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natural and artificial produce and landed interest of Great Britain will be depressed, to its utter ruin and destruction; —and consequently the balance of the power of government, although still within the realm, will be locally transferred from Great Britain to the colonies. Which consequence, however it may suit a citizen of the world, must be folly and madness to a Briton. My fit is gone off; and though weak, both from the gout and a concomitant and very ugly fever, I am much better. Would be glad to see you. Your friend* J. Pownall.

Qn the back of the foregoing letter of Governor Pownall are the following minutes by Dr. Franklin.

. This objection goes upon the supposition, that whatever the colonies gain, Britain must lose; and that if the colonies can be kept from gaining an advantage, Britain will gain it:

If the colonies are fitter for a particular trade than Britain, they should have it, and Britain apply to what it is more fit for. The whole empire is a gainer. And if'Britain is not so fit or so well situated for a particular advantage, other countries will get it, if the colonies do not. Thus Ireland was forbid the woollen manufacture, and remains poor: but this has given to the French the trade and wealth Ireland might have gained for the British empire. .

The government cannot long be retained without -the union. Which is best (supposing your case) to have a total separation, or a change of the seat of government? It'byno means follows, that promoting and advancing the landed interest in America will depress that of Britain: . the contrary has always been the fact. Advantageous situations and circumstances will always secure and fix manufactures: Sheffeld against all Europe these 300 years past.

To Governor Franklin.
Change of ministry—«Bedford party to come in.

Dear Son, London, Jan. 9, 1768.

We have bad so many alarms of changes which did not take place, that just when I wrote it was, thought the ministry would stand their ground. However, immediately after the talk was renewed, and it soon appeared the Sunday changes were actually settled. Mr. Conway resigns, and Lord Weymouth takes his place. Lord Gower is made president of the council in the room of Lord Nortbington. Lord Shelburne is stript of the American business, which is given to Lord Hillsborough as secretary of state for America, a new distinct department. Lord Sandwich, it is said, comes into the post-office in his place. Several of the Bedford party are now to come in. How these changes may affect us, a little time will show. Little at present is thought of but elections, which gives me hopes that nothing will be done against America this session, though the Boston gazette had occasioned some heats, and the Boston resolutions a prodigious clamor. I have endeavored to palliate matters for them as well as I can. I send you ray manuscript of one paper, though I think you take tie Chronicle. The editor of that paper, one Jones, seems a Grenvillian, oris very cautious, as you will see, by his corrections and omissions. He has drawn the teeth and pared the nails of my paper, so that it can neither scratch nor bite. It seems only to paw and mumble. I send you also two other late pieces of mine. There is another which I cannot find.

l am told there has been a talk of getting .me appointed under secretary to Lord Hillsborough; .but with little likelihood, as it is a settled point here that I am too much of au American. ..

I am in very good health, thanks to God. Your affectionate father, B. Franklin.

. ». To Joseph Galloway, Esq..

Change of ministryAmerican affairs.

Dear Sir, London, Jan. 9, 1768.

I wrote to you vil Boston, and have little to add except to acquaint you that some changes have taken place since my last, which have not the most promising aspect for America, several of the Bedford party being come into employment again; a party that has distinguished itself by exclaiming against us on ail late occasions. Mr. Conway, one of our friends, has resigned, and Lord Weymouth takes his place. Lord Shelburne, another friend, is stripped of the American part of the business of his office, which now makes a distinct department, in which Lord Hillsborough is placed. I do not think this nobleman in general an enemy to America; but in the affair of paper money he was last winter strongly against us. I did hope I had removed some of his prejudices on that head, but am not certain. We have however increased the cry for it here, and believe shall attempt to obtain the repeal of the act, though the Boston gazette and their resolutions about manufactures have hurt us much, •having occasioned an immense clamor here. I have endeavored to palliate matters for them as well as I can, and hope with some success. For having in a large company, in which were some members of parliament, given satisfaction to all by what I alleged in explanation of the conduct of the Americans, and to show that they were not quite so unreasonable as they appear to be, I was advised by several present to make my sentiments public, not only for the sake of America, but as it would be some ease to our friends here,

who are triumphed over a good deal by our adversaries on the occasion. I have accordingly done it in the enclosed paper. I shall write you fully on other subjects very soon: at present can only add my respects to the committee, and that I am, dear sir, your faithful humble servant,

B. Franklin.

To Joseph Galloway, Esq.

Restraining act relative to paper moneyConversation with Lord Hillsborough on the subject, and on a change of government in PennsylvaniaFarce acted by parliament respecting the mayor and aldermen of OxfordBoroughjobbingMr. Beckford's bill to prevent bribery and corruptionSarcastic reply to Mr. Thurlow who opposed it.

Dear Sir, London, Feb. 17, 1768.

In mine of January 9, I wrote to you that I believed, notwithstanding the clamor against America had been greatly increased by the Boston proceedings, we should attempt this session to obtain the repeal of the restraining act relating to paper money. The change of administration with regard to American affairs, which was agreed on some time before the new secretary kissed hands and entered upon business, made it impossible to go forward with that affair, as the minister quitting that department would not, and his successor could not engage in it; but now our friends the merchants have been moving in it, and some of them have conceived hopes from the manner in which Lord Hillsborough attended to their representations. It had been previously concluded among us, that if the repeal was to be obtained at all, it must be proposed in the light of a favor to the merchants of this country, and asked for by them, not by the agents as a favor to America. But as my lord had at sundry times, before be came into his present station, discoursed with me on the subject, and got from me a copy of my answer to his report when at the head of the board of trade, which some time since he thanked me for, and said he would read again and consider carefully, I waited upon him this morning, partly with intent to leant if he had changed his sentiments. We entered into the subject and had a long conversation upon it, in which all the arguments he used against the legal tender of paper money were intended to demonstrate that it was for the benefit of the people themselves to have no such money current among them; and it was strongly his opinion, that after the experience of being without it a few years, we should all be convinced of this truth, as, he said, the New England colonies now were, they having lately, on the rumor of an intended application for taking off the restraint, petitioned here that it might be continued as to them. However, his lordship was pleased to say, that if such application was made for the three colonies of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York, as I proposed, it should have fair play: he would himself give it no sort of opposition; but he was sure it would meet with a great deal, and he thought it could not succeed. He was pleased to make me compliments upon my paper, assuring me he had read it with a great deal of attention; that I bad said much more in favor of such a currency than he thought could be said, and all be believed that the subject would admit of; but that it had not on the whole changed his opinion, any further than to induce him to leave the matter now to the judgment of others, and let it take its course, without opposing it, as last year he had determined to have done. I go into the city to-morrow to confer with the merchants again upon it; that if they see any hopes, we may at least try the event: but I own. my expectations are now

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