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the petition by the friends of the Proprietaries, and to remove the prejudices then existing in England unfavorable to the people of Pennsylvania, he caused the "Historical Review" to be published in London. It produced a strong impression, and called forth elaborate answers. It was the subject of a commendatory article in the Monthly Review for July, 1759. In his remarks upon it the writer says; "It must be confessed that the Pennsylvanians have, in our author, a most zealous and able advocate. His sentiments are manly, liberal, and spirited; his style close, nervous, and rhetorical. His Introduction is well calculated to warm his readers in behalf of liberty, of which he boasts his clients to have been the brave assertors. By a forcible display of the oppressions they have sustained, he inclines us to pity their condition; by an enumeration of their virtues, he endeavours to remove the idea, which many have conceived of their unimportance."

In the Critical Review, for August of the same year, the book fell into the hands of the opposite party; and, although it is treated with respect, yet it is censured for the tone it assumes in regard to the demands of the Pennsylvanians. "Nay," says the reviewer, "our author seems to carry his notions of liberty and independence so high, as to admit of no check or control from the government of his mother country."

As the work appeared at first anonymously, and the authorship was kept secret, it was for a long time supposed to have been written by Franklin. His grandson, who ought to have known the truth of what he affirmed, says, in the Memoirs he published, that Franklin was the author. The Monthly Review, for 1790, asserts the same, with a confidence that seems to imply positive knowledge. The following quotation is taken from an article on the Bibliotheca Americana. "The compiler, noticing the HISTORICAL REVIEW, cautiously adds, 'said to be written by Dr. Franklin.' We add, certainly was written by that great man." The testimony of Dr. Franklin himself was also supposed to favor this opinion. In the part of the Memoirs left by him, and published after his death, where he speaks of a conversation with Governor Denny, and of the Governor's instructions, he says; "On this head he did not explain himself; but, when he afterwards came to do business with the Assembly, the disputes were renewed, and I was as active as ever in the opposition, being the penman, first of the request to have a communication of the instructions, and then of the remarks on them, which may be found in the Votes of the times, and in the HISTORICAL REVIEW I afterwards published." It has recently been ascertained, however, that he was not in fact the author,

although it was written under his direction, and doubtless from copious materials furnished by him. (See his letter to David Hume, Vol. VII. p. 208.)

The value of the work, as an historical composition, will be estimated differently according to the bias of the reader's mind in regard to the disputed points on which it treats. It was professedly written to promote the aims of a party, and in this light it cannot be looked upon as free from partiality. A large portion of the work, however, consists of facts, stated with precision, and with such minuteness of citation as to verify their accuracy. These facts cannot be controverted. The reasonings and deductions from them would of course take a direction in conformity with the author's personal convictions and designs. The sentiments are everywhere favorable to liberty and justice. The style is clear and forcible. Some passages are powerfully written, and a peculiar felicity of thought and expression shines out in many others. The Dedication and Introduction are distinguished for beauty and vigor of language, and dignity of sentiment. The author is accused of having touched the name of the great founder of Pennsylvania with too rude a hand. If it be so, time has repaired the injury. Facts must have their own weight, because they are unchangeable and everduring; but the memory of William Penn cannot be tarnished by unfounded imputations, nor his character wounded by the misdirected darts of party zeal.

In its original form, this treatise was printed as one continued essay, without any divisions from beginning to end. For the convenience of readers it is now broken into chapters. EDI

TOR.

DEDICATION.

To the Right Honorable Arthur Onslow, Esquire, Speaker of the Honorable House of Commons. Sir; the subject of the following sheets is an unhappy one; the controversy between the Proprietaries and successive Assemblies of Pennsylvania; a controversy which has often embarrassed, if not endangered, the public service; a controversy which has been long

VOL. III.

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depending, and which still seems to be as far from an issue as ever.

Our blessed Saviour reproaches the Pharisees with laying heavy burdens on men's shoulders, which they themselves would not stir with a single finger.

Our proprietaries, Sir, have done the same; and, for the sake of the commonwealth, the province has hitherto submitted to the imposition. Not, indeed, without the most strenuous endeavours to lay the load equally, the fullest manifestations of their right to do so, and the strongest protestations against the violence put upon them.

Having been most injuriously misrepresented and traduced in print by the known agents and dependents of these gentlemen, their fellow-subjects, they at last find themselves obliged to set forth an historical state of their case, and to make their appeal to the public upon it.

With the public opinion in their favor, they may with the more confidence lift up their eyes to the wisdom of Parliament and the majesty of the crown, from whence alone they can derive an effectual remedy.

To your hands, Sir, these papers are most humbly presented, for considerations so obvious, that they scarce need any explanation.

The Roman provinces did not stand more in need of patronage than ours; and such clients as we are would have preferred the integrity of Cato to the fortune of Cæsar.

The cause we bring is in fact the cause of all the provinces in one; it is the cause of every British subject in every part of the British dominions; it is the cause of every man who deserves to be free, everywhere.

The propriety, therefore, of addressing these papers

to a gentleman, who, for so many successive parliaments, with so much honor to himself and satisfaction to the public, has been at the head of the Commons of Great Britain, cannot be called in question.

You will smile, Sir, perhaps, as you read the references of a provincial Assembly to the rights and claims of Parliament; but, we humbly conceive, it will be without the least mixture of resentment; those Assemblies having nothing more in view than barely to establish their privileges on the most rational and solid basis they could find, for the security and service of their constituents.

And you are humbly besought, Sir, not to think the worse of this address, because it has been made without your permission or privity.

Nobody asks leave to pay a debt; every Briton your debtor, Sir; and all we have said, or can say, is but a poor composition for what we owe you.

is

You have conferred as much honor on the chair you fill, as the chair has conferred on you.

Probity and dignity are your characteristics. May that seat always derive the same lustre from the same qualities.

This at least ought to be our prayer, whether it is or not within our expectations.

For the province of Pennsylvania, as well as in my own private capacity, I have the honor to be, with the most profound respect, Sir,

Your most obedient

humble servant,

THE EDITOR.

INTRODUCTION.

To obtain an infinite variety of purposes, by a few plain principles, is the characteristic of nature. As the eye is affected, so is the understanding; objects at a distance strike us according to their dimensions, or the quantity of light thrown upon them; near, according to their novelty or familiarity; as they are in motion or at rest. It is the same with actions. A battle is all motion; a hero all glare. While such images are before us, we can attend to nothing else. Solon and Lycurgus would make no figure in the same scene with the King of Prussia; and we are at present so lost in the military scramble on the continent next us, in which it must be confessed we are deeply interested, that we have scarce time to throw a glance toward America, where we have also much at stake; and where, if anywhere, our account must be made up at last.

We love to stare more than to reflect; and to be indolently amused at our leisure, rather than commit the smallest trespass on our patience by winding a painful, tedious maze, which would pay us nothing but knowledge.

But then, as there are some eyes which can find nothing marvellous, but what is marvellously great, so there are others which are equally disposed to marvel at what is marvellously little; and who can derive as much entertainment from their microscope in examining a mite, as Dr. — in ascertaining the geography of the moon, or measuring the tail of a comet.

Let this serve as an excuse for the author of these sheets, if he needs any, for bestowing them on the

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