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the true intent and meaning of the high contracting parties, that no distinction or difference whatever shall be made in this respect.

VI.—From and after the date of the present convention, British ships shall be allowed to proceed direct from any port of his Britannic majesty's dominions to any colony of his majesty the king of Sweden and Norway not in Europe, and to import into such colony any goods the growth, produce, or manufacture of the United Kingdom, or of any of the British dominions not being such goods as are prohibited to be imported into such colony, or as are admitted only from the dominions of his majesty the king of Sweden and Norway; and such British ships, and such goods so imported in them, shall be liable, in such colony of his majesty the king of Sweden and Norway, to no higher or other charges than would be there payable on Swedish or Norwegian ships importing the like sort of goods, the growth, produce, or manufacture, of any foreign country, allowed to be imported into the said colony in Swedish or Norwegian ships. And from and after the same date, Swedish and Norwegian vessels shall be allowed to proceed direct from any ports of the dominions of his majesty the king of Sweden and Norway, to any colony of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (other than those in the possession of the East India Company), and to import into such colony any goods, the growth, produce, or manufactures of the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, or of any of their dominions, not being such goods as are prohibited to be imported into such colony, or as are admitted only from the dominions of his Britannic majesty;

and such Swedish or Norwegian vessels, and such goods so imported in them, shall be liable, in such colony of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (other than those in the possession of the East India Company), to no other or higher charges than would lie there payable on British vessels importing the like sorts of goods, or payable on the like goods, the growth, produce or manufacture of any foreign country, allowed to be imported into the said colony in British ships.

VII.—From and after the date of the present convention, British ships shall be allowed to export from any colony of his majesty the king of Sweden and Norway not in Europe, any goods not prohibited to be exported from such colony; and such British ships, and such goods so exported in them, shall be liable, in such colony, to no other or higher charges than would be payable by, and shall be entitled to, the same drawbacks as would be there allowable on Swedish or Norwegian ships exporting such goods. And the like liberty and privileges of exportation shall be reciprocally granted in the British colonies (other than those in the possession of the East India Company), to Swedish and Norwegian ships, and to goods exported in them.

VIII.—In respect to the commerce to be carried on in vessels of Sweden orNorway with the British dominions in the East Indies, or now held by the East India Company in virtue of their charter, his Britannic majesty consents to grant the same facilities and privileges, in all respects, to the subject of his Swedish majesty, as are or may be enjoyed under any treaty ov ;u'ts of parliament, by the subjects or citizens of the most favoured nation; subject to the laws, rules, regulations and restrictions, which are or may be applicable to the ships and subjects of any other foreign country enjoying the like facilities and privileges of trading with the said dominions.

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IX.—The high contractingparties engage that all articles the growth, produce, or manufacture of their respective dominions, shall be subject to no higher duties, upon their admission from the one country into the other, than are paid by the like articles, the growth, produce, or manufacture, of anyother foreign country; and that no prohibition or restraint shall be imposed upon the importation into the one country from the other, or upon the exportation from the one country to the other, of any such articles, the growth, produce, or manufactures of either of the said states, which shall not equally extend to all other nations; and, generally, that in all matters and regulations of trade and navigation, each of the high contracting parties will treat the other upon the footing of the most favoured nation.

X.—In consideration of the advantages and facilities which the navigation and commerce of the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway will enjoy, under the present convention, and the act of parliament of the 5th of July, 1825, his majesty the King of Sweden and Norway consents that, from and after this date, vessels of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland shall be allowed to import into Sweden any merchandise or goods of European origin, which are likewise permitted to be imported into Sweden from any port whatever, with the exception of the following arti

cles :—Salt, hemp, flax, oil of all kinds, grain of all kinds, wine, tobacco, salt or dried fish, wool, and stuffs of all kinds; which, as before, shall be imported into Sweden only in vessels of Sweden and Norway, or in vessels of the countries of which such articles are the produce.

The said excepted articles shall, however, he allowed to'be imported into Sweden in vessels of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, proceeding direct from some port of the United Kingdom, provided such articles shall have been previously landed and warehoused in a port of the United Kingdom, after having been imported thither from the country of their origin.

These stipulations in favour of British commerce shall remain in force during the continuance of the present convention, and as far as the act of parliament of the 5th of July, 1825, shall continue to grant to the navigation and commerce of Sweden equivalent facilities of the same nature.

XI.—His majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and his majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, mutually agree, that no higher or other duties shall be levied, in any of their dominions, upon any personal property of their respective subjects,on the removal of the same from the dominions of their said majesties, reciprocally, either upon the inheritance of such property, or otherwise, than are or shall be payable in each state upon the like property, when removed by a subject of such state respectively.

XII—The present convention shall be in force for the term of ten years from the date hereof; and further until the end of twelvei months, after either of the high contracting parties shall have given notice to the other of its intention to terminate the same; each of the high contracting parties reserving to itself the right of giving such notice to the other at the end of the said term of ten years; and it is thereby agreed between them, that, at the expiration of twelve months after such notice shall have been received by either party from the other, this convention, and all the provisions thereof, shall altogether cease and determine. of the kingdom formed the representative body; the people had no voice and no share in its institutions, which were almost feudal. It was the kings of Portugal, that, some time after the origin of the monarchy, conceded to the third estate, those rights and that dignity which barbarous ages had denied them. Portugal then flourished, for the first time, under the protection of a purely representative government. There existed, however, no laws to give stability to institutions adopted by usage, and handed down by tradition; they fell, in consequence, into desuetude, and the Cortes were forgotten by the nation which they once represented. It has been reserved for our days to revive them by wise and stable rules. Such was the design contemplated by the royal mind of my august father, whose memory will be ever dear to Portugal—such is the design which, to his immortal honour, myaugust brotherhasconsummated, by conferring upon this nation the boon of the constitutional charter. We are called to the highest destinies, to work out the happiness of.qur country. Such a prospect should conduct us on our way with hope, and smooth the ruggedness of a journey, of which honour and glory are the noble termination. The opinion of the vast number of individuals who compose a nation, can never be expected to be uniform respecting the principles upon which the art of governing states is founded, nor upon the choice of the means for securing their happiness. This presses most strongly upon our observation at a time when successive political revolutions are taking place in the nation ; yet the Portuguese people, from their naturally quiet and

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XIII.—The present convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at London, within six weeks from the date hereof, or sooner if possible.

In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done at London, the 18th day of March, in the year of our Lord 1826.

(L. S.) George Canning. (L. S.) William Huskisson.

Additional Article. As it may sometimes happen that a Swedish or Norwegian ves

sel trading to the possessions held by the British East India Company in the East Indies, under the 8th article of the convention of this date, may find it expedient to dispose of the whole or part of her cargo, on her homeward-bound voyage, in other ports than those of Sweden and Norway, it is hereby agreed, that any such vessel may proceed with such cargo to any foreign place or port whatsoever, not being within the limits of the East India Company's charter, and excepting the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and its dependencies.

The present additional article shall have the same force and validity as if it were inserted word for word in the convention signed this day. It shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at the same time.

In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done at London, the 18th day of March, in the year of our Lord 1826.

(L. S.) George Canning.

(L. S.) William Huskisson.

The Act of Abdication of the Throne of Portugal by the Emperor of Brazil in Favour of his Daughter.

Don Pedro, by the grace of God, king of Portugal and the Algarves beyond sea in Africa, lord of Guinea, of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, &c. &c, do make known to all my Portuguese subjects that it being incompatible with the interests of the empire of Brazil, and with those of the kingdom of Portugal, that I

should continue to be king of Portugal and the Algarves, and their dominions, and desiring, by all the means in my power, to render those states happy, I think fit, of my own accord, and by my own will, to abdicate and cede all the indisputable and incontestable rights which I have to the crown of the Portuguese monarchy, and to the sovereignty of tljpse kingdoms, to

my beloved, esteemed, and dear daughter, the princess of Grand Para, Donna Maria da Gloria, in order that as reigning queen she may govern them independently of this empire, and by the constitution which I thought fit to decree, grant, and cause to be sworn to, by my Carta de Lei, of the 23rd April, of this year; and Iam farther pleased to declare, that my said daughter, the reigning queen of Portugal, shall not leave the empire of Brazil, till I am officially informed that the oath shall have been taken to the constitution, conformably to what I have ordered, and before the ceremony of betrothing, preparatory to the union which I intend she shall contract with my most beloved and esteemed brother, the Infant Don Miguel, shall have taken place, and till the marriage has been concluded. And my abdication and cession shall not be carried into effect if either of these two conditions is not performed. For these reasons, I order all the authorities who have a right to be made acquainted with my present Carta de Lei to cause it to be published, in order that my present determination may be known to my Portuguese subjects. I order the regency of my said kingdom to have it printed and published in the most authentic manner, that its contents may be actively executed; and it shall have the same force as an ordinance passed in chancery, though it be not so, on account of a contrary ordinance that it shall not be passed there, from which I have thought fit, for this purpose, to deviate, though it remains in vigour, notwithstanding the want of the countersign, and other usual formalities, with which I am also pleased to dispense. Given at the palace at Rio de Janeiro, the 2nd of May, the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six. (Signed) The King.

Speech of the Infanta Regent, at the Opening of tlie Sessions of the Portuguese Cortes, Oct. 30. The Session of the Cortes was opened on the 30th of October, at the palace of Ajuda. A deputation of twelve peers, and twelve deputies, having been nominated by the president to receive the Infanta Regent, her royal highness took her seat on a chair which had been prepared for the purpose, before the throne, when she pronounced the following discourse :—

"Worthy Peers of the Kingdom, and Gentlemen Deputies of the Portuguese nation: "In beholding you assembled on this memorable day around the throne of my august brother and king, Senor Don Pedro the Fourth, I rejoice with you and with the whole nation, that it hath pleased Divine Providence, in a manner so authentic and so solemn, to consolidate these wise institutions, which, at different periods, have constituted the happiness of many nations, and which will speedily lead to the prosperity of our dear country. You are well aware, that the country which is now denominated Portugal has never recognized, even in the most remote ages, any other government than that of a representative monarchy; but the prelates and the grandees

moderate disposition, and from the strong affection which they bear to their lawful kings, can never cherish long such differences of opinion, much less push them to fatal results. There have arisen amongst us, it is true, some perverse and traitorous individuals, who are neither true to their ancient valour and loyalty, nor to themselves; yet with difficulty have they succeeded in drawing away from the path of honour and duty, a few of their weak and imprudent countrymen, by the diffusion of misrepresentations the most gross, and the practice of impositions the most criminal. Happily, the number, whether of the seduced or of the seducers receives no increase; the great majority of the Portuguese nation remain firm in their fidelity to their country and their king. I can augur nothing but what is favourable, from the dispositions shewn by foreign nations towards us, and time, I am assured, will confirm this augury. United by the faith of treaties, and by the most undoubted proofs of friendship to one of the great European powers, and at peace with all the rest, I calculate upon the decided support of the1 'first) and upon the kindness and fraternal reciprocity of the others. AH! of them will speedily learn from experience, that the representative government of Portugal is truly just and moderate, and that it seeks not to carry disquiet into any other state on account of diversity of institutions, but limits its intentions to the energetic and steady defence of its own. Already have facts more forcibly than words, shewn the prudence and good faith of this government. These have, in a great measure, diminished the apprehensionsof aneighbouringna

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