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police on the frontiers was every where rendered more strict: by a special ordinance, all persons, whatsoever, entering the kingdom, whether suspected or not, were ordered to be arrested, till their conduct should be examined, and the purpose of their journey ascertained. It was particularly added, "the king's pleasure is, that this measure be extended even to all persons who have returned with lawful permission." At the same time ministerial circulars were issued, rousing the vigilance of the public officers not only to watch all books to be imported, but again to set to work, and examine all books already imported, calling upon the clergy to make use of the pulpit and-the confessional to enforce the giving up of prohibited works; and (as if to remove every shadow of social confidence, and hold out premiums for the gratification of lying and malicious informers), to enforce, by these mighty engines of a superstitious creed, "the duty of informing, with the greatest secresy" against persons who shall not give up such books. The confessor was to compel a man, by threats of eternal perdition, to deliver up to the Inquisition a relation or a friend who was guilty of the enormity of possessing a Bible, or a volume of Voltaire. Nothing could better illustrate the fears and jealousies of the government than the instructions given to the police after the promulgation of the constitutional charter in Portugal. By these instructions, the subaltern intendants of police were to make up lists of all persons who came under the descriptions of being attached to the constitutional system, having been national volunteers of infantry or cavalry > members of sacred battalions or com

panies, reputed free-masons, known fbreommuneros, considered liberal, exaltados, or moderates, and purchasers of national or secularized property. These lists were likewise to specify, whether any individual had been a member of the Supreme Junta of the government of Madrid, a minister, a member of any tribunal or court of justice, a deputy from any province to the Cortes, or a secretary, a political, chief, or employed on any other service, a member or curator of any political society, orapoliticalwriter. Any other thing, which might give a correct idea of the true opinions held by such individual during the prevalence of the constitution, was to be added; as well as an explanation of his conduct from the downfall of the constitution, and of the influence which he had possessed, and might have in the government, in consequence of his fortune. When any person, contained in these infamous lists, or any of his children, or servants, applied for a passport to leave the district, the general intendant was immediately to be informed of the fact, and of the suspicions to which the journey might give rise. No passport was to be given to a person "marked as attached to the constitutional system," without satisfying the police that he had good reasons for travelling. His passport, if he received one, was to specify the places through which he was to pass, and at which he was to stop in going or returning; and this specification was to serve as a notice to the authorities in these places "to have an eye upon his conduct." As if false informers could never be too numerous, or be too highly bribed, a reward of a thousandrealswaspromised to every police officer who should denounce

any meeting of persona whose names were in the lists; and if the meeting consisted of more than six persons, and the house was what was termed a suspected one, his reward was to be two thousand reals, and promotion, "even though the object of the meeting should not be ascertained"

But these, and similar measures, tyrannical as they were, could not enable the government to sleep soundly; they were in constant dread of insurrection, and public functionaries seemed to vie with each other in proving their loyalty by inventing or detecting plots. One object of terror was, the king's owrt brother, Don Carlos. A general rising in his favour all over the kingdom was daily dreaded; and the wonderful thing was, that the dislike of his adherents to the sway of Ferdinand was founded on their having discovered that the government of the latter was too liberal and moderate. Several ecclesiastics were removed from Madrid in consequence of being suspected of Carlism, and rigorous inquisitions were instituted even into families to discover these disloyal and ultra-royal inclinations. The appetite of the priesthood for revenge and power must have been, indeed, insatiable, when even the executions and proscriptions, and ordinances, of Ferdinand were insufficient to glut it. Proclamations in favour of Don Carlos were circulated throughout the kingdom; and in the province of La Mancha; circulars were addressed to the commanders of the royalist volunteers, setting forth his pretensions, and calling on them to proclaim him. The numerous bands of robbers that infested the country were suspected to be in reality under the direction of his adherents; some of them allowed travellers to pass unspoiled of any thing but their horses; the men of Corona, a bandit who kept Andalusia in alarm, sometimes used as their watch-word, "Don Carlos and the Inquisition;" and government offered a pardon to any member of his band who would deliver up this rebel, or point out the place of his retreat. Every new suspicion led to new acts of severity, and vexatious police regulations. The governor of Almeira, on the authority of an anonymous letter, prohibited the inhabitants from being out of doors after ten o'clock at night without a lanthorn, and forbade more than three persons to meet in public or private, by night or day. In its own troops the government reposed little confidence, for it could not pay them; and anxiousprecaulions were taken to prevent them from forming any lasting connection with the population. The captains-general- of . the provinces reported regularly to the government all the movements and marches made by the men under their command: they were told in their instructions, that they must "avoid too great a dissemination, which is always insufficient, compared with the extent of the country, and often useless; but when this dissemination is indispensable, it is essentially requisite to change the regiments with each other, in order that this kind of service may not injure discipline, and cause the corruption of the soldier." The kinghavinggone to visit the barracks of a regiment of provincial militia quartered at Aranjuez, arrived while the men were at dinner. "You dine late," said the king.—"Yes Sire," answered a soldier; "we dine late, and we dine on credit, too." I nu.


riWoft whlG*h 'actuttfiy> broke out was a mad attempt made iii'Valencia by general Bazan. He was an officer of some merit, and had formerly been political chief of'-Valenteial He landed on the ] 9th; of February, at Guardamar, a small sea-port a few leagues from Alicant, with about a hundred men who had joined him in1 ''hisenterprise. He pillaged the town and the church; and, on the approach of a body of royalist voItmteers, who had already placed themselves between him and the sea;''he: retired towards the mountains^ ' '• 'The royal troops, however, came up with him and his party, atlfl,1' after a desperate combat, in which he received four wounds, he himself, with his brother, and the greater part of his companions fell into the hands of the enemy. Some tff' t&em were immediately shot at Orihuela, and others hanged at Murcia. Bazan himself was spared fbri-a fewf days, ostensibly because he/waffat the point of death, in consequence of his wounds, but more probably in the hope of extorting information from him ; for he was at last shot, on the 4th of March, inalitter, which his wounds, then in a state of mortification, prevented him from leaving. His' plaii,' according to papers said to hftve 'been seized upon him and his comrades, was, to appoint a regency for the government of the kingdom, erect a supreme revolutiona'ry tribunal in the capital, wMh-< Subaltern 'tribunals in the provinces for the punishment of the royalists, and confiscate the property of the nobility and of the church:1' ;Lists of: psoscftpbkm,1 toty;' we're' said to have been ak: ready drawn 'up. l ' '••'

Thg milhary^t&'entplbj'ecl on tfcis ocejjsltjrf-to" ifttjsl^ -wvoft, -be^longed to a body, the royalist volunteers, which was indeed almost the only body of troops in whom the king could repose much confidence, but who were frequently the cause of much public disturbance themselves, and the perpetrators of lawless acts of insult, and oppression, and riot; and they aggravated their excesses by assuming a sort of privilege to commit them, because they imagined, and not without some reason, that the government was too weak either to dispense with their services, or to punish their crimes. They were the chosen support of the most extravagant of the Apostolical party; and'iaH> v/as required of them was devotionito its plans. In the provinces they were formed and recruited, and the funds for their pay were sometimes raised by the influence/inn even from the coffers, of the priesthood. After they had once felt their own importance, discipline lost its power to restrain; they raised commotions when they thought proper, and scorned the attempts of their officers to restore order. They were irregularly paid, they had arms in their hands, they were principally men of abandoned character, and no strangers to crime; and the consequence of this was, that they acknowledged scarcely any law but their own will. Three officers'be.longing to this corps had been convicted at Cordova of violent outrages committed against persons whom they chose to call liberals, and whom they consequently held, in conformity with the practice of Ferdinand's government, 'to beiout of the pale of the lawi i > Thesb officers, who; were not even in Cwsh tddyi proceeded forth with: to the eo»«!; 'which had tried them, and.


insisted that the proceedings against them should be burned: on the refusal of the judges, they and their soldiers immediately raised a riot, and the civil authorities were under the necessity of demanding military assistance from the captain-general of Seville, to enable them to maintain the public peace against the loyal defenders of "good order." In the beginning of April some tumultuary assemblages of the populace took place in the capital, in consequence of their discontent at the increase of the duties oil meat, • wine, and other provisions, an increase which had;jiartly been occasioned by the necessity of providing fqr theseverjrnmenjj arid the; troops were kepb under ) urmsi While some royalist volunteers were coming out of a house, a petard exploded near i thert riinoi the street. They send that a pistol had been fired, and aimed at them. In a moment a hundred and twenty volunteers assembled with arms in their hands, threatening to enter the houses of the Negroes (so the constitutionalists are termed), and take Yengeanbeibr the outrage. A piquet of Lancers, who had barracks in that: qliaijtery attempted todispersdi the mutineers, but they, as well as a second more considerable detachment, were repulsed. The colonel of the volunteers, M. Villamis, endeavoured to appease them, but, though popular among them, he was unsuccessful. He at length ordered the Lancers to charge them. , ■ At',, this juncture, the captain-general of the province, and the governor of the fortress, made their i appearanpeynaatti) ibyi their Ipersuasions; the volunteers at length dispersed, and,jlranquihty was restored. On thajftj8.fcrfrf May* a royalist! vojopteav assasatnatei^

c^tfeert pf,iMadrid.,oa, lie public sweet, for. no other reason than that he} was.a^^gfo-. He/jfas arrested with the bloody sabres in; his hand, and judicial proceedings vfiarfl jo.-;stituted against him. But head-dressed a petition to the king, yf$ritending that he had had a quarrel, with the unarmed man, before stabbing, him; the petition was supported by Carvajal, the inspector of the volunteers, and Calomarde, the minister of justice; and the authorities who conducted the prosecution, announced that his majesty had been pleased to pardon the volunteer. One of the municipal magistrates had the honest boldness to make a direct application to the king against this atrocious (q^^, rage onjusticeand decency; stating that the court could not; brings itself to believe that it- was, thfti royal will that assassins should be pardoned, contrary to existing laws; but the murderer, to the disgrace of this contemptible government, the slave of its,,ownl hired servants, continued to walk the streets of Madrid-in ppfec*, security. . , i . ,; ..,.,r.tiu jjninol The clergy, the directors of these exemplary troops, even.ivfin>«!tured to employ them in more ex+ itensive, and organized; combina-,tions, to make the government feel the power which they could, wield,! and urge it to the adoption of any; measuro against whiclvany solitary ray of sound reason still glimmer-: ing; in the cabinet might have made it revolt. As if the ministry had not manifested sufficient resolution in resisting the establish-* rosnt of the Portuguese constitution, the apostolics worked on their jouaing the Toy alist. volunteers. At Murcia,;pn((tbeiil,3)b of September,.the,volunteer^,, in furVhjraj^^f ,fi,jlot pfi.T^bich tb^


bishops of Murcia and Orihuela, with their chapters, were the prime movers, assembled in the great square of the town with their leaders at their head. They then divided into small parties, and marched through the streets, committing all sorts of outrages against persons suspected of liberal opinions, whom they chanced to meet. They entered moreover the houses of a great number of liberals, whom they abused, wounded, killed, and pillaged. After having employed several hours in these exploits, they again assembled in the square, and with shouts of " Death to' the Liberals; the King without Chambers for ever," marched towards Orihuela, to join the volunteers of that town, and of the country between Orihuela and Murcia. The civil authorities were in the plot, and accompanied the volunteers to Orihuela; but when they were departed from Murcia, the intendants of finance and police assembling the servants of government in the town, and some of the respectable inhabitants, succeeded in arming four hundred men, by whose means they re-established some degree of tranquillity. A similar scene was performing at the same time in the north, at Roa, a city of Old Castile. There, while the commander of the volunteers was -endeavouring in vain to restrain his mutinous soldiers, by haranguing them in the marketplace, he received a blow on the head with a club, and fell dead on jhe spot. An officer who stood by him, wished to lay hold of the murderer, and remonstrated with the men upon their guilty conduct; but he was immediately stabbed in the belly with a poinard, the point of' which protruded through his loins. The tumult now became so great,

that the authorities were glad to drag away the wounded man, and flee with him. They sought refuge in the town of San Martin, about a league from Roa, and there they demanded assistance. Thirty soldiers accompanied the authorities of the city and town to Roa, to restore order there. They reached the square where the insurrectionists had assembled; and the alcade of San Martin mounted some steps and proceeded to harangue them. He reproached them for their disloyalty and disobedience to the best of kings; but they would not even allow him to finish his speech. He was stopped by insulting cries against the person of the monarch; and the mutineers declared that neither the people nor the soldiery would submit to any authority that came in his name. There was no longer any means of resistance; and the inhabitants of San Martin, with the volunteers of that town, were forced again to seek safety in flight. Such was the authority of Ferdinand with his own army, such was the humility of the apostolic priesthood, and such were the troops to whom was intrusted in Spain, the maintenance of public order.

Nor, in fixing their empire over opinion, did the clergy neglect those means of influence which flow from wealth. Under the constitutional government, all the estates of the monasteries and convents had been sold, or declared, at least, to be national property, to be appropriated to the payment of the public debt. Persons who held property under them at a quitrent, had been allowed to redeem it, and become absolute proprietors, on making payment to the govern

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