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that turned towards the stomach rate glands of a firm confiftence, is unequally concave, and that and of a reddilli brown colour.turned towards the ribs, which They are seated in the region of is convex.

the loin, on the outside of the The principal artery of the peritonæum, and within its cel. spleen proceeds from the cælic, lular web, one on the right end, the vein empties itself into the and the other on the left, between vena portæ. The nerves the last of the false ribs and the

very, numerous, and form the bone called the ileum. The Splenetic plexus. All these, when right lies upon the lower part of they enter into the spleen, are the liver, and the other under divided and subdivided into a the spleen, which last is comgreat number of ramifications, monly placed higher than the and accompany each other to the other. The right, kidney is Jast extremities of their divisions. fomewhat triangular, the leftoval, They are contained in the com and the higher part bigger than mon cellular capsule. The blood the lower. is extravaled among all these ver The arteries belonging to the fels, and kept in a web like cotton kidneys, are called the emulgent which is very fine, and spread arteries, and are generally two, one throughout the whole extent of for each kidney. The veins in the spleen, and terminates in al the kidney accompany the armost imperceptible cells which teries, and when they are united communicate with each other.

into one trunk, they are called The use of the Spleen is very the emulgent veins. A principal hard to determine : however it is vessel belonging to the kidney is probable the blood is detained called the ureter.

It is a memby this means a great while in branous pipe which receives the the spleen, in order to prepare urice, as it is separated by the it for the feparation of the bile, kidney, to carry it to the bladwhich is afterwards to be per- der. formed, in the liver,

The kidney has two coverings; The capsule atrabiliares, called the firft consists of the cellular by fome the renal glands, are two leb of the peritoneum, and ge. glandulous bodies seated on each nerally contains a great deal of lide, a little obliquely on the up- fat, This being removed, you per and more internal part of the may

discover the proper tegukidney, and are joined to it by a ment or covering of the kidney fine cellular web, and are cover which it surrounds. It con Gifts ed by the external tegument of of two lamine, which are united the kidney itself, called the adi- | by a five cellular web, and be. paus membrane. The substance tween there the lymphatic vel, of these renal glands is soft and sels creep along. fpungy, covered with a fine mem The kidney is composed of brane, and their colour is yel. three different substances: the lowish. In a fætus they are first is the cornical, which confifts large as the kidneys. They have of a great number of blood and à cavity which contains a yel. nervous vessels with glandulous lovili liquor, though by some grains. The second is tubulous, faid to be black. The use of and is composed of urinary pipes; ; these is hitherto unknown.

which change into the third fube The kidneys are two conglome, Itance called the papillary, Lie

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nervous.

A Treatise on Farriery:

303 cause it ends in ten or twelve ; pens, which causes a contradina

papillæ full of finall holes, which of its muscular coats theo with open into the pelvis or bason. the aslistance of the muscles of This last is ihe membranous ca. the belly and the midriff, the revity of the kidney, fending forth fistance of the sphincter is overtubes or pipes which embrace the powered, and fo the urine efpapillæ like funnels.

capes. The urine is much of the The ureter's are membranous faine nature as the sweat, and canals or pipes which reach from they have such a relation to one the kidneys to the bladder where another, that when the one is in they are inserted obliquely | encreased, the other is diminabove its neck. The coats are

ilhed. fupposed to be like those of the The first thing to be confiderguts.

ed in the organs of generation, are The bladder is a membranous the testicles or stones, whose fitu. bag, whose situation is well ation is well known. Their shape" known, and is connected to the is oval, a little fatted on the peritonæum only by its posterior sides, their coverings are comand fuperior part, and therefore mon and proper : the common is may be opened without hurting the skin in which they are con

The force and lower tained, which is divided into part is called the neck. Its coats, two parts, the one right and t:e like the intestines, are common,

other left, which outwardly apmuscular, and

This pears like a seam. The proper last being the inner, is exceeding membranes are, first, the vaginal, sensible.

which consist of several membra. Next the neck of the bladder nous cells, and is a continuation is the urethra, through which the of the cellular web of the peritourine is conveyed out of the body,

and covers the whole and is much longer in horfes testicle as well as its vessels. The than in mares.

The bladder is second is a reddith membrane connected in horses to the reguum which adheres close to the foror straight gut, and the feminal mer, and is only an expançon of vessels; in mares to the vagina, a ligament. Under the vaginal and in'both to the os pubis, by coat there is a bag proper to each ligamentous and fielny fibres, testicle, which surrounds them,

In the middle of the upper and is only connected to the epipart there is a ligamentous chord didymes. Lattly, the albuginious called the ruachus, which tere which is ítrong, and adheres minates at the navel and is a closely to the substance of the continuation of the membranes testicles. It receives the sperof the bladder. The kidneys se matic vessels, and transmits them parate the excrementitious fuid to the teftes. The proper ves. from the blood, called the urine, i sels are the spermatic arteries, which passes through the papillæ which arise by a small beginning into the funnels, and from thence from the great artery, and the into the bason, and is discharged Spermatic veins. by the ureter into the bladder, The epididymes are two, one to swhere it remains for some time by each testicle, which lie on the the help of a sphincter which superior part in the shape of a surrounds its neck, and stops its caterpillar. Their fubftance is parage, till an uneasiness hap. vasculous, and all the vessels open

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304

A Treatise on Farriery. into one duct called the vas defe-, of the body is the chest, which is rens, by which it transmits the bounded on the lower part by the feed which it receives from the midriff, on the upper by the two teftes.

first true ribs with the collar The vas deferens is a whitilh bones, on the fore part by the · pipe which looks like a nerve, fternum and the exiremities of

and reaches to the seminal vessels the ribs, and on the back part by and the urethra. Their use is to the extremities of the ribs that convey the feed to the seminal join to the back-bone, and by veifels and to the urethra itfelf at the back-bone itself. the time of covering a mare, The proper containing parts of

The feminal vejels are feated the chest are boney, fleshy, and under the bladder, near its veck, menabranous.

The boney parts and are divided into various cells, are the ribs, the vertebræ of the which communicate with each back, and the sternum. The other. Each vessel has an excre- fleshy are the intercostal muscles, tory duct, which opens with a the fternocofal, and the midriff. double orifice into the urethra on Among the membranous the pleura the under fide, near the neck of is chief. the bladder.

The parts contained are the - The yard is the chief organ of heart and the lungs. generation, whose shape and fize The pleura is a membrane of a are well known. It begins with close texture, which lines the two bodies which unite under cheft throughout its whole exthe os pubis, to which they are tent, and supplies the other parts connected by a ligament. The contained therein with a cover. jnoer texture is spongy, on the ing. The internal surface of the under part of which is the ure- pleura is smooth and polished, thra for the passage of the urine and always moist with a ferofity before-mentioned. It is lined that oozes from the pores, and is with a membrane full of small covered outwardly with a celluglaods, which feparate a liquor lar web like the peritonæum, fuar defends it froin the acrimony The pleura makes a fold or dou. of the urine.

bling at the vertebræ of the The parts of generation of a back, which terminates the whole mare are analogous to those of a length of the sternum: The woman; and that they have a doubling is called the mediaficlitoris is plain from an herma It separates the chest into phrodite of this species who was two parts, the one right, and carried about for a show. The the oiher left. It does not adbottom of the womb is divided here to the middle of the iterinto two parts, called horns, as in num, but a little to the left, other quadrupeds.. But I need whence the right cavity is largest. not be more particular in defcri The two lamina, whereof the bing these parts, because, if due mediastinum consists, are not se. care be taken, they seldom or ne

parated from each other imme, ver come under the confideration diate!y behind the stefnum in the of a farrier.

fore part, but afterwards recede from each other to inake room for several parts, as the pericar

dium, part of the windpipe, the The second cavity of the trunk gullet, the thoracic du&t, &c. .

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1

A Treatise on Farriery.

305 Each laminæ forms a kind of when the ventricles are dilated, purse for each lobe of the lungs. and dilate when the ventricles

The mediastinum serves to hin are contracted; they being antader the passage of any fluid shed gonift muscles to each other. on one side of the breast from

The ventricles are two remark. palling into the other. This able cavities; the one is the partition secures a free breathing right, and the other the left. on one side, if the chest mould The right is thinner, weaker, be opened on the other. It also and larger than the left. It rehinders one side of the lungsceives the blood from the vena from resting upon the other, cava and the right auricles, and when a horse lies on one side. drives it into the pulmonary ar

The thymus is a glandulous tery and the lungs. The left is body feated in the upper part of stronger and thicker, and not so the thorax, immediately under large. It receives the blood the sternum: its use is uncertain. from the pulmonary vein and the

The pericardium is a membra. left auricle, and forces it into the nous purse of a close texture, great artery. which immediately incloses the The columnae carne, or flelliy heari, and which is placed be columns, are in the ventricles as tween the two leaves of the me. well as the auricles; and are so diastinum; the figure is like that many small muscles, by the con. of the heart, but leaves room course of whose membranous enough for its motions. It is fibres, are formed peculiar mem. connected to the mediastinum, to branes, called valves, placed at the diaphragm, and to the great the orifices of the auricles. The vessels of the heart. It contains columos run transversely from a liquor to lubricate the surface one side of the ventricle to the of the heart, and serves to keep other, partly that they may aslist it in its proper place.

the contraction of the heart in The heart is a hollow muscle the systole, and partly to prevent of a conic figure, which is the too great a

dilitation in the principal organ of the circula. diastole. tion of the blood. The larger The valves are of three kinds : part is called the basis, the finaller tricuspidal, which are three, and ihe point. It inclines to the left, placed at the orifice of the right where its bearing may be per: ventricle, which answers to the ceived. At the basis of the heart zuricle on the same side. Min are two small porses which seem tral, which are seated in the left to be appendices, and are called ventrical where it communicates the right and left auricies of the with the auricle, preventing the heart. The right is the largest. returning of the blood into the They have cach two orifices, heart froin the veins. The semiwhereof one answers to the vein lunar, which are three, and are which discharges itself therein, placed at the beginning of the and the other to ies proper ven. great, .as also at the pulmonary tricle. Each aoricle con lifts of a artery, to hinder the return of double row of semicircular fleshy the blood from the arteries into fibres, and are strengthened by the heart. urhers, in the shapes of columns The muscular fibres of the heart between which there are con. are in some places straighi, in fiderable spaces. These contract l others spiral.'. These are of a

double

306

A Treatise on Farriery.

double order; the external, which, diaftinum, and to the heart by its run from the basis and tendon of vefsels, but also to the pharynx the heart towards the left; the and the tongue hy means of the internal, which run towards the windpipe. There are also two right, and interfect the former. membranous ligaments, which When they act, they conftringe advancing from the posterior their cavities regularly, and ex edge of each lobe, terminate in pel the blood, which is called the the vertebræ of the back, as far fyfole. When they are relaxed, as the diaphragm. the two ventricles are dilated ; The lungs are covered with a this is called the diastole. The membrane which is continued to auricles are, the two hollow muf- the pleura. This membrane has cles which are the antagonists of two laminæ, the internal of the ventricles, for they contract which forms several partitions when the ventricles are dilated; which penetrate into the fub. and when the ventricles contract stance of the lungs, and divide it they are dilated, as was observed into innumerable small bodies before.

called lobules, of various angular The blool-vessels of the heart figures. These lobules have spaare of two kinds; the proper ces between them, in which the veios and arteries, called the co nerves and blood. vessels lie, ronary, distributed through the which make ramifications on the heari; and the common, of which external surface of the lobules. two are veins, the vena cava, and There is likewise a cellular web the pulmonary vein: and two ar: in these spaces, which surrounds teries, the great artery, and the the nerves and blood vessels. pulmonary artery.

The air cannot pass from one The use of the heart is to pro. of the lobules into another, but mote the circulation of the blood; only from the lobules into the for it receives the blood from all cells which surround the blood. parts of the body by the veins, vessels which lie therein, and and by its contraction sends it back from these spaces or cells back to all parts of the body by into the lobules. There are the arteries. Upon these pot therefore two forts of cells, the only the functions of the body de bronchic cells, of which the lobules pend, but even life itself.

confift, and the vascular cells, The lungs, commonly called which surround rhe vessels. the lights, is the largest vifcus in The trachea artéria, or wind. che chest, and is divided into two pipe, begins at the bottom of the parts or Jobes, one on each side mouth, and runs along the midof the mediaftinuni, and contain dle and anterior part of the neck, the heart in the middle. They and goes to be distributed into are not subdivided in a horse so

the lungs by a great number of much as in other quadrupedes. ramifications. The upper part Each lobe is divided into {ma!! of this is called the larynx, and cells, which are the extremities the ramifications in the lungs the of the asperia arteris, whence bronchia. The' trachea aiteria is the substance is veliculous and a pipe which is partly cartaiagi. fpungy.

nous, and partly membranous; The lungs are not only con the former is the fore part, and I nected to the iternum and to the the latter is the hind part. vertebræ of the back by the me.

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