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appointed. I then proposed a lottery to defray the expense of building a battery below the town, and furnished with cannon. It filled expeditiously, and the battery was soon erected, the merlons being framed of logs and filled with earth. We bought some old cannon from Boston; but, these not being sufficient, we wrote to London for more, soliciting at the same time our proprietaries for some assistance, though without much expectation of obtaining it. Meanwhile Colonel Lawrence, Allen, Abraham Taylor, Esquires, and myself, were sent to New York by the associators, commissioned to borrow some cannon of Governor Clinton. He at first refused us peremptorily; but at a dinner with his Council, where there was great drinking of Madeira wine, as the custom of that place then was, he softened by degrees, and said he would lend us six. After a few more bumpers he advanced to ten; and at length he very good-naturedly conceded eighteen. They were fine cannon, eighteen pounders, with their carriages, which were soon transported and mounted on our batteries; where the associators kept a nightly guard while the war lasted; and, among the rest, I regularly took my turn of duty there, as a common soldier."

The pamphlet was translated into German, for the purpose of being circulated among the German population in Pennsylvania. An answer to it, entitled NECESSARY TRUTH, and written upon the Quaker principles of non-resistance, was published in 1748. Dr. Mease has examined the files of Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette, and other records in Philadelphia, relating to the period in question, and is satisfied, that the first edition of PLAIN TRUTH did not appear before 1746 or 1747. In the latter year are found accounts of the meetings of the associators, their firings and marchings, and other military displays; as also the devices and mottos of the several flags presented by the ladies. The celebrated Gilbert Tennent, then resident in Philadelphia, inculcated the doctrines of PLAIN TRUTH from the pulpit; particularly in a sermon On the Lawfulness of Defensive War, published in the year 1747.

As a characteristic trait of Franklin, to enforce precepts and instructions by emblematical signs, it may be mentioned, that the second edition of PLAIN TRUTH is adorned by a wood-cut representing the fable of Hercules and the Wagoner. Hercules sits enthroned on a cloud, with one arm resting on his club; three horses are struggling in vain to drag a heavily loaded wagon from a slough; and the wagoner is on his knees, with uplifted hands, imploring the aid of Hercules. Houses and trees are in the back ground,

The design and the wood-cut are not badly executed. At the bottom is a part of the motto inserted in the title-page; Non votis, neque suppliciis muliebribus, auxilia deorum parantur. - EDITOR.

IT is said, the wise Italians make this proverbial remark on our nation, viz. "The English feel, but they do not see." That is, they are sensible of inconveniences when they are present, but do not take sufficient care to prevent them; their natural courage makes them too little apprehensive of danger, so that they are often surprised by it, unprovided of the proper means of security. When it is too late, they are sensible of their imprudence; after great fires, they provide buckets and engines; after a pestilence, they think of keeping clean their streets and commonsewers; and when a town has been sacked by their enemies, they provide for its defence, &c. This kind of after-wisdom is indeed so common with us, as to occasion the vulgar, though very significant saying, When the steed is stolen, you shut the stable door.

But the more insensible we generally are of public danger and indifferent when warned of it, so much the more freely, openly, and earnestly, ought such as apprehend it to speak their sentiments; that, if possible, those who seem to sleep may be awakened, to think of some means of avoiding or preventing the mischief, before it be too late.

Believing, therefore, that it is my duty, I shall honestly speak my mind in the following paper.

War, at this time, rages over a great part of the known world; our newspapers are weekly filled with fresh accounts of the destruction it everywhere occasions. Pennsylvania, indeed, situate in the centre of the colonies, has hitherto enjoyed profound repose;

and though our nation is engaged in a bloody war, with two great and powerful kingdoms, yet, defended, in a great degree, from the French, on the one hand, by the northern provinces, and from the Spaniards, on the other, by the southern, at no small expense to each, our people have, till lately, slept securely in their habitations.

There is no British colony, excepting this, but has made some kind of provision for its defence; many of them have therefore never been attempted by an enemy; and others, that were attacked, have generally defended themselves with success. The length and difficulty of our bay and river have been thought so effectual a security to us, that hitherto no means have been entered into, that might discourage an attempt upon us, or prevent its succeeding.

But, whatever security this might have been while both country and city were poor, and the advantage to be expected scarce worth the hazard of an attempt, it is now doubted, whether we can any longer safely depend upon it. Our wealth, of late years much increased, is one strong temptation, our defenceless state another, to induce an enemy to attack us; while the acquaintance they have lately gained with our bay and river, by means of the prisoners and flags of truce they have had among us; by spies which they almost everywhere maintain, and perhaps from traitors among ourselves; with the facility of getting pilots to conduct them; and the known absence of ships of war, during the greatest part of the year, from both Virginia and New York, ever since the war began, render the appearance of success to the enemy far more promising, and therefore highly increase our danger.

That our enemies may have spies abroad, and some even in these colonies, will not be made much doubt

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of, when it is considered, that such has been the practice of all nations in all ages, whenever they were engaged, or intended to engage, in war. Of this we have an early example in the Book of Judges (too pertinent to our case, and therefore I must beg leave a little to enlarge upon it), where we are told, (Chap. xviii. v. 2,) that the children of Dan sent of their family five men from their coasts to spy out the land, and search it, saying, Go, search the land. These Danites, it seems, were at this time not very orthodox in their religion, and their spies met with a certain idolatrous priest of their own persuasion, (v. 3,) and they said to him, Who brought thee hither? What makest thou in this place? And what hast thou here? [Would to God no such priests were to be found among us.] And they said unto him, (v. 5,) Ask counsel of God, that we may know, whether our way which we go shall be prosperous; and the priest said unto them, Go in peace; before the Lord is your way wherein you go. [Are there no priests among us, think you, that might, in the like case, give an enemy as good encouragement? It is well known, that we have numbers of the same religion with those, who of late encouraged the French to invade our mother country.] And they came, (v. 7,) to Laish, and saw the people that were therein, how they dwelt CARELESS, after the manner of the Zidonians, QUIET and SECURE. They thought themselves secure, no doubt; and as they never had been disturbed, vainly imagined they never should. It is not unlikely, that some might see the danger they were exposed to by living in that careless manner; but that, if these publicly expressed their apprehensions, the rest reproached them as timorous persons, wanting courage or confidence in their gods, who (they might say) had hitherto protected them.

But the spies, (v. 8,) returned, and said to their countrymen, (v. 9,) Arise, that we may go up against them; for we have seen the land, and behold it is very good. And are ye still? Be not slothful to go. (Verse 10,) When ye go, ye shall come to a people SECURE, [that is, a people that apprehend no danger, and therefore have made no provision against it; great encouragement this!] and to a large land, and a place where there is no want of any thing. What could they desire more? Accordingly, we find in the following verses, that six hundred men only, appointed with weapons of war, undertook the conquest of this large land; knowing that six hundred men, armed and disciplined, would be an overmatch perhaps for sixty thousand unarmed, undisciplined, and off their guard. And when they went against it, the idolatrous priest, (v. 17,) with his graven image, and his ephod, ana his teraphim, and his molten image, (plenty of superstitious trinkets,) joined with them, and, no doubt, gave them all the intelligence and assistance in his power; his heart, as the text assures us, being glad, perhaps for reasons more than one. And now, what was the fate of poor Laish? The six hundred men, being arrived, found, as the spies had reported, a people QUIET and SECURE, (vv. 27, 28.) And they smote them with the edge of the sword, and burnt the city with FIRE; and there was no DELIVERER, because it was far from Zidon.-Not so far from Zidon, however, as Pennsylvania is from Britain; and yet we are, if possible, more careless than the people of Laish! As the Scriptures are given for our reproof, instruction, and warning, may we make a due use of this example, before it be too late!*

This argument from the Scriptures was answered by the author of NECESSARY TRUTH as follows.

"The children of Dan were at this time departed from the true fai

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