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Account of the Public Games of Greece. 251 adjudged till one party had fairly mention another example, pre yielded ; this was sometimes done vious to treating more fully of by words, and often by lifting up the four public games of Greece. a finger ; for which reason we are Herodotus is said to have gaiñed told, by Plutarch, that the Lace. very great applause, and to have demonians would not permit any fired young Thucydides with an of those exercises to be practised early emulation of him by repeatin their city, wherein those that ing his history at the Olympian were conquered confessed them games.--First, of the felves overcome by holding up their finger, because they thought

OLYMPIAN GAMES. it derogatory to the temper and WHICH were fo called from spirit of the Spartans to have any Olympian Jupiter, whom of them tamely yield to any ad they were dedicated, from versary, though that place has Olympia, a city in the terri. been hitherto mistaken by molt tory of the Pisæans; or, accord. interpreters.

ing to Stephanus, the fame with Horse-races were either pero

Pisa. The first institution of formed by fingle horses, or by two them is by some referred to Jupihorses, on one of which they ter, after his victory over the fons performed the race, and leaped of Titan ; at which time Mars is upon the other at the goal; or said to have been crowned for by horses coupled together in boxing, and Apollo to have been chariots, which were sometimes superior to Mercury at running. drawn by i two, three,' or four Phlegon, the author of the Olymhorses. How great foever" the piades, reports, they were first number of horses might be, they instituted by Pisus, from whom the were not placed as is the custom city Pifæ was named. now, but in the front, being cou

Others will have the first au. pled together by pairs. After thor" of them to be one of the wards, Clifthenes, the Sicyonian, Dactyli, named Hercules, not the brought up a custom of coupling son of Alcmena, but another of the two middle horses only, and far greater antiquity, that with governing the rest by reins. his four brethren, Pæoneus, Ida, Sometimes we find mules used in- '| Jafius, and Epimedes, left their Itead of horses. The principal ancient fear in Ida, a mountain of part of the charioteer's art and Crete, and settled in Elis, where skill, confifted in keeping clear of he instituted this folemnity; the the goals, in which, if he failed, original of which was only a race, the overturning of his chariot wherein the four younger browas the necessary confequence of thers contending for diversion, it, and brought him into great the victor was crowned by Herdanger as well as disgrace. cules with an olive - garland, Besides the exercises already

exercises already which was not composed of the described, there were many others common olive-branches, nor the of a quite different nature. Such natural product of that country,

those wherein musicians, but brought by Hercules (so fa. poets, and other artists, contend. bles will have it) from the Hypered for victory; but as entering borean Scythians, and planted in into a concise account of this the Pantheum Olympia, would be confidered, perhaps, where it flourished, cho' not after foreign to your plan, í hall only

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252 Account of the Public Games of Greece. the manner of other olive-trees, ercises, except wrestling, to which but spreading out its boughs more when he had challenged all the like a myrtle. Crowns and gar field, and could find no man that lands, given to victors in thefe durf grapple with him, at length games, were always composed of Jupiter, having assumed an huit, and it was forbidden, under a man shape, entered the lifts; and great penalty, to cut it for any when the contention had reOther use : these Dactyli were five mained doubtful for a consider. in number, whence it is that the able time, neither party having the Olympian games were celebrated advantage, or being willing to once in five years, though others submit, the god discovered himself make them to be folemnized once to his son, and from this action got in four ; wherefore, according to the firname of Wrestler. the former, an Olympiad muß All these stories are rejected by confift of five; according to the Strabo, in his description of Elis, latter, of four years : but neither where he reports, that an Ætolian of these accounts are exact ; for colony, together with some of this folemnity was held indeed Hercules' pofterity, Subdued a every fifty year, yet not after the great many of the Pisæan towns, term of five years was quite palt, and" amongst them Olympia, but every fiftieth month, which is where they first instituted, or, at the second month after the com leaft, revived, enlarged, and aug, pletion of four years i and as mented these games, which, I am these games were celebrated every perfuaded, could not have been fifth year, so they lasted five days; omitted by Homer, who takes for they began upon the eleventh, every opportunity to adorn his and ended upon the fifteenth day poems with descriptions of such of the lunar month, when the folemnities, had they been of any moon was at the full.

note before the Trojan war. There are many opinions con Whatever becomes of the first aucerning the time, but it is gene- thor of the Olympian games, it is Tally admitted that the Olympian certain, they were either wholly games were first instituted by this laid afide, or very little frequented Hercules, to the honour of Olym till the time of Iphitus, who was pian Jupiter, out of the spoils cotemporary with Lycurgus the taken from Auges, king of Elis, Spartan law.giver.

Spartan law-giver. He re-infi, whom he had dethroned, and tuted this folemnity about four plundered, being defrauded of the hundred and eight years after the seward he had promised him for Trojan war; from which time, cleansing his stables, as Pindar re according to Solinus, the number ports: Diodorus, the Sicilian,

of the Olympiads are reckoned. gives the same relation, and adds, After this time they were again that Hercules proposed no other neglected till the time of Choreward to the victors, but a Toebus, who, according to Phle. crown,


memory of his own la- gon's computation, lived in the bours, all which he accomplished twenty-eighth Olympiad after for the benefit of mankind, with- Iphitus, and then instituted again out designing any reward to him.

the Olympian games, which after self, beside the praise of doing this time were constantly celebrawell: at this inftitution, it is re ted. And this really fell out in the ported that Hercules himself CCCCVIIIth year after the decame off conqueror in all the ex struction of Troy; or two years


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Diversions of tibe English in the Anglo-Norman Period. 253

fooner by Eusebius's aecount, which the pi&turesque duty annexed to reckons four hundred and six years chivalry, of chusing a supreme from the taking of Troy to the lady, in defence of whose beauty firft Olympiad. By the firft Olym. and virtue her knight. was always piad meaning that which was first ready to combat, hid its own abin the common computation of surdity under a veil of elegance. Olympiads, which was begun at [St. Palaye fur la Chevalerie.] this time.

« Befides the tournament, a diHaving proceeded thus far, I version allotted only to persons am now about to take my leave, of rank, the favourite sports of but not without affuring you, that the principle Normans were huntI am, Gentlemen,

ing and hawking; these the kings, Your respectful

prelates and noblemen, pursued Humble servant, with an incredible eagerness, and AN ADMIRER OF ANTIQUA without the smallest regard to the

RIAN SPORTS. labours of the husbandman. • By BerkAhire,

thefe pursuits (says John

John of Feb. 17, 1796.

Salisbury) they lose their humanity, and become monsters like the favage animals they chafe;

thepherds and their Aocks are CUSTOMS and DiveRSIONS of the

driven from their pastures, that ENGLISH in the ANGLO-Nor

wild beasts may range in them at MAN period,

large : should one of these potenc (From the firft volume of Andrews's sportsmen approach your dwell

History of Great Britain.) ing, haften to bring out every "The Normans to England, HE customs introduced by refreshment which you have in

your house, or which you can beg were in general praise-worthy or borrow of your neighbours, lett and gentleman-like, when com you should find the fatal confe. pared to those of the Anglo-Sax quence of your negleet; and perons. Knighthood, which necef haps be accused of treason. fasily, comprehended a brave and The game of chess, and still liberal heart, a firm demeanour, more the various chances of the and a graceful performance of dice, constituted domestic amusemanlike exercises, flourished un ments for the great. That they der their protection. The knight,

carried there to excess, we may after having served a kind of ap judge from many circumstances. prenticeship during seven or eight

Even the horrors of civil war years as an esquire, bound him could not damp their fpirit of self by a folemn oath to be loyal gaming; for M. Paris complains to his king, to protect the vir. of the barons, associated to resist tuous part of the fair sex, and to the tyranny of Jobn, for spending rescue widows and orphans from their time in luxury and playing oppression, at the hazard of his with dice, when their appearance life. The tilts and tournaments was wanted in the field.' Excel, (which were pompous feftivals, five gaming at sea was restrained where the kill and agility of the by the second of those laws which knight were feverely tried) af. the united kings of England and forded perpetual incentives to ex. France drew up in 1190, for the cellence in military science; and government of the force fitted out





254 Diversions of tbe English in the Anglo-Norman Period. againft the Saracens. There it is

There it is Henry Beauclerc, 'strove hard to enacted that knights and clerks reduce these two

[w. hall be restrained to the loss of Malmes.] twenty shillings (nearly what fif " The dinner was held at nine teen pounds would be on the i8th in the morning, the supper at five century) in a day; but that fol. in the afternoon. Besides diers and sailors, if detected in common meats, many dishes were playing for money, Mall be fined used, with the composition of at will, or whipped, or ducked. which we are not now acquainted. [Brompton. Benice. Abbas. -As to liquors, they had seve

rr Theatrical entertainments were ral kinds, compounded of honey, not wholly unknown. The mi of spices, and of mulberry juice; racies or faints, and the suffer such as hypocras, pigment, claret, ings of martyrs were the subjects and morat, besides wine, cyder, of dramatic representations in

perry, and ale. London as. FitzStephens writes; - Various kinds of bread were and we find, by M. Paris, that in use. The panis piperatus' Geoffrey, an abbot of St. Alban's, was a sort of gingerbread. Warwas the author of a play of St. tel cakes and fimnel cakes, as they Katharine ; and that he borrowed were part of the royal allowance from the facristan, the holy vest of the King of Scots when in Engments of the abbey to adorn the land, were probably made of the actors,

finest meal. *(Rym. Fæd.] 6. The more gross amusements There was great inconsistenof the Norman nobility in the cy in the general and national pantomine style have been men character of the Anglo-Normans. tioned in a note from John of They were at the same time Salisbury, who, though a severe, acutely discerning and grossly was a tolerably candid critic on the credulous; honourably brave and times he lived in.

atrocioudly cruel, respectful to • The common people were the fair sex even to adoration, not without their diversions. Bull. yet brutality - licentious in their baiting, cock-fighting, and horse. conduct to individuals; effemi. racing were known to the men of nate in their dress and manners, London: the sports on the Thames, yet patient of almost intolerable the skaiting, and the various exer fatigues. cises and entertainments of the During more than

an hun. twelfth century are accurately and dred years, the Normans in Eng. even elegantly painted by Fitz land shaved their faces. w. de Stephens in his description of Lone Percy

Percy (who accompanied Duke don.

Robert in 1996 to Palestine) was " The Normans were fobcr and styled on account of fingularity racher delicate at their meals, as to this point, • William Allwhen they first invaded England. gernons,' or William with the It was not long, however, before whilkers.' they equalled their predecesors “ The dress of the Anglo-Norin feasting, and even added coftly mans was, in the eleventh epicurism to brutal giuttony: tury, simple if not elegant. The Yet two meals cach day supplied great wore a long and close gown the place of the Anglo-Saxons' which reached down to their four ; and Robert de Mellent, heels, and had its bottom frę, prime minister and favourite of quently embroidered with gold.


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Biographical Sketches of Dick E-gla-d. 255 Over this hung an equally long of his pigeons, and, of course, cloak, which was generally buc part of their plumage, but by kled over the breast. When lending him several sums of moriding or walking abroad, a hood ney, and insisting on his making always hung behind the cloak, constant use of his table, whether The close gown was put over the he was at home or absent. head like a shirt, and fastened These obligations were returned round the waist by a girdle, which with shameful ingratitude: Mrs. was often embroidered and set with E-gl-d was neither handsome nor precious stones. [Struit from Ant. inviting, yet Ma-n paid his ad. Painting :)

dresses to her, and having daily " I'hey wore breeches and opportunities, seduced her affecstockings made of fine cloth and tions from his friend ; in consefonetimes very costly. The ab quence of which the contrived surd long-toed shoes came in with causes of quarrel, left his house, William Rufus. The queen and

and took private lodgings. the women of fashion wore loose Mr E-gl--d, so far from fufgowns trailing on the ground and pecting his friend, unboromed his girt round the waist. The mar. mind to him on the occasion, and ried wonien had additional the hypocrite heard him, apparobe over the gown, hanging rentiy suffering under the severelt down before, not unlike a facer emotions of sympathetic feelings; dotal garment. To the girdle, a but, in a short time, E-gl-d diflarge purse or pouch was 'fuf covered that his confidence had pended. The men

wore their been misplaced, and that he had hair long, except sometimes when been injured by the man in whom suddenly wrought on by fanati he had most implicitly confided: cism.

in short, he was informed that “ In the approaching centuries Ma--n frequently visited Mrs.

shall find ftrange variations E-gl--d, anu continued with her from this timplicity of habit. The fien for the whole night; and, crusades indeed seem to have in- having convinced hiinlelf of the troduced to Northern Europe, truth, he resolved on vengeance. among other vices, luxury and For this purpose, Mr. E-gl--d effeminacy in dress to a degree wrote a note to. his rival, in the which a modern man of fashion ufual style of friendship, defiring would blush to imitate.

to meet him at Barnet, where, " The umbrella was in use a's after he arrived, E-gl--d took an early as the reign of king Stephen, opportunity of seizing him be[Struit.]

hind by the hair, and. cut his

queue off close to his head with A general Biographical Sketch of

a tharp knife he had prepared for the Life and Adventures of Mr.

that purpose,--and, at the same R--H--D E-GL--D.

instant, th:ee bailiffs, who at

tended at the suit of E-gl--d, (Continued from page 206.) rushed in and arrefted Ma--n, (A-N was the bosom friend hurried him into a poit-chaise,

of Mr. E-gl--d, who had and conducted him to a spungingconferred


house, from whence he was convery serious obligations, not only veyts to the Fieet. by admitting him to a knowledge E-gl-d's revenge, however, was

not complete ; he carried the fe

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