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ings of this parliament, for the acts of the legislature itself can no more be valid without a legal house of commons, than without a legal prince upon the throne.


Representatives of the people are essential to the making of laws, and there is a time when it is morally demonstrable, that men cease to be representatives; the time is now arrived: the present house of commons do not represent the people.

"We owe to your majesty an obedience under the restrictions of the laws for the calling and duration of parliament; and your majesty owes to us that our representation, free from the force of arms or corruption, should be preserved to us in parliament. It was for this we successfully struggled under James the Second; for this we seated, and have faithfully supported, your majesty's family on the throne: the people have been invariably uniform in their object, though the different mode of attack has called for a different defence.

"Under James the Second they complained that the sitting of parliament was interrupted, because it was not corruptly subservient to his designs: we complain now, that the sitting of this parliament is not interrupted, because it is corruptly subservient to the designs of your

majesty's ministers. Had the parliament under James the Second been as submissive to his commands as the parliament is at this day to the dictates of a minister, instead of clamours for its meeting, the nation would have rung, as now, with outcries for its dissolution.

"The forms of the constitution, like those of religion, were not established for the form's sake, but for the substance; and we call GOD and men to witness, that, as we do not owe our liberty to those nice and subtle distinctions, which places, and pensions, and lucrative employments, have invented; so neither will we be deprived of it by them; but as it was gained by the stern virtue of our ancestors, by the virtue of their descendants it shall be preserved.


Since, therefore, the misdeeds of your majesty's ministers, in violating the freedom of election and depraving the noble constitution of parliament, are notorious, as well as subversive of the fundamental laws and liberties of this realm; and since your majesty, both in honour and justice, is obliged inviolably to preserve them, according to the oath made to GOD and your subjects at your coronation : we, your majesty's remonstrants, assure ourselves, that your majesty will restore the constitutional government and quiet of your people, by dissolving

this parliament, and removing these evil ministers for ever from your councils."

His majesty, in his answer, was pleased to signify his concern, that any of his subjects should be so far misled, as to offer such an address and remonstrance. He at the same time pronounced the contents to be "disrespectful to him, injurions to his parliament, and irreconcilable to the principles of the constitution."

There can be but little doubt that Mr. Horne was minutely acquainted with every thing relative to this famous remonstrance, and it was then supposed, that, if not the actual penman, he at least inserted some of the most striking passages, and corrected the whole. Indeed, it is a well known fact, that he transmitted a copy of it to the printer of the Public Advertiser, accompanied with an account of the ungracious reception experienced by the citizens. The following forms the concluding passage:

"When his majesty had done reading his speech, the lord mayor, aldermen, &c. had the honour of kissing his hand; after which, as they were withdrawing, his majesty instantly turned round to his courtiers, and burst out a laughing.

« ‹ Nero fiddled whilst Rome was burning.'" For this very imprudent publication, a prose

cution was immediately commenced on the part of the crown; but after the King's Bench had been moved on this subject, it was deemed proper to drop all further proceedings.

A few days after this transaction, a most loyal address was presented by both houses of parliament to the king, in which the members, in the name of themselves and the people, "reject with disdain every insidious suggestion of those ill-designing men, who are in reality undermining the public liberty, under the specious pretence of zeal for its preservation."

Notwithstanding this, the city, in its corporate capacity, nearly at the same time, resolved to draw up and present a new address and remonstrance, which was accordingly effected on the 23d of May, 1770, and read to the king, seated on his throne, by the recorder. As this is known to have been wholly written by Mr. Horne, a copy of it shall be inserted in this place.


"Th humble Address, Remonstrance, and Petition of the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons of the City of London, in Common Council assembled.

May it please your majesty!

"When your majesty's most faithful subjects, the citizens of London, whose loyalty and affection have been so often, and so effectually proved and experienced, by the illustrious house of Brunswick, are labouring under the weight of that displeasure, which your majesty has been advised to lay upon them, in the answer given, from the throne, to their late humble application, we feel ourselves constrained, with all humility, to approach the royal father of his people.

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"Conscious, sire, of the purest sentiments of veneration, which they entertain for your majesty's person, we are deeply concerned that what the law allows, and the constitution teaches, hath been misconstrued into disrespect to your majesty, by the instruments of that influence which shakes the realm.


Perplexed and astonished as we are, by the awful sentence of censure, lately passed upon

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