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observed, that he does not find any thing words, which in our Bibles are translated remarkably obscure or difficult in what Unlearned and Unstable. The former, that Apoftle has said about the last day. says Dr. Benson, is often used by Greek And he mentions Beza as observing, that writers for men of an indocible temper; St. Peter has said many things, and more not persons who are unlearned, but who obscure things, concerning the last day, are averse or unwilling to learn. By than St. Paul hath done in any part of the latter I understand, persons who are his Epistles. See Benson in loc. not well established or confirmed in any

The truth I believe is, that commen matter, and may perhaps be applied to tators have wholly misunderstood the fome, whom the Apostle had in view, meaning of the Apostle Peter, and then when he wrote, as wavering upon this perplexed themselves to find something point. in the Epistles answerable thereto; but This interpretation is so natural, so in vain. But if my interpretation of the perfectly conlistent with known and acdesign of St. Peter is right, all difficulty knowledged facts, and so consonant with upon this head vanishes at once. If he the matter of St. Paul's Epistles, that I is supposed to treat of the ruin of the am unable to see that the flightest obJewish church and state, and the subse. jection can be made to it; and it harquent erection of the Messiah's kingdom, monizes so well with the preceding conall is clear and easy; for this is a subject text, that I have not the Imallest doubt which the Apostle Paul undeniably dwells of its being the true meaning of the Alargely upon, and is indeed the principal postle. Yours, &c. theme in his long Epistle to the Romans,

N. P. NISBETT. and is occasionally mentioned in most if not all his other Epistles.

CORYLUS AVELLANA LINNAI; The difficulty of understanding this

The Hazel, or Nut-tree. A postle arose, not from

'HIS tree is to be found in most prejudices and prepoffeffions of the Jews,

parts with regard to the perpetuity of their particularly on chalky soils. When left law, and their proud conceit of them- to rise in a single stem, it will acquire a felves, as in every respect fuperior to the considerable fize as well as height; and rest of mankind.' It was hard for a Jew, its foliage will help to diversify plantawho considered himself as the favourité tions agreeably. The distance of time of heaven, and his nation as the peculiar between the opening of the bloom and people of God, to imagine that they the ripening of the fruit is longer in this Thould be cast off, their policy destroyed, than we can recollect it to be in ang and their city and country laid in ruins. other deciduous cree, for its elegant, It was hard for them to understand that though minute, female bloom often aptheir fall, as St. Paul speaks, would be pears early in February. We have re. the riches of the Gentiles, whom they marked that Hazel or Filbert-trees, when hearrily despised, and that they should they first blow, produce female and no enjoy the privileges and blessings of the male bloom, contrary to what is obMesiah's 'Kingdom, exclusively of the served on most other monacious trees Jews, as such. Truths, humiliating as when young. The Filbert, from the these, could not but be hard to be under thioness of its Shell, and the superior stood, and stiil harder to be received; favour of the kernel, is probably a vaand accordingly we find but few, come riety of the Hazel meliorated by cultivaparatively, who could divest themselves tion. of these prejudices, even though the elo.

The Hazel is profitable in coppices, queat Paul endeavoured, by every argu- furnishing hoops of the most durable ment in his power, to stir them up to kind; and the neatness of the wicker rod. jealousy. Rather than admit such pride. hedges made of this tree is one of the confounding notions into their minds, ornaments of agriculture almost peculiar they rejected the Metfiah, whom they to the chalk. But the frequent custom anxioully expected at that very time, of luffering hedge-rows of Hazel, feveagainst the strongest proofs of his claim ral yards in bread:h, to surround arable to that high character, and chose to abide inclosures, is certainly an imn provident the consequences of their unbeliet, dread method of tillage; fince these rows, be. ful as they had often been told they ing open at bottom, leave the corn die would be. Exactly agreeable to this in fancelcls, and when cut down consume terpretation is the meaning of the Greck the greatest part of their produce in the


dead hedge, which is necessary to pre- ground, was also made of a branch of ferve the succeeding shoot from the this tree. Vaniere, a Jesuit, who lived brouzing of cattle. Do this account, all in the beginning of the present century, woods and plantations should be formed tells us in his Predium Rufticum the as nearly square as pollible, that shape fratagem by which he exposed a pra&tiser requiring the least extent of fence. of this art in the act of uting an Hazel.

The only objection to this tree is, that wand : it is much trespatled on and broken “ Me præsente suam nuper jactantior artem down, for the sake of the nuts, in plenti. In cælum cum ferret aquæ fcrutator & auri ; ful years. From the advice which

Ac rudibus rem pene viris fuaderet, avarâ Thomson gives to the rustics, we appre. Spe lucri faciente fidem; fruticante lub berbi hend he was not an owner of any Hazel- Quem reperit nummum, fub eodem gramine coppices; for this kind of rural gallantry,

rursus however pleasing it may appear in the Miranti similis coram depono; manuque description of the Poet, is in fact exceed- Inflectente volens, non per severgere ramum, ingly destructive.

Errantes oculos aliò dum conjieit, aurum

Clam tollo: Corylum rursus movet ille, “ Ye swains, now hasten to the Hazel-bank;'

manusque Where, down yon dale, the wildly-winding Contiret immotas; & virgam cuncta trahentis brook

(array, Demonstrat flecti deorfum vi solius auri. Falls hoarse from steep to steep. In close Atqui aurum nullum est, aio: risere repertos Fit for the thickets and the tangling Thrub, Fraude dolos; quos ille fugâ tacitoque pudore Ye virgins come. For you their latest song Confessus, tamen auriferam non abdicai The woodlands raise; the clustering nuts for

artem.” you

Lib. i. The lover finds amid the sacred Made ; And, where they burnish on the topmost

Some have supposed that this delusive bough,

science, called Rbabdomancy, (divination Witb allive vigour crushes dorun the tree; by a rod,) is alluded to in the following Or shakes them ripe from the resigning husk, verse of Hofea, “ My people ask coupsel A glotly nower, and of an ardent brown, at their stocks, and ibeir poff declareth As are the ringlets of Melinda's hair." unto them.” ch. iv. As Europe received

AUTUMN. in very early times many superstitious Nuts contribute largely to the fub. customs from the East, together with fistence of many animals, and no doubt many useful inventions, the conjecture did to man in a state of nature; though is not improbable. Divination by arthey now lay undeservedly under the im rows, a method of a similar kind, menpu:arion of not digefting. But what tioned in Ezekiel (ch. xxi.), continued food eaten voraciously atrer a full meal, among the Arabs till the days of Mabo. as nuts generally are, would not equally met, who in the Korán forbade his fol. disorder the stomach?

lowers this idle attempt at prescience * Virgil lavs, “

Phyllis amat Corylos,” The facility with which mankind have Phyllis loves Hazels, we imagine for a

in every age and in every country given chaplet, as the trees to which Corydon up their understandings and the evidence preters it are coronary; and that Dryden of their senses to importure, particularly hath rightly tranflated it,

when actuated by the vain hope of pry

ing into futurity, is wonderful. 6 With Hazel Phyllis crowns her fowing

T. H. W. hair,"

L. vii. And Milton hath given the verdure of


May 31. this tree a conspicuous place in one of

'HE abuse made by masters of their the beautiful effusions of his youthful power over their faves, and the Mule:

condition of Naves in general, being a « The Hazel-copses green

subject by which the attention of the Shall now 10 more be seen,

publick is at present engaged; the folFanning their joyous leaves."

lowing account of the manner in which LYCIDAS.

flaves were used among the Romans, That the Vine hates the Hazel is onc,

may prove acceptable to the reader, among the numerous, fanciful, and imas

" O true believers, surely Hile, and ginary antipathies with which the an.

lots, and images, and divining arrows, are an cients amuled themfelves, The divining, abomination of the work of Satan; there. or Mosaic rod, to discover the veins of fore avoid them, that ye may profper." micials and courícs of water unders

Sali's Korari, Cap. v. p. 94.


i Malters,

“ Masters, at Rome, were poffeffed relates, to place in she triumphal car, of an unlimited power of inflicting char behind the triumpher, a man with a tisements upon their Naves, over whose whip in his hand; and the meaning of life and death they had, moreover, an

this practice was, to thew, that it was no abfolute authority. A great number of impossible thing for a person to fall from different inftruments were accordingly the highest pitch of glory into the most contrired for punishing Naves. Some abje&t condition, even into that of a cor.fifted of a flai ftrap of leather, and lave. were called ferula; and to be lathed " Suetonius also relates a fact, which wish the ferula was considered as the affords another remarkable instance of mildest degree of punishment. Others this notion of the Romans, of looking were made of a number of cords of upon a whip as a characteristic mark of twisted parchment, and were called dominion on the one hand, and of slafrutica. "These foutice were considered very on the other. Cicero (says Sue. as being one degree higher in point of tonius, in the life of Augustus), having

severity than the ferule, but were much accompanied Cæsar to the capitol, re inferior to that kind of scourge which lared to a few friends, whom he met was called flagellum, and founetimes the there, a dream which he had had the terrible flagellum which was made of night before. It seemed to him (he faid) thongs of ox-leather, the same as those that a graceful boy came down from which carmen used for their horses. Heaven, suspended by a golden chain ; We find, in the third Sarire of Ho. that he stopped before the gate of the race, an account of the above infru- capitol, and that Jupiter gave him a menis, and of the gradation in point of whip (flagellum). Having afterwards severity that obrained between them : suddenly seen Augustus, whom (as he Adrit

was still personally unknown to several Regula peccatis quæ pænas irroget æquas,

of his near relations) Cæfar had sent for Nec suicâ dignum horribili fectere ji..getto: and brought along with him to be preNam ut ferulâ cædas merituin majora subire sent at the ceremony, he assured his Verbera non vereor.

friends that he was the very person “ The following is the literal transla. whose figure he had seen during his tion of these lines: Make such a rule neep.' Juvenal likewise, in one of his of conduct to yourself, that you may Satyrs, fpeaks of Augustus conformably always proportion ihe chastisement you to the above notion of the Romans. infit to the magnitude of the offence ; • The fame (says he) who, after cou. and when the offerider only deserves to quering the Romans, has subjected be chattised with the whip of ewifled them to his whip.' parchment, do not expose him to the lath Ad sua qui domitos deduxit flagra Quirites. of the horrid leather scourge; for, that

Juv. Sat. X. 99. you should only inflict the punishment “ So frequently were flagellations the of the flat strap on him who deferves a lot of Naves, that appellations and rea more severe lafhing, is what I am by proachful expressions alluding to that no means afraid of.”

kind of punishment were commonly “ A certain particular kind of cords, used to denominate them. Plautus, manufactured in Spain, were also used who had been servant to a baker, and efor lafhing Naves, as we are also in- who was much acquainted with every formed by Horace, who, in one of his thing that related to flaves, has made a Odes; addresses one Menas, who had most frequent use of luch nicknamee formerly been a llave, by the following and expreflions. Slaves are called in words: “ Thou, whose fides are still his scenes, refliones, on account of their discoloured (or burnt) with the stripes being beaten with cords, and bucada, of Spanish cords. (Ibericis perufte fu- on account of the ox-leather thongs kibas lalús).

used for the same purpose. The lame “ So generally were whipping and author usually denominates llaves with lashing considered among the Romans the words fiagritriva (à fagris terare) as being the lot of Naves, that a whip, uimitriba, plagiparida, &c. Terence, or a scourge, was positively becorne a. though an author remarkable for liis mong them the emblem of their condi, observance of decorum, frequenily ules tion. Of this we have an inttance in the expressions of verberones, and fiathe singular custom mentioned by Ca- griones, in speaking of flaves. The merarius. It was usual, that author expressions, verberones and Julverbull: GENT. MAG. June, 1788,


(those who are burnt with stripes), have that such an opportunity, when obtainalso been used by Tertullian as common ed, was seldom suffered to escape. A appellations of Naves.

Roman spark, caught in the above dis6 Sometimes the Aagellations inflictguise, and engaged in the laudable pured upon Naves, or the fear they enter suit of feducing his neighbour's wife, tained of incurring them, ferved Plau. was, with a centupondium to his feet, tus as incidents for the conduct of his sadly rewarded for his spirit and ingeplots. Thus, in his Epidicus, a save, nuity. A misfortune of this kind ac. who is the principal character in the tually befell Salluft the historian. He play, concludes, upon a certain occa was caught in a familiar intercourse sion, that his master has discovered his with Faustina, wife to Milo, and daugbwhole Scheme, because he has spied ter of the Dictator Sylla. The husband hin, in the morning, purchasing a new caused him to be foundly lashed (ioris scourge at the thop in which they were bene (@'um); nor did he relcale bim til fold. The subject of Bagellations has he had made him pay a considerable been an inexhaustible fund of pleasantry sum of money. The la 7 is related by for Plautus. In one place, a llave, in Aulus Gellius, who has extracted it tending to laugh at a fellow.lave, alks from Varro. To this circumiiance the him how much he thinks he weighs, violent part was very probably owing when he is suspended naked, by his which Sallust afterwards took againit hands, to the beam, with an lıundred Milo, while the latter was under preiseweight (centupondium) tied to his feet; cution for slaying the tribune Clodius, which was a precaution taken, as com

and the tumult he raised on that excamentators inform us, in order to pre Sion, by which Cicero was prevented vent the slave who was flagellated from from delivering the speech he had piekicking the man (virgaior) whose of pared. fice it was to perform the operation. " An allusion is made to the above And, in another place, Plautus, alluding facts in one of Horace's Satyrs. He to the thongs of ox-leather with which supposes in it, that his slave, availing whips were commonly made, introduces himself of the opportunity of the Satura a Nave engaged in deep reflection on the walia, to speak his mind freely to him, surprizing circumstance of dead bul- gives him a lecture on ihe bad courses in locks, that make incursions upon living which he thinks him engaged, and uses,

among others, the following arzuments:

“ When you have stripped off the Vivos homines mortui incursant boves!

marks of your dignity, your cquestrian Nor was it upon their Naves only that ring, and your whole Roman dress, and, masters, among the Romans, inflicted from a man invented with the office of the punilhment of flagellation : they judge, thew yourself at once under the sometimes found means to serve in the appearance of the Nave Dama; disgraced fame manner the young men of free as you are, and hiding your perfumed condition, who insinuated themselves head under your cloak, you are not the joto their houses, with a design to court man whom you feign to be : you are at their wives. As the most favourable dir. least introduced full of terror, and your guise on fuch occasions was to be dressed whole frame shakes through the strugo in laves clothes, becaule a man thus gles of two oppofite paflions. In fact, habited was enabled to get into the what advantage is it to you, whether house, and go up and down without you are cut to pieces with rods, or being noticed, rakes, engaged in a- laughtered with iron weapons?' morous pursuits, utually chole to make

Tu cum projectis insignibus, annulo equestri use of this kind of diefs. When the

Romanoque habitu, prodis ex judice Dama, husband happened to ditcover them, he Turpis, odoratum caput obscurante lacerua ulualty feigned to millake the man for Non es quod fimulas; metuens induceris, a run-away llave, or some it range flave atque who had got into his house to commit Altercante libidinibus tremis offa pavore. theft, and treated him accordingly. Quid refert uri virgis, ferruque necari? Indeed, the opportunity was a moft fa.

Lib. 11. Sat. 7. vourable one for revenge; and if to this " The above uncontroul:d power of confideration we add that of the severe infiêting punishments on their slaves, tcmper of tlie Romans, and the jualous enjoyed by maficis in Rome, was at difpofition that has always prevailed in lart abused by them to the greatest de. that country, we shall tafily conclude gree. The smaller faults committed in


their families by flaves, such as break- its authority to prevent the like excelles; ing glasses, seasoning dishes too much, in a canon which was framed in the or the like, exposed them to grievous council held at Elvira, the following punishments; and it even was no un- provision was inferied, in order to usual thing for masters (as we may check the severity of mistresses in rejudge from the description of Trimal. gard to their female Naves. •If a miscion's entertainment in the Satire of tress, in a fit of anger and madness, Petronius) to order such of their llaves, Mall lalh her female slave, or cause her as had been guilty of faults of the : bove to be lashed, in such a manner that the kind, to be Itripped, and whipped in thall expire before the third day, by the presence of their guests, when they realon of the torture the has undergone; happened to entertain any at their whereas it is doubtful whether ic has houses.

delignedly bappened, or by chance; if “ Besides all the above mentioned in- it has delignedly happened, the miftress struments used for punishing. Naves, and thall be excommunicated for seven years; as if the terrible flagellum had noi been if by chance, Me tha:l be excommunia. of itfelf sufficiently fevere, new con. cated for five years only; though, if the trivances were used to render the same falls into fickness, the may receive the a Nill more cruel weapon : the thongs communion.' with which that kind of scourge was “ But the abuses made by masters of made were frequently armed with nails, their power over their llaves, were a or small hard bones, and also with small diforder of such a nature as was not to leaden weights; these weights were shap- be cured so long as the custom itself uf ed like thote which were sometimes woin' Navery was allowed to sublift; and these hanging abou: the shoes, and were called abuses have been at length remedied afiragala, as mentioned by Hesychius: only by the thorough abolition of a cufhence the name of aflragala commonly tom which was a continual insult on given to such fcourges as were armed humanity: an advantage this, for which with these kinds of leaden weighes or we are indebted to the establishment of knobs.

Chriftianity, whatever evils and cala“ These abufes which malters, in mities certain writers may reproach it Rome, made of the power they por. with having occafioned.” fefied over their slaves, either by mak, The above facts and observations are ing them deliberately fuffer death, or extracted from the fourth chapter of wantonly torturing them in numberless Mr. De Lolme's Memorials of Human different ways, were at length carried Superfition, in which they are introto such a pitch, chat, in the beginning duced by way of a digreffion. of the reign of the Emperors, it was found necessary to restrain their licence. Letters to the People of Great Britain,

“ Under the reign of Claudius (for it or the Cultivation of their National is not clear whether any provision to History. that effect was made under Augustus)

L E T T E R V. it was ordained, that matters, who forfook their flaves when sick, should lose riod of our hittory which has been all right over them in cafe they reco Icalt illustrated, let us proceed to confivered, and that those who deliberately der in what other parts the neglect put them to death, lhould be banilhed chiefly confifts. And, in the first place, from Rome.

as the British empire contains leveral “ Under the Emperor Adrian, the distinct kingdoms, it will be proper to cruelties exercited by Umbricia, a Ro- enquire if the history of any of these man lady, over her female flaves, caused kingdoms be more neglected than that new laws to be made on that subject, as of another. In this point of view, it well as the former ones to be put in must occur that England, a country luforce ; and Umbricia was, by a refcript perior in wealtn, population, and glory, of the Emperor, banished for five years to all the rest put together, must natu(1. 2. in fine, Dig. L. I t. 6.).

rally have attracted the chief attention " New laws to the fame ends were to her history, as in juttice the ought. likewise made under the following Em. But, while even the history of England perors, among which civilians make has been to much neglected, it is not particular mention of

conftitution of matter of furprize that the history of Antoninus Pius (Divu sPius). In fub. Wales, Ireland, Scotland, should meet fequent times, the church alío employed with very little attention,

It is even 5


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