's, Burchnll's, and Campbell's Travels in Southern Africa, &c. &c. America.—Howison's Sketehes of Upper Canada. Fear on's Sketehes of the United States.—Miss Wright's Views of Society in the United Stales.—Humboldt's Travels in South America.—Duncan's Travels in the United States.—Luccock's, Vidal's, Kosfers's, and Hall's Travels in South America, &c. Europe.—Henderson's and Mackenzie's Travels in Iceland.—Thompson's Travels in Sweden.—Carr's Travels in Russia, Denmark, fcc

—Pallaa's Travels in Russia. Wraahall's,

Neale's, Coxe's, and Lemaistre's Tours through France, Switzerland, Germany, &c.—Bourgoing's and Jacob's Travels in Spain.—Brydou'f Tour in Sicily, &c.—Von Buch's Travels in Norway and Lapland.—Cochrane's Travels to Siberia, &c.—Cook's, Anson's, Byron's, Perouse's, and Bougainville's Voyages round the World, &c.—Prior's Universal Traveller, oae thick vol. 12mo. closely printed, with one hundred engravings.


Kirwan's " Mineralogy," and his " Geological Essays."—De Luc's " Geology," and his " Geological Travels."—Parkinson's "Organic Remains of a former World," 8 vols. 4to.—'' The Fossils of the South Downs, or Illustrations of the Geology of Sussex, by G. Mantel, F. L. S." The preliminary essay to Ulis splendid work contains several excellent remarks respecting the connexion of geology with religion, which are calculated to advance the interests of both. —Cuvier's " Essay on the Theory of the Earth,* with illustrations by Professor Jameson; 4 th edition.—Playfair's illustrations of the Hutloniavn Theory of the Earth.—Transactions of the Geological and Wcrnerian Societies.—Jameson's Mineralogy.—Buck land's Account of xho Discovery of a Den of Hyenas in a cavern in Yorkshire.—Philips'* " Outlines of Mineralogy md Geology," 12ino. This last work forms a pood introduction to the study of Geology, for those who are just commencing their inquiries on this subject. The object of this science, in the mean time, should be chiefly to the collecting qf facts in reference to the structure of the earth, and the changes it has undergone. The exterior aspect of our globe, and its internal recesses, must be still more extensively explored, before any theory of the earth can be established on a broad and solid foundation. It should be left to future ages to build a system with the materials we are now preparing.


Brewster's " Ferguson's Astronomy," 2 vols. Bvo. with a vol. of plates. The notes and supplementary chapters of this work, written by Dr. Brewster, contain a full and comprehensive detail of all the modern discoveries in this science.—" Bonnyeastle's Introduction to Astronomy," 1 vol. 8vo.—La Place's 1' System of the World," 2 vols. Qvo. Dr. Olinthus Gregory's Astronomy, 1 vol. 8vo.—Mrs. Bryan's " System of Astronomy," 8vo.—Dr. Mylne's u Elementary Treatise on Astronomy," 8vo.—Adam's •' Astronomical and Geographical Essays," 8vo. —Philips's " Eight Familiar Lectures on Astronomy," 12mo.—Squire's "Grammar of Astronomy," 1 thick vol. 18mo. closely printed and illustrated with 35 plates.—The "Wonders of the Heavens," 12tno. This work contains a popular view of the principal facts of Astronomy, and is illustrated with 50 elegant engravings, of a variety of interesting objects connected with the scenery of the heavens; but its discussions are too frequently blended with the peculiarities of a modern physical theory.—Martin's "Gentleman and Lady's Philosophy," vol. I.—Dorham's " Astro-Theology," and Whislon's " Astronomical principles of Religion," 8vo.—Baxte» s "Matho," 2 vols. etc.—An elegant and comprehensive outline of the leading facts of Astronomy, in their relation to revealed Religion, will be found in Dr. Chalmers's " Discourses on the Christian Revelation, viewed in connection with the Modern Astronomy," Bvo.—The genera! reader in commencing his study of this science, will find Bonnyeastle's '' Introduction" a very interesting work. It is written in an elegant and animated style, and is agreeably interspersed with a number of appropriate reflections; but it is deficient in the detail of modern discoveries. He might next proceed to the perusal of Ferguson, Gregory, Squire, &c. La facet's work contains a beautiful exposition of me Newtonian systrm, but it is glaringly defi

cient in a reference to the wisdom and agency of a Supreme Intelligence. "An undevoul astronomer is mad." Baxter's " Matho," contains ( a popular and interesting view of this subject, and forms a striking contrast to the apathy of La Place, who carefully keeps out of view the agency of the Creator—the main design of this author being to connect the phenomena of the heavens a, d the earth with the attributes of Deity, and the high destination of immortal minds. Though this work passed through three editions, it does not seem to have been appreciated according to its mer;l*. As it has now become scarce, a new edition, with notes, containing a detail of modern discoveries, might be an acceptable present to the public. Those who wish to prosecute this subject to a greater extent, may be referred to " Long's Astronomy,"

2 vols.4to.—'Rohinson's "Mechanical Philosophy," vol. 1.—Vince's "Complete System of Astronomy," 3 vols. 4to.—" La Lande Astronomic" 3 vols. 4to.—and Biot's " Traite Ele% mentaire d'Astronomie Physique." A comprehensive work on Descriptive Astronomy, de I ail ing, in a popular manner, all the feels which have been ascertained respecting the scenery of the heavens, accompanied with a variety of striking delineations, and interspersed with appropriate reflections, accommodated to the general reader, is a desideratum.


Hauy's "Elementary treatise on Natural Philosophy," translated by Dr. O. Gregory, 2 vols. 8vo. This translation contains a number of valuable notes by the translator.—Ferguson's "Lectures on Select Subjects in Mechanies," &c. by Dr. Brewster, 2 vols. 8vo with a volume of plates. The Appendix to this work, by Dr. Brewster, contains a mass of valuable information on Mechanies, Hydraulies, Dialling, and the construction of Optical Instruments; besides a variety of illustrative notes interspersed through the body of the work. A new edition of this work, comprising a detailed account of the recent discoveries in Experimental Philosophy, has been lately published.—Nicholson's " Introduction to Natural Philosophy," 2 vols. 8vo.— Cavallo's" Complete Treatise on Natural and Experimental Philosophy," 4 vols. 8vo.—Martin's "Philosophia Britannica,"3 vols. 8vo. His "Gentleman and Lady's Philosophy," S vols. 8vn. and his "Philosophical Grammar," 1 vol. 8vo.—Gregory's " Economy of Nature,"

3 vols. 8vo. and his "Lectures on Experimental Philosophy, Astronomy, and Chymistry," 2 vols. 12mo.—Joyee's '4 Letters on Experimental Philosophy,"2 vols. 12mo. and his "Scientific Dialogues," 6 vols. 18mo.—Adam's " Lectures on Natural and Experimental Philoso"''*" * vols. 8vo. with r 7Cl«Mb piaiea.— toung's

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