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emperors, the tyrants of the world, cn. the evils resulting from it, and our foredeavouring to moderate this ferocious fathers found a necessity of utterly abospirit of tyranny in their subjects, and lithing a custom which seems to bring an enacting laws to mitigate its violence inteparable curse with it. Let us then no I wish to know what Mrs. Macaulay, longer wish, by partial and inadequate the enthusiastic admirer of “tlose illule remedies, to palliate an evil which the trious nations (Grecce and Rome), and wisdom and experience of nations could of their “ divine precepts,” can say in not remove, and which has not been defence of this horrid cuilom, a custom lefiened by the many laws already eno where carried to greater lengths than nacted by our Legislature; laws which in those rcpublics. It was not till only serve to aggravate the distress of Christianity influenced the manners of the sufferers, by holding out to them a inen, and introduced a spirit of mild. relief they are not permitted to enjoy. ness and justice in our dealings with o Such has been the fate of the oppreiled thers, that flavery received its first in all ages, and such it will ever be. It check. Civilization, or rather the re is therefore my opinion, Sir, an opinion flection of Christianity upon the human I give as an individual of a free nation, mind, shewed llavery in its true colours, that no partial remedies are to be aand taught us to pay a proper respect to dopted in behalf of flavery; that we our specics. I was at length totally must either leave oui African brethren abolished in Europe ; and would to to their present unhappy fare, or totally Heaven Europe had not revived it again aboli a practice which is an insult on in its traffic with Africa!
humanity. We have a noble example It is a well known fact, tha: our set us by the Quakers of America, who Naves in the West Indies receive harih- have made it the first-fruit-offerings of er treatment than those belonging to the their independance. Let us call upon French or Spaniards. All who visit our Legiilature to adopt their example, thole islands are witnesses of the unrc. and to declare favery inconfiftent with lentng barbarity and Alirtic despotism the laws of England, and the spirit of of our planters on the one hand, and of Christianity. Some inconveniencies will the sufferings and tullen refentment of at first arise; but, when they are retheir slaves, who are ever ready to take moved by the wisdom of Parliament, an opportunity of revenge, on the o and the perfeverance of the nation, we ther. Buit, in the French islands, we fhall find ourfelves happy in having find thi llaves of a different temper. In compleated a regulation which the other üme of war, they in general unite cor European nations will neceflarily adopt. dially with their matters in defence of their ponethons, and have ofren given
Baib, Feb. 5. proofs of their courage and fidelity. YOL
OU have given two instances of Tois difference in the negroes
the fagacity, confidence (or, what muft necefiarily attribute to the differ- Thall I call it?). of birds. Let me, thereent behaviour of the masters. But then, fore, give you one instance of the tenhow cail we otherwise account for this derneis, I was about to say bumanity, distürence of behaviour in the matters, of a raven. He lives, or did live three than by supposing the truth of the re-, years since, at the Red Lion at Hungermark abovementioned, that tyranny is ford ; his name, I think, is Rafe. <x<rcised by none with fo-much leverity You must know then, that, coming into as by a free people?
that inn, my chaise run over, or bruisWe know, Sir, that our Legislature, ed, the leg of my Newfoundland dog; with an attention that does them ho- and, while we were examining the innour, has interfered in behalf of those jury done to the dog's foot, Kafe was unfortunaie men, and ena&cd the most evidently a concerned fpe&ator; for, the Salutary laws 10 mitigate their fuffere minute the dog was tied up under the ings. But, alas ! what are laws in the manger with my horses, Rafe not only hands of the whole interest it is to per visited, but fetched him bones, and atvert them, and who are at too great a tended upon hiin with particular and distance from the mother-country for repeated marks of kindness. The bird's punishment! They are like the dictates notice of the dog was so marked, that I of conscience, binding only on the good, obterved it to the huliler, for I had not but posetiiug no power over the wicked, heard a word before of the history of Bcfort slavery was abolished in Europe, this benevolent creature. jobr then :aws were inultipued in vain to prevent told me, that he had been bred from
his pin-feather in intimacy with a dog; with as much apparent ease as the most that the affection between them was sober and well-dipoled afsembly in civil mutual ; and that all the neighbourhood society. "No person is, on any pretence, had often been witnesses of the innu. admitted into the bed-room of another. merable acts of kindness they had con There are eight small rooms, without ferred upon each other. Rafe's poor beds, for the punishment of the refracdog, after a while, unfortunately broke tory, but I always found them empty." his leg, and, during the long time, he That the experiment was not tried in was confined, Rafé waited upon him the metropolis of this kingdom, where constantly, carried him his provisions such a regulation was mott needful, daily, and never scarce left him alone! must ever be a subject of surprize and One night, by accident, the hoftler had regret. No berrer opportunity could shut the stable door, and Rafe was de have offered than when the new Newprived of the company of his friend the gate was erecling; but whether it was whole night; but the hoftler found in omitted from a want of consideration, or the morning the bottom of the door fo from an ill cimed æconomy, I am not pecked away, thai, had it not been competent to determine.
The conopened, Rafe would, in another hour, firuction of separate cells having been have made his own entrance-port. I found, by the acknowledgement of Mr. then enquired of my landlady (a sen Akerman, to answer the end proposed, fible woman), and heard what I have it is the more astonishing that the num. related confirmed by her, with several ber was not increated, with the view of other fingular traits of the kindneffes this working a reformation in perfons, iho, bird Thews to all dogs in general, but pare from the nature of their offences, would ticularly to maimed or wounded ones *; soon obtain their liberty, instead of exbut having committed these particulars posing them to almost a certainty of beto paper, and lent them for publication coming more vicious and profligate by in the St. James's Chronicle t, I have being constantly affociated with crimiforgotten them. I hope and believe, nals worse than themselves. however, the bird is still living; and
Yours, &c. W. & D. the traveller will find I have not overrated this wonderful bird's merit. In Mr. URBAN,
March 1. my next, I will give you some account T has often been matter of furprize of a real Nervfoundland dog, once my property; for, though I know it will pean or remote, with which I am acbe deemed a long bow-firing, 1 liad ra quainted, or of which I have heard, ther be fufpeted of such a ítrecch, than has fallen upon, or adopted, the most omit to repeat what I law, and what I seemingly obvious and convenient mode verily believe my brother saw. P. T. of establishing its current coinage, that
is, by decimals; and I confefs it would Mr. URBAN,
give me much pleasure to see my own AGRICOLA, P; 104. kas jufthymebo country let the lead in this, as in other
served, that places of punishment particulars, to a regulation which is at upon a small scale have been adopted, once confonant to reason, and very where labour and solitude have broken
highly convenient to all ranks of people, the spirits of the most ferocious; and, The plan I would propose is, that the on the authority of Mr. Howard, he guinea (should it be thought proper not might have added, that the plan has to change that appellation) should be of been pursued with success upon a large the value of, and pass for, twenty thile scale. For the Prisoner's Friend, in his lings; and ten pence, infiead of twelve, description of la Maison de Force in make one ihilling. How greariy would Ghent, which was not half finished, this easy alteration facilitate and helia thus expresses hiusleif: " I was prelent plify accounts and payments, without during the whole time the men crimi, being, as I conceive, lubject to a single nals were at dinner. This company
objection It would have the further near 190 stout criminals was governed convenience too of alcertaining, and * Rafe bas been a widow or winower
being the caule of re-coining, all the
specie in circulation (aud against the + To my great surprize, it was not in- pieient coinage there are, I believe, serted in that paper. í fuppofe it was not tome just objections). Nay, it might credited ; but my nanie is at the service of even be made the means of annihilating the doubtful.
that so general and unfair practice of 4
clipping the, coin, to which all endea- is also fome room for reform both in the vours have hitherto proved ineffectual, conduct and appearance of too many by Government at the same time efta• modern priests. In their dress they blithing an exact money-balance by au. imitate the laity, and of those not the thority, on which such a tax or price most respectable order, as far as they might be fixed as would bring in a con• can, and further than they ought, till fiderable sum for the use of the state they become ridiculous in themselves, (suppose, for infance, half-a-guinea and the laughing-stock of others; and cach). Every man would find it his it has been the observation of scores, interest to be provided with one of who frequent watering-places, and othese; and, as by this precaution no ther scenes of diffipation, that the num. light money would be received, those ber of clergymen' always to be found who practise the clipping it would find there is enormous and disgraceful, as it it extremely difficult, if not impossible, can only happen through the neglect of to issue any.
their clerical duties And to this cirIn perusing M. Buffon's Natural Hif. : cumstance, Mr. Urban, may, I fear, be tory, which does so much honour to li- chiefly owing the great falling-off in the terature, and to his country in particu. attendance on the established church, lar, and is undoubtedly compiled from and the vast increase of sectaries, whose the best authorities then extant, I ob- pastors, both by precept and example, serve that, under the article elephant, enforce those duties with unremitting he expresses ir to be undecided in what zeal, which ours seem happy to escape manner the young one fucks the mo. from the trouble of. ther, whether with the trunk, as the In a former letter I took the liberty fpecies undoubtedly always drink, or as of suggesting two new taxes, which I the young of other animals, with the believed would bring in a considerable mouth: but he decidedly gives his opi- revenue to the state, without affecting njon, that the former one will be known the conveniencies of life, strictly speakto be the way whenever opportunity ing, or the circumstances of the poor, thall offer to ascertain it; for which he It seems pretty evident too, that the alligns such reasons as experience only present taxes on perfumery, hats, gloves, can fhew are ill-founded It is most and receipts, are shamefully evaded. It certain, however, that this able natu is to be hoped that some regulations to salift is mistaken in his theory on this prevent this may be speedily established. (point; and that the young elephant does
Yours, &c. R. R. E. not fuck its mother with the trunk, and couvey the milk to the mouth, as it Mr. URBAN,
March 5. does all other food, but that it draws
we contemplate with pethe milk with its mouth, in the same culiar pleasure those periods of manner a calf or a foal does; of which history which have been most enlightmany Europeans, belide myself, have ened with the beams of science, we had ocular demonstration,
may, with higher satisfaction, reflect Much has been laid of late, and I upon the effects of that more perfect fear with too much reason, of the very state of knowledge, and general spirit uncomfortable, and even disgraceful, of liberal sentiment, which is the chacircumftances, of many of our inferior racteristic of the present age. Know. clergy. For if the situation of a cler. ledge, which was long confined to few, gyman be not such as to make him re is now univerially diffused, and is not fpe&table in the eves of his parishioners, loft in empty speculation, but operates little attention will be paid either to his upon the heart, and fimulares more acexample or his do&rine. It is a subject tive and new modes of benevolence. which requires invenigation and correc To alleviate the forrows, tu ease the tion as much, perhaps, as any which burthens of the oppresled, and to praconcerns fociety; and cannot be too cure for men the nights of men, are obcarly taken up and redreiled by those jects attempted by various methods ; porldled of the power, both for their and fuch distinguilhed efforts of benevoown honour, and the comfort of a very lence, fo aclive, so intelligent, and fo laborious and deferring body of gentle intrepid, as now excite the admiration men, from whose example we expect a and wonder of the world, exhibited in good influence on the inorals of those our immortal countryman, Mr. Howcommitted to their charge. I am con ard, will not long be folitary instances. corned to have causc to add, that there In his endeavours is, however, fęen an
uncommon assemblage of knowledge whom he has the greatest deference, and and activity, of the genius which can at the age of mature judgement find it plan, and the induftry which can exe- impoffible to decline it, without the cute. His plans evince the foundeft most evident diftress to his frmily? can judgement, and all his efforts are di- it not be supposed that such a man, reft. rected to objects which are practicable: ing his opinion upon the Legislature he he, in consequence, already enjoys the is bord under and reverences, should great and sublime felicity of seeing his be satisfied it would not fanction what wishes matured into existence. He lives was immoral, and wicked in him to to enjoy the success which should attend practise, and that too in a degree to jufthe endeavours of benevolent minds, but tify his being branded by his neighbours which cannot be expected unless they as a monster of iniquity? The progrets are begun in a rational and fyftematic of truth and humanity is slow and gramanner. It is principally to the ability dual, But a few years ago, when the of his fchemes, to the plain, yet solid, Quakers' petitioned Parliament against good-sense of his measures, and to the this commerce, nøt one of that enlightcandour of his conduct, that I would ened assembly found their fcelings to advert at present, and recommend as hurt as to speak of it in a light of moral examples for the imitation of those dif- turpitude ; and is there no consideration tinguished characters, who are now em. to be had for the errors of a mercantile ployed in endeavours to prevent or lef- education ? may not an African trader, sen the miseries of the enslaved Afri, though convinced that to abolish the cans. To the motives which have in- trade would create more cruelty than at duced Mr. Clarkson to imitate this glo, present exists, fincerely lament its existe rious hero of humanity, and to travel ence, and wish to join his endeavours from port to port to gain that knowledge to procure every posible good from reof the slave trade which was necessary ftričting, regulating, and amending, its to the arrangement of his plans, let methods of being carried on ? He may every possible applause be given. To think, that to aim at a sudden and total that benevolent intention, which has in- abolition is an act of Quixotism, and duced numbers in different parts of the what nothing but ignorance can hope kingdom to form committees, and sub- for; and yet with a gradual abolition scribe funds, for the purpose of abolish. by making the trade unneceflary, by ing this trade, I with every practicable procurmg the alteration of the colonial success, and will give every consistent laws, so that the comforts of proper allistance; but let zeal be tempered by diet and rest may be secured to the New discretion, attended with candid con. groes in the Plantations, and they may struction upon the conduct of others, be encouraged to propagate, and supply and freed from personal and scurrilous by their increase for the wants of the invective.
Planters. It admits no doubt that great cruel. That there are such characters, I can ties are inevitable in every species of venture to affert ; and greatly lament Navery, and are praaised in this, under they are precluded froin rendering alvarious forms, and by various descrip- listance to Mr. Clarkson and his friends, tions of people. It is certainly a pro- from the uncandid manner in which per subject for parliamentary diicuition, they have been treated, and are spoken how far they can be prevented or alle. of. One active gentleman, when at Lio viated. But it would appear, from the verpool, is said not only to have declared conduet of fome of the principal movers the most violent prejudices against their in this good work, that it cannot be characters, and to have treated their atdone without painting falsely, and ex tentions with neglect, but to have emaggerating thele cruelties, and exciting ployed himself in obtaining materials to a decided abhorrence and contempt for criminate them, from the most unprinthe character, evidence, and opinions, cipled common failors and dock landof those who are concerned in, and for ladies. These exaggerated facts may that reason best informed in the history be twisted to the purpose of producing of, this trade. Is it pot potlible a really an abhorrence of this trade, and of good and benevolent man may be bred their conduct, but will apply to, and up in this commerce from his earlief exist in, the East India or any other youth, and become concerned in it, be- navigation, where numbers of rough fore he h s ability or resolution to think and daring spirits are cantined in lips in oppohrion to the wishes of those for for long voyages. With the same views,
feveral letters have appeared in the pub. me, not in the vein of levity which has Jic papers, and resolutions have been distinguished some of these censurers, entered into by committees; and facts, but in sober seriousness, to ask him this highly coloured and falfely varnished plain question through the channel of by one writer, become authorities when your interesting publication : why he qucted by another.
has suffered the Greek quotations in his By these means the question is likely edition of Johnson's Works to be printto come before Parliament, as it is now ed so very inaccurately, that there are before the publick, in such violent and nearly as many faults as there are prejudiced representations, that it is not words? I have now his fixth volume likely to have the proper, or indeed before me. In p. 130, there is one line any, attention paid to it; and a great and a half of Greek, in which are four and good work may fail, from unworthy errata ; in p. 131, fix lines of Greek and unnecessary endeavours to assist it. quotation ; errata, thirteen. P. 364 is
From the conduct of the great inftru- yet more grossly faulty". The two lines ment of humane reform beforcmenti.
in p. 145 I will quote for the amuseoned, let the present efforts be directed. ment of your readers He found imprisonment for debt (a leo Núpas ix Ganamwe, diceday i wodaja gal slavery) productive of the greatest
πόμενάων, misery; and he might have appealed to t'ie publick with such ipstances of mi. Hyóvcov avà ásv, med us dépévaros óçúcar; fery as would have proved its abolition where there are seven, if not eight, era necessary measure, even at the risk of rata, in the speiling and accenting. the commerce and credit of the nation; This is no wanton and arbitrary allegabut he did not attempt to alter what, tion; it is supported on the stubborn perhaps, the state of fociety makes inea evidence of fact.
PHILOMUSOS. vitable : content with what was practicable, he made no idle efforts, and fuc.
March 20. eefs and reformation quickly followed You have favoured the publick, (pp
Whatever may be his sentiments up- the celebrated Athenian Stuart, which on this important question, his diligence has given great fatisfaction to his nuto acquire truth, and his cool dispassi- merous friends and acquaintance; but onare conduct, cannot be too much or there are a few mistakes in it, that 100 strongly recummended to all who ought to be corrected, to prevent future with well to this good cause, let them biographers from being led astray, Ahould be either the champions of abolition or they happen to consult, as they certainly reform. To hear all parties without will, the account given by your correprejudice or violence, and to seek dili• fpondent. H. A. fets out with informgently for truth, are the only methods ing us, that Mr. Stuart was the fon of of knowing what may be expected from a mariner ; but he does not tell us what Parliament; and to ask right is the country, nor what year gave birth to furefi step to infure success.
this ingenious man. I, who became The subject is worthy the attention acquainted with him soon after his reof your valuable Miscellany; and if the turn from Greece, have often heard him well-meant advice, now offered, is mention that he was born in London in thought proper for insertion, it would 1913; that his parents lived in Creedgive me pleature to see it followed by lane, Ludgate-streer; that his father the sentiments of your correspondents, was of Scotland, and his mother from fufficiently to form a constant article in Wales.Though poor, they were hoyour monthly arrangement. For my nett and worthy people, and gave their own part, I will, if it is defired, enter son the best education in their power. into a detail of the question, as far as Your correspondent mentions, that my ability extends, and will be happy Mr. S. made himself known to Messrs. by recommending a cool investigation, Dawkins and Bouverie at Rome; but I or by furnishing particulars to serve the believe this is a mistake. Mr. S. told caute of rational and practicable reform. me that he first met with those gentleYours, &c.
GUSTAVUS. men at Athens; and I believe it was
there that be received the first proofs of Mr. UREAN,
March 6. regard from the generous-spirited and In , Htmins and his antagonitis, allow encourage a brother in scientific invefti