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being of opinion, which they express openly, that it would be a very good thing, in the first place to chastise the colonists for their nndutifulness, and then to make them sensible of the necessity of protection by the troops of this country.

Mr. Jackson being now taken up with his election business, will hardly hate time to write by this opportunity. But he joins with me in respects to you and the assembly, and assurances of our most faithful services. I am, gentlemen, your most obedient, and most humble servant,

B. Franklin.

To Joseph Galloway, Esq.

Lord Hillsborough—'The old parliament goneFirst in* stance of bribery in Queen Elizabeth's timeMonstrously risen since.

Dear Sir, London, March 13, 1763,

I wrote to you very fully per Falconer on February 17, and have since received yours of January 21, together with ona from the committee, and the messages, which as you will see. by my answer to the committee I communicated to Lord Hillsborough. His lordship read them deliberately, aud took notice that the message of the assembly seemed to insinuate that the governor had been tardy in bringing the former murderers to justice, which gave me an opportunity of explaining that matter to him; whereby he might also understand why the proprietor had not shown him the messages w)ien he communicated the governor's letter concerning the Indian uneasinesses, the law nnder his consideration for removing them, tlie bite murder, and his proclamation. I shall wait on his lordship again next Wednesday on our affairs, and show htm moreover your letter with some other papers.

The old parliament is gone, and its enemies now find themselves at liberty to abuse it. I enclose you a pamphlet published the very hour of its prorogation. All the members are now in tbeir counties and boroughs among their drunken electors; much confusion and disorder in many places, and such profusion of money as never was known before on any similar occasion. The first instance of bribery to be chosen a member, taken notice of on the journals, is no longer ago than Queen Elizabeth's time, when the being sent to parliament was looked upon as a troublesome service, and therefore not sought after: it is said that such a one, "being a simple man, and conceiving it might be of some advantage to him, had given Jour pounds to the mayor and corporation that they might choose him to serve them in parliament." The price is monstrously risen since that time, for it is now no less than 4000/. / It is thought that near two millions will be ."pent this election; but those who understand figures and act by computation, say, the crown has two millions a year in places and pensions to dispose of, and it is well worth while to engage in such a seven years' lottery, though all that have tickets should not get prizes. 1 am, my dear friend, yours affectionately, 15. Franklin.

To The Committee Of Correspondence,
Pennsylvania.

Repeal of the duty actChange of governmentLegal tender of paper money.

Gentlemen, London, Saturday, April, 16,1768.

J have just received your favor of February 20, directed to Mr. Jackson and m\self, containing instructions for our conduct relating to the application for a repeal of the duty act, to the change of government, and to the legal tender of paper money; which instructions we shall observe to the best of our abilities. Mr. Jackson has read your letter, and is now reading the messages and other papers transmitted to us, which we shall lay before the secretaries of state en Monday, and thereupon press the uecessity of a change iu the administranon of our province. The parliament will have a short session, it is said, in May, when if any application is made for the repeal of that act by the agents of the other colonies we shall join them heartily, and do what we can likewise in the affair of paper money. In the mean time should an Indian war make it necessary to emit paper money with a legal tender, it may be considered how far the fourth clause in the act of the 24 Geo. II. might give countenance to your providing in that way for the emergency; that act not being altered or repealed by any later, it seems as if the parliament thought that clause not improper, thongh they have not expressly made the same provi;.ion for the other colonies. The mail being to go this evening, I can only add, that I am with the utmost respect for jou and the assembly, gentlemen, your most obedient and most humble servant, B. Franklin.

To Governor Franklin.

N«pD parliamentary electionsWilkes's election for MiddlesexIlluminations on that occasion.

Dear Son, London, April 16, 1768.

Since my last, a long one of March 13, nothing has been talked or thought of here, but elections. There have been amazing contests all over the kiugdom, 20 or S0,000/. of a side spent in several places, and inconceivable mischief done by debauching the people and making them idle, besides the immediate actual mischief done by drunken mad mobs to houses, windows, &c. The scenes have been horrible. London was illuminated two nights running at the command of the mob for the success of Wilkes in the Middlesex election; the second night exceeded any thing of the kind ever teen here on the greatest occasions of rejoicing, as even the small cross streets, lanes, courts, and other out. of-the-vray places were all in a blaze with lights, and the principal streets all night long, as the mobs went round again after two o'clock, and obliged people who had extinguished their candles to light them again. Those who refused had all their windows destroyed. The damage done and the expense of candles has been computed at 50,000/. It must have been great, though probably not so much. The ferment is not yet over, for he has promised to surrender himself to the court next Wednesday, and another tumult is then expected; and what the upshot will be no one can yet foresee. It is really an extraordinary event, to see an outlaw and exile, of bad personal character, not worth a farthing, come over from France, set himself up as candidate for the capital of the kingdom, miss his election only by being too late in his application, and immediately carrying it for the principal county. The mob, (spirited up by numbers of different ballads sung or roared in every street) requiring gentlemen and ladies of all ranks as they passed in their carriages tp shout for Wilkes and liberty, marking the same words on all their coaches with chalk, and No. 45 on every door; which extends a vast way along the roads in the country. I went last week to Winchester, and observed that for fifteen miles out of town, lljere was scarce a door or window shutter next the rond unmarked; and this continued here and there quite to Winchester, which is 64 miles.

• * « • •

B. Fkankli,v.

To Mr. Ross, Philadelphia.

Disorders on the American frontiersState of the capital of England on account of WilkesSending a bishop America.

Dear Sir, London, May 14, 1768.

1 received your favor of March 13, and am extremely concerned at the disorders on our frontiers, and at the debility or wicked-connivance of our government and magistrates, which must make property and even life more and more insecure among us, if some effectual remedy is not speedily applied. I have laid all the accounts before the ministry here. 1 wish I could procure more attention to them. 1 have urged over and over the necessity of the change we desire; but this country itself being at present in a situation very little better, weakens our argument, that a royal government would be better managed ami safer to live under than that of a proprietary. Even this capital, the residence of the king, is now a daily scene of lawless riot and confusion. Mobs patrolling the streets at noon-day, some knocking all down that will not roar for Wilkes and Liberty; courts of justice afraid to give judgment against him; coalheavers anil porters pulling down the houses of coal merchants that refuse to give them more wages; sawyers destroying saw mills; sailors unrigging all the outward bound ships, and suffering none to sail till merchants agree to raise their pay; watermen destroying private boats and threatening bridges; soldiers firing among the mobs and killing men, women and children: which seems only to have produced an universal sullenness, that looks• like a great black cloud -coming on, ready to burst in a general tempest. What the event will be, God only knows. But some punishment

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