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giiese constitution by compelling England to interfere in its defence. The ultra-royalists, with Calomarde, the minister of justice, at their head, undervalued thedanger, and silenced every whisper of prudence by pourtraying the horrible consequences of liberal institutions to the Crown and religion of Spain. The duke del' Infantado would seem to have been inclined to the more moderate and the safer course, but found himself unable to resist the united influence of the personal inclinations of the king, and the secret influence of the Apostolics, to whose burning zeal, moderation seemed treachery and indifference. He resigned the ministry of Foreign Affairs in the month of August, and was succeeded in his office by don Manuel Gonzalez Salmon.

The Portuguese ambassador directed his applications more particularly to obtain the disarming and dispersing of the rebels, whose numbers had now increased to an alarming extent, in all the frontier provinces,but especially in Gallicia, Valladolid, and Estremadura. The captains-general of these provinces not only opposed no obstacle to their proceedings, but treated them as if both parties had been allies armed in the same cause; supplied them with military stores, and refused nothing that could complete their military organization. The determinations of the Spanish cabinet were more fixed than ever, because some recent events seemed to realize all its apprehensions of destruction from the vicinity of so dangerous a neighbour as a free constitution. The promulgation of the Portuguese charter had excited much interest at Madrid, though every expression of satisfaction was prevented by the police; ami desertion, still more alarming

than those from Portugal, now took place among the troops of Spain. These desertions occurred principally in Gallicia and Estremadura, but were more formidable from the disposition which led to them, than from their extent. It may be well doubted whether they proceeded, in point of fact, from any thing connected with politics. The men no doubt belonged to those troops of the line who had formerly set up the constitution; they were said to have arranged their desertions upon a regular plan, and to have announced to the governors of the Portuguese provinces in which they took refuge, their purpose of aiding Portugal to bring the Spanish government to the adoption of a system of greater moderation; but these latter circumstances were of very doubtful truth; only two officers had joined in the desertion, and no name was even mentioned of sufficient weight to head a plot. The Apostolics, to whom even a public suspicion of political discontent existing in the army was an object of alarm, ascribed the desertions to the jealousy excited in the army at large by the gay trappings and regular payment of the Royalguards. Probably both reasons operated: an ill-paid, ill-clothed, and ill-fed, soldiery, might expect better treatment in the ranks of their neighbours, and in the political quarrel between Portugal and Spain, they would not doubt but that their services would be thankfully received. But, whatever might be the cause of the desertion, Portugal kept faith most honourably with Spain, and, on her part, at least, honestly fulfilled the obligations in which she was bound by treaty. Spain had been doing every thing to provoke her,


Revolutionists, and Liberals from almost every state in Europe, being about to enter the field against Spain, with the countenance and protection of England. There was no truth in these inventions; but, if she dreaded such a danger—and well might she dread it—it was madness to persist in a line of conduct which, if it did not render it inevitable, gave Portugal, beyond all doubt, a full right to produce it. Spain could have had no reason to complain, if Mina had entered her territory at the head of his brother exiles from the frontiers of Portugal, so long as Chaves and Montealegre were invading Portugal from Gallicia and Salamanca. In the mean time viscount Cavellas, himself a refugee, and one of the prime leaders in all the plots of therebels, had taken up hisabodefor a time in Madrid, where he resided in full communication with the ministry, supporting the interests and arranging the plansofhisparty. The presence of a declared rebel to his native sovereign was at best ;i gratuitous insult to Portugal; and her minister demanded that he should be ordered to leave Madrid. M. Salmon did not hesitate to give assurances that Cavellas would be ordered to leave Madrid, within three days, and Spain within a month; but M. Salmon had not the most distant intention that his assurances should be fulfilled, or if he had, there were stronger influences which counteracted his. At the same time, in the beginning of October, Portugal was invaded by the rebels almost simultaneously in the provinces of Tras os Montes and Algarves; the Spanish minister having promised, on the 3rd of October, that measures would be taken to prevent any further would treat its rights with much respect, or that its own rebellious subjects should not draw encouragement from the fact that "the Work of insurrection was the work of Spain. But Spain, with an infatuation for which it would be difficult to account, were it hecfes'sary to account for any measure Wf a government in which brutal, uricaiculating bigotry occupies the place of foresight, prudence, and honesty, was determined to persist in her career, till she should put it most thoroughly out of the power of any Sensible man in Europe to say ia single word in her behalf. Even now she might have retraced her steps without much humiliation; she would only have been the last to acknowledge a government, Whose principles she thought dangerous to herself, and her hatred to whose institutions she did not think it necessary to con* Ceal; the inroads made upon Portugal in October might have afforded her as favorable an opportunity as she could now expect, to come Crff Without Open disgrace, as if rftat unblushing and regular invasion' had for the first time forced upon her the unwilling belief that


her good-nature had been abused

She might Still have yielded without appearing to yield to force; England had not yet laid her hand upon the sword; France had not yet treated her with contempt; Russia had not yet read to her a lecture of grave disapprobation; the semblance of good faith now would have cbvercdall the faults and follies of the past. But Spain, besides being deprfvfefl of the exercise of sound reason, seemed to have lost every feeling of national pride ami regard for national character, and to reckon it nothing that she failed in her object, unless she could contrive

to add to that failure as many circumstances as possible of contempt and disgrace. 13 tiring the whole of November, amid her re-iterateA Assurances that nothing further needed to be dreaded from the refugees of Portugal, a new, and far more serious, invasion of that country was actually preparing. To the rebels themselves were now added Spanish lancers and guerillas; Spanish arms were distributed among the ranks, and sent across the frontier to be distributed among the peasantry; and a park of artillery was ready at Badajoz to accompany the division which was to enter the province of Alentejo. Longa and St. Juan, the captains general of Valladolid and Estremadura, who again and again had been pointed out to the government by name, as the deliberate and obstinate vtolatorsof neutrality, and who, probably for that very reason, had been studiously continued in their commands, allowed and encouraged all this bustle Of preparation under their own eyes, where the lowest whisper of discontent could not have escaped the snares and spies of the police. On the 23rd of November the rebels entered Portugal, penetrated from the north across the Douro, as far as Viseu, threw Oporto into consternation, pillaged town and country, proclaimed Don Miguel king, established juntas of regency in his name, and, for six weeks, kept the fate of Portugal turning almost upon a point. The whole of this was the work of Spain; she seemed about to derive from her obstinacy and deceit the advantage of a momentary triumph; and, but for one cabinet, she might have been successful. So soon as the invasion was known, the Spanish hiinistet at Lisbon was


suspended from his functions; .at Madrid, the Portuguese envoy instantly demanded his passports, and 'departed; the British minister, lia'sfened off the intelligence- -to England, and absented himself from court. England had patiently watched the progress of Spain, 'Smxtous not to interfere till the conduct of that power should 'justify interference to all the world. •Her advice and authority had often ^restrained Portugal, when provoca'ifem-' might have led Portugal to measures of justifiable retaliation. £®ut,' if Portugal had thus done 'Violence to her sense of insult for ia order that her ally b stand before Europe on imground, so much the more was that ally now bound to ^fet in her defence with promptitude and vigour. Within five days '•'aftfer the intelligence of the inva, sion reached London, in the be-gmning of December, the troops «*bf--Britain were on their march rf%81I'the assistance of her oldest •'ffttend, and, before the end of the "'SHenth, they were again landed on the scene of their earlier glories.

This energy and rapidity of decision came upon Spain like a thunder-bolt: like her own Sancho, when the imperious physician of Barataria snatched the favourite viands from his lips, she stood staring in stupid amazement. On an actual war with Britain she had never counted: for any thing else she might have been prepared. The recal of the French ambassador who had encouraged her in her policy, in opposition to the sentiments of his government; the departure of the Swiss guards of France from Madrid which immediately followed; and the disapprobation which the autocrat of Russia now formally bestowed upon her


ti •> ,-,.. nr o anl conduct — were all, more or less, expressions of censure, but none ,of them presented any impediment .to Ferdinand prosecuting his own j. schemes, in his own way, and with ,his own means: they gave him no .aid, but they opposed to him no positive resistance. A British army, however, was an obstacle of a very different kind; Portugal was now beyond the reach, of attack; the very rumour of the arrival of the British troops had struck dismay into the rebels, and blasted all their hopes; retreat and defeat followed fast upon each other, and within a few days they were swept, with their Spanish allies, from every corner of the kingdoni, seeking mercy in submission, Spain might arm the fugitives again .if she dared, but they themselves would never choose again to cross the frontiers with arms in their hands. Like a recreant bully, Ferdinand found it necessary to disavow Ids pretensions, when lie had most surely reckoned on making them good. He consented to , receive a minister from the Portuguese regency, a virtual recognition of the government, on his own minister at Lisbon being reinstated in his diplomatic functions. General Longa, and the governor of Ciudad Rodrigo, who had again permitted a few miserable fugitives, from the last defeat of the rebels, to re-enter Portugal, probably because new instructions had not yet reached them, were suspended from their commands, and ordered to be tried by a military tribunal. Instead of all the points, at which it was known that the rebels were to leave Spain, being stripped of troops, the garrisons on the frontiers were increased, and supported, by an army of eight thousand men, along the

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