266 On the Barrenness of the Mule and Free Martin. T has long been supposed that the mule was barren, but the contrary has been proved in several instances, though they are rare, and the produćtion of the mule is neither so strong, nor so long-lived as its parents. St. Donjingo has afforded three instances of fruitful mules: the first produced a foal in O&tober, 1771, at the habitation of M. Verron, at Terreins Rouges, which lived till June, 1776; the second foaled at La Petite Anse, the plantation of M. Noord, in 1774, but the young animal died soon; the third event happened in 1788, at La Grande Riviere, the habitation of M. Gouivon; the foetus is in the cabinet of the Society of Arts, &c. at Cape Francois. The free martin, as it is called, has likewise been supposed to be barren. The free martin is the female twin of a cow when the twins are of each sex. The late Mr. John Hunter pronounced the free martin an hermaphro. dite; but we have an instance of one of these producing a calf, the owner of it was a Mr. Brock, in North Tanton, near Barnstaple, haps, of filence, 209 ments of the mind, and finding whist of that number, they religiously adopted all its laws, and observe them with the utmost punétuality, excepting that, perwhich is so highly repugnant to their vivacity, and their utter abhorrence to shut the door of their lips. The chances or hazards of this game have been calculated by the greatest mathematicians of England, and M. de Moivre did not disdain to bestow his attention on them. He found : 1. That there are 27 chances against 2, or thereabouts, that the dealer and his partner will not have the four honours2. That there are 23 against 1, or thereabouts, that the eldest hand will not have the four hoIn outs. 3. That there are 8 against 1, or thereabouts, that neither on one side nor the other there will be the 4 honours. 4. That there are 13 against 7, or thereabouts, that the two who give the cards, will not reckon the honours. 5. That there are 25 against 16, or thereabouts, that the honours will not be equally divided. The same mathematician also determines that the chances in favour of the partners that have already 8 points of the game, if they give the cards, against *. w ino who have 9 points, are near about as 17 to 1 1. But if those who have eight of the game are eldest hand, the chances will be as 34 to 29. Several problems are proposed on this game, and particularly this, the precise solution where. of would shed abundance of light on several others of like nature. To find the chance that he who gives the cards will have four trumps. - One trump being certain, the problem is reduced to this: To find what probability, there is that in drawing at hazard, 12 cards out of $ 1, of which 12 are trumps, and 39 are not trumps, 3 of the 12 will be trumps. We shall find by the rule of M. de Moivre, that the sum totai of chances for him who deals the cards=92, 770, 723, Soo; and that the total of the chances for drawing 12 cards out of 51 =158, 753, 389, 9oo. The difference of these two numbers=65, 982, 666, 100. The chances then will be as 9277, &c. to 6598, &c. Now we may calculate the chance of three players who have to, I I, or 12 trumps, of the number of 39 cards; then we shall find that the total of the chances for getting 10, 11, or 12 trumps in 39 cards==65, 982, 666, roo; and that ail the chances of the number of 5 t cards= 158, 753, 389, 9oo. The difference= 92, 770, 723, 8oo-all the chances in favour of him who deals, and the chances will be 9277, &c. to 6598, &c. as above. - The mathematicians, after hav the calculation by a great number of figures, have sought out, and shewn the proportions that come nearest the truth, produced by the least number of figures; and this is what is called the |