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ing disposition of that dangerous church. A few years before, a religious association, denominated the "Brethren of the Christian Schools," professing their object to be the education of youth, and bearing a Jesuitical character, had been allowed to settle themselves in the kingdom, and each of its members had been required to sign, and had signed, a declaration that it was independent of any foreign superior. It was now discovered that these declarations had been intended to deceive; and that, notwithstanding them,the relations formerly existing between the Superiorgeneral of the body out of the kingdom, and the members of the association within the kingdom had never been discontinued; and therefore, in the month of February^ the association was suppressed by a royal decree. The archbishop of Mechlin, likewise, was severely censured in the name of the king, by the Director-general of the affairs of the Roman Catholic church, for having received through an unusual channel, and not communicating to government, a papal rescript, tending to excite disobedience and opposition to his majesty's measures regarding the Catholic church. The letter was farther denounced as being an encroachment on the rights of the bishops of the kingdom, who alone are authorized to govern their churches, the Pope having no power to interfere without violating the liberties of the church of the Netherlands, as had always been understood, and especially sincesl767i when a certain declaration from Rome, relative to a marriage of the marquess of Chasteler with a widow of Amsterdam, was declared null and void. The archbishop was > itald > that his ma
jesty intended to abide by the existing system, and was therefore most seriously warned not to make any use of the said letter, or of any others relative to the same subject, lest he should expose himself to serious consequences.
During the autumn of the year, the province of Groningen was afflicted with an epidemical disease, which spread itself likewise into Friezland, operating most fatally in the districts far removed from the sea. It appeared in the endof July: in the first week of August, the deaths of Groningen amounted to one hundred and six; and by the middle of September, their number had increased to one hundred and forty two. The sick amounted to upwards of five thousand, scarcely a single house escaping the malady; and, although the country suffered less than the cities, yet, in one village, out of a population of a thousand souls, not an hundred escaped the disease. It raged chiefly among the labouring poor: dread of contagion deprived them almost entirely of attendance and assistance, and even of medical advice. The magistrates of Groningen applied to the government for medical officers, and invited, by a public address, the services of the profession generally ; but all the remuneration they could offer was, a hundred guilders per month. The epidemic was supposed to have originated from the violent and long-continued heats, and it gradually disappeared as the winter returned.
In the Dutch budget for the year there was an increase of more than 2,000,000 florins in the expenses of its first division, partly occasioned by the half million voted to the Catholics, and a million and a half which had been expended in works on the rivers and sea coast. Holland could not spend money more usefully either for her industry or her safety; and a special commission had been appointed to examine into the means for improving the course of the rivers, and preventing those inundations, which, in a single night, could work wide-spread misery and devastation. Some of its suggestions had already been adopted, and the channels of internal communication were constantly increasing. On the expenditure forming the other branches of the budget there was 'ii :considerable diminution; and, from the preceding year, there.was a surplus revenue, which enabled the government to reduce some of the taxes, and make an addition of 10 per cent to the sinking-fund. The duties received on exports and imports amounted tOi<S,200,000 florins. '■• "A law was framed for the formation of. 'an internal military force, a militia, called Communal Guards, to be employed in maintaining the public tranquillity, and in time of war, in repelling an enemy. -If a commune, however, did not contain a population of two thousand five hundred souls, its communal guards were not to be called out in time of peace, and, during war, they were to form, with those of other communes, the levy en masse of the country. The law extended to all male inhabitants having attained their twenty-fifth, and not completed their thirty-fourth, year, on each successive first of January. The force to be embodied was to Isetwo men for every two hundred persons, and the period of service .five years.'; To have been condemned to a punishment-which the. law •heldsinfamous, iwal inada'a dia.
qualification ftont scevhjg1 .pal < this corps. >7i)jj<l .--UN/ wj'i K .JjiuifjThe darkest spot in the prosperity of the Netherlands was the intestine war which still raged in their Indian colonies, and threatened the downfal of their supremacy. The Javanese were--'-isf almost a general state of insurrection, particularly in the southern and middle districts of the island; the insurgents shewed themselves incessantly upon different points, and always in great force, thus dividing and harassing the Dutch troops, whose numbers were too small to admit of strong detachments being sent against them. The numbers of the rebels:.in.ilcreased with their success.1- On* body of them had anticipated general Van Gaen in a projected attack to be made upon them from Samarang, drove back his advanced divisions from their position at Damack, and took possession of that town. Djocjocarta and its environs, though not regularly besieged by them, was kept in perpetual alarm by their guerilla sort of predatory warfare; the natives being able to keep the field even during the rainy season, while active operations would have destroyed the European troops''by sickness and fatigue. On the 18th of February, they attacked an unfinished fort, and were repulsed; but the Netherlander, having pursued them too far, were, in their turn, attacked by an ambuscade, and forced to retreat with the loss of part of their artillery. In the month of June, fortune seemed to incline in favour of the Dutch; they successfully stormed the principal fortress of the insurgents, and dispersed the'array iwhich covered hi > Bat this success was more than counterbalanced by a defeat which they suffered in a battle fought a few weeks afterwards between Solo and Samarang. The insurgents were led by Djupo Magoro, a man of some enterprise and talent, who had raised himself to the command amongst them. The Dutch were completely defeated, losing a great number of men, among whom were several officers, with great part of their artillery and ammunition. The insurgents immediately spread themselves over the country; all communication between Samarang and Batavia was cut off by them. The government was compelled to summon to its assistance the garrisons of Sumatra, Banca, Macassar, and Borneo. Palembang again reverted to the possession of the natives; and the queen of Boni, taking advantage of the great part of the Dutch forces being withdrawn from Celebes, took the field with an army to expel the remainder. Nothing but the arrival of troops from Europe seemed likely to enable the Netherlands to retain its Eastern dependencies in subjection: the most urgent applications were made at Brussels and the Hague from the governor of Java, and were not unheeded by the government at home; but fortune seemed to have sworn to thwart all their projects.
An expedition, consisting of the Waterloo and Wassenaer men of war, was fitted out in the end of the year for Java, where the power of the insurgents was most alarming, and sailed from the Helder in the beginning of January, having on board a reinforcement of two thousand men. Scarcely had they left the shores of Holland, when they were overtaken by a violent storm. The
Wassenaer, after having lost her main-mast, and endeavoured in vain to come to an anchor, while not a cable would stand, drifted towards the shore, struck on the banks to the north of Egmont, and instantly filled with water. As she had struck so near the shore, a number of vessels were sent to her relief; and, the weather becoming more favourable, she held together, till all on board were brought safely on shore, except about forty persons, almost all of whom had been drowned when she first filled upon striking. Her consort, the Waterloo, stood out the tempest with better success, and came to an anchor under the island of Borkum, after having been entirely dismasted.
In Wirtemberg and Bavaria every thing was tranquil and contented. In succeeding his father, Louis of Bavaria succeeded the most popular prince in Europe; for to no monarch were a people ever united by a more hearty regard and good will, than were the Bavarians to Maximilian Joseph. But Louis was far from being a loser by being compared with his predecessor. He was equally liberal in disposition, but had more foresight, severer habits of thinking, and greater firmness of character. As crown prince, he had been distinguished by his love of the arts, and the collecting of their productions was the only luxury of power in which he was fond of indulging. He resisted steadily the officious attempts of the jealous cabinet of Vienna to interfere with the popular forms of government which had been established by his father, and refused to lend himself to its prying policy. Even the vigilance of his own police was disagreeable to him: and assuredly there can be no greater degradation of a government than that it should sink down into a mere superintendance of bailiffs and police officers. The Director-general having brought him the usual police report, "In future" said he, "I will dispense with your presenting me such reports; I don't wish to know scandalous anecdotes, or to penetrate into family privacy. All I require of you is, carefully to watch over the maintenance of good order, and the safety of the citizens." Prodigality, arising from facility of disposition, had been the greatest defect of the late king; he had multiplied useless places for his friends at the expense of his subjects. Louis, on the other hand, instituted a severe scrutiny into every branch of expenditure, and carried into effect every possible reduction. This system of economy naturally injured many private interests; but it was rendered imperious by the state of the finances: and his only detractors were those who suffered because the nation gained. In replying*to an address presented by the deputies of the town of Anspach he said ; • "In order to make savings, I have been obliged to make retrenchments; many branches of expenditure have been diminished half. Doubtless these measures have displeased many persons; but I could not do otherwise. People make an outcry, yet I have done only what is just. Many other changes would be necessary, but humanity restrains me. As for the persons in office, who are affected by these measures, they shall have sufficient to live upon. Even in the last assembly of the
States, many reductions should have been made, but it was proper to respect the will of my father. In the next session our budget will be very different from what it was; and if things had remained on their former footing we should have been bankrupts."
He introduced reform into his council of state, his court, the departments of his ministry, the administration of his hereditary domains, the number and pay of his troops, and, in short, into every part of the national charges. By these reforms, no less a sum than a million of florins annually was saved to the public On the other hand, positive improvements were effected in the system of public education and the management of ecclesiastical affairs, while the rights of individuals were consulted, and the laws of the constitution maintained and consolidated.
In the dominions of Austria, the Hungarian diet, which had been convoked in the autumn of the preceding year, still continued to sit in Presburgh. They had not yet agreed upon the final representation to be made to the emperor regarding the observance of the Hungarian constitution, and the losses which had been sustained from the authorized depreciation of the imperial paper-currency j they manifested a strong desire to enforce practically, what certainly is a rule of their constitution, that the important matters of recruiting and taxation should be regulated by themselves; they still shewed that the bad humours produced by the rather haughty tone of the emperor's answer to their first petition of grievances, had not yet dispersed; and the archduke Palatine still found it necessary to act as mediator between them and his brother. Those who could see in the conduct of the diet only the plain symptoms of incipient rebellion, visited them with unmeaning abuse as asserters of insurgent doctrines, and inveighed against the constitution which permitted such doings among any part of the subjects of his imperial majesty. These attacks may have been directed by a secret hand, to excite dislike for the constitution as a prelude to suppressing it, for the proceedings of the diet had been too serious to make it assailable by ridicule; but'this was the only side on which the Hungarian constitution possessed any strength. It is only as a powerful oligarchy, perfectly able, and legitimately entitled, to control the crown, that it can ever beef any use to Hungary: in no other way can it be advantageous to the great mass of the population, for they have no share in its constitution or deliberations, and it has its full quota of oligarchical vices. The diet, however, is proud of its constitution, and waxed highly wrath that it should be abused and undervalued. In an address of congratulation which they presented to the emperor upon his birth-day, they said, "Your majesty cannot be ignorant in what unworthy colours the Hungarian nation, which is so faithful to you, has been represented by the calumniators of our name and our institutions. These enemies of all legitimate rule, of order, of tranquillity, and of all power established by God, dare to circulate in their journals, assertions, in which our ancient constitution, consecrated by so many centuries, is treated with infamous derision; not only is our fidelity to your ■ '.., .b..-"; jJ'ii.A.'S ■''-'■ »
sacred and hallowed person called into question, but black thoughts are attributed to our nature, from which our minds recoil with1 horror."
The emperor, in his answer, assured them that he knew perfectly well what value was to be set upon the opinions of such calumniators, and that from him they received the contempt they deserved. But, remembering at the same time, that legislative bodies are convoked for doing business, that this Hungarian diet had been sitting four months, and done nothing, and, above all, that it had done nothing for the doing of which he had convoked it, "he was induced," he said, "by his confidence in the sincerity of the wishes of the diet for the public weal, to add a few words" of advice. "The public good," said the emperor, "requires at all times, but particularly in our days, not only that the most perfect union and reciprocal confidence should exist between nations and their princes, but also that they should be openly evinced in the most unequivocal manner. With a heart full of joy we Assembled, last autumn, the estates of the kingdom around our royal throne; every word uttered by us on the presentation of the royal propositions, sufficiently shews with what confidence we opened this diet. We justly hoped that the estates of the kingdom would profit by this longdesired opportunity to dedicate, under the protection of our thirtyfour years experience, their activity and ardent zeal to the objects judged necessary to the real good of the kingdom. Have their labours, their deliberations, and the result of them up to this time, attained the end of our wishes and