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freta diffundi, rapidisque tumescere ventis
it, et ambitæ circumdare litora terræ.
idit et fontes, immensaque stagna lacusque,
ininaque obliquis cinxit declivia ripis :

diversa locis' partim sorbentur ab ipsâ,? are perveniunt partim, campoque recepta 10 rioris aquæ pro ripis litora pulsant. Sit et extendi campos, subsidere valles, nde tegi silvas, lapidosos surgere montes. que duæ dextrâƏ cælum totidemque sinistra tte secant Zonæ, quinta est ardentior illis ; 15

onus inclusum numero distinxit* eodem ira Dei, totidemque plagæ tellure premuntur. w warum quæ media® est, non est habitabilis æstu ; ix tegit alta duas; totidem inter utramque locavit, emperiemque? dedit mixtâ cum frigore flammâ. 20 nminet his aër, qui, quanto est pondere terræ ondus aquæ levius, tanto est onerosior igni.S llic et nebulas, illico consistere nubes ussit, et humanas moturato tonitrua mentes, It cum fulminibus facientes frigora ventos. 11 25 lis quòque non passim mundi fabricator habendum 12

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Margine terrarum porrexerat Amphitrite.

10 Quàque fuit tellus, illic et pontus et aër;

le Sic erat instabilis' tellus, innabilis unda, Lucis egens aër: nulli sua forma manebat; Obstabatque aliis aliud : quia corpore in uno Frigida pugnabant calidis, humentia siccis,

15 Mollia cum duris, sine pondere habentia pondus.

Hanc Deus et melior litem Natura diremit:
Nam cælo terras, et terris abscidit undas,
Et liquidum spisso secrevit ab aere cælum,
Quæ postquam evolvit cæcoque exemit acervo, 20
Dissociata locis concordi pace ligavit.
Ignea convexi vis et sine pondere cæli
Emicuit, summâque locum sibi legit in arce.
Proximus est aër illi levitate locoque;
Densior his tellus, elementaque grandia traxit, 25
Et pressa est gravitate sui : circumfluus humor
Ultima possedit, solidumque coërcuit orbem.

FAB. II.The Creation of Man.
Sic ubi dispositam, quisquis fuit ille Deorum,
Congeriem secuit sectamque in membra redegit ;10
Principio terram, ne non æqualis ab omni
Parte foret, magni speciem glomeravit in orbis.

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1 Instabilis, unstable, not fired, or not to be stood upon.
2 Aliud obstabat aliis, oné element stood in the way of others.

3 Habentia pondus pugnabant cum iis quæ erant) sine pondere, bodies having weight struggled with those which were without weight, i.e. heavy bodies with light.

4 Liquidum cælum, the pure ether ; aëre, the atmosphere. 5 Quæ (semina, or elementa), these, the elements previously mentioned.

6 Dissociata locis ligavit concordi pace, being disunited from their (former) places, be combined in harmonious peace.

7 Ignea et sine pondere vis convexi cæli emicuit, the fiery and weightless element of the vaulted heaven, i. e. the ether, darted up. Vis cæli are used for cælum, and convexi is used in the sense of concavi.

8 Traxit grandia elementa, attracted the heavier particles of matter.

9 Possedit ultima (loca), took possession of the most remote parts; as encircling the extremities of the earth's surface. 14.10 The order is, Ubi (Deus), quisquis deorum ille fuit, secuit congeriem sic dispositam, redegitque (eam) sectam in membra, and reduced it when thus divided (distinct) elements, i. e. to fire, air, earth and water. $1

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Tum freta diffundi, rapidisque tumescere ventis 5
Jussit, et ambitæ circumdare litora terræ.
Addidit et fontes, immensaque stagna lacusque,
Fluminaque obliquis cinxit declivia ripis :
Quæ diversa locis' partim sorbentur ab ipsâ,?
In mare perveniunt partim, campoque recepta

10 Liberioris

aquæ pro ripis litora pulsant. Jussit et extendi campos, subsidere valles, Fronde tegi silvas, lapidosos surgere montes. Utque duæ dextrâồ cælum totidemque sinistra Parte secant Zonæ, quinta est ardentior illis; 15 Sic onus inclusum numero distinxit* eodem Cura Dei, totidemque plage tellure premuntur.' Quarum quæ media® est, non est habitabilis æstu ; Nix tegit alta duas; totidem inter utramque locavit, Temperiemque' dedit mixtâ cum frigore flammâ. 20 Imminet his aër, qui, quanto est pondere terræ Pondus aquæ levius, tanto est onerosior igni.S Illic et nebulas, illico consistere nubes Jussit, et humanas moturalo tonitrua mentes, Et cum fulminibus facientes frigora ventos. "1 25 His quòque non passim mundi fabricator habendum!

12

1 Diversa locis, for diversis locis, in various places. Diversa is here made to agree with qua, the nominative to the verb, instead of being in the same case as locis, a form of expression not unusual with Ovid. See 1, 6, 11.

2 Sorbentur ab (terra) ipsâ, are swallowed up by the earth itself. Sce Arethusa in Index.

3 Utque duæ Zonæ secant cælum dextrâ parte, and as two zones divide the heaven on the right. See Zona.

4 Distinxit inclusum onus, divided the enclosed mass, i. e. the earth, which was supposed to be included within the sphere of the heavens.

5 Totidemque plagæ premuntur (in) tellure, and as many zones are marked on the earth, i. e. are imprinted on the earth by the corresponding zones of the celestial sphere.

6 Quarum (zonarum, zona) quæ est media, of which zones that which is in the centre.

7 Temperiem, due temperature; mixtå flammâ, by mixing heat.

8 Qui est tanto onerosior igni, quanto pondus aquæ est levius pondere terræ, thich is as much heavier than fire (i. e. ether) as the weight of water is lighter than the weight of earth.

9 Illic, there, i. e. in the atmosphere. 10 Motura, calculated to alarm. spony 11 Ventos cum fulminibus, for fulmina et ventos, a form of expression frequently employed by Ovid.

12 Habendum passim, to be possessed by them without control.

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Aëra permisit : vix nunc obsistitur' illis, il 1)
Quum sua quisque regant diverso flamina tractu,
Quin lanient mundum; tanta est discordia fratrum. I
Eurus ad Auroram Nabateaque regna recessit 30
Persidaque, et radiis juga subdita matutinis.

:(
Vesper et occiduo quæ litora Sole tepescunt,
Proxima sunt Zephyro; Scythiam Septemque trionem
Horrifer invasit Boreas; contraria telluss
Nubibus assiduis pluvioque madescit ab Austro. 35
Hæc super imposuit liquidum et gravitate carentem ;
Æthera, nec quicquam terrene fæcis habentem.
Vix ea limitibus dissepserat omnia certis,
Quum, quæ pressa diu massâ latuêre sub illà,
Sidera cæperunt toto effervescere cælo.

40 Neu regio foret ulla suis animantibus' orba, Astra tenent cæleste solum," formæque Deorum; Cesserunt nitidis habitandæ piscibus undæ ; Terra feras cepit, volucres agitabilis aër.

Sanctius his animal mentisque capacius altæl 45 Deerat adhuc, et quod dominari in cetera posset. Natus homo est, sive hunc divino semine fecit Ille opifex rerum, mundi melioris origo;" Sive recens tellus, seductaque nuper ab alto Æthere, cognati retinebat semina cæli.12

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1 Vix obsistitur illis,quin lanient mundum, resistance is with difficulty made to them; they can scarcely be prevented from tearing the world to pieces.

2 Regant refers to the winds collectively, and is therefore put in the plural; while quisque refers to each singly, and requires regat to be supplied in the singular. 3 Fratrum, See Ventus. A. R. A. 473.

4 Septemque trionem, for Septemtrionemque, and the north. 5 Contraria tellus, the opposite part of the earth, the southern.

6 Nec habentem quicquam terrenæ fæcis, and containing no portion of earthy matter. Ea, these, i. e. the four elements.

7 Effervescere toto cælo, to burst forth over the whole sky.
8 Suis animantibus, animals peculiar to itself.
9 Cæleste solum, the firmament of heaven ; formæ Deorum, for Dii.
10 Capacius altæ mentis, more capable of lofty thought.
11 Origo melioris mundi, the creator of a better word.
12 Retinebat semina

cognati cæli, still retained the properties of heaven, to which it was related. It was a dogma of the Pythagoreans that the soul of man was a portion of that all-pervading deity who animated the universe.

5

Quam satus läpeto, mixtam fluvialibus undis,
Finxit in effigiem moderantum cuncta Deorum.
Pronaque quum spectent' animalia cetera terram,
Os homini sublime dedit, cælumque tueri
Jussit, et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus.

55 Sic, modò quæ fuerat rudis et sine imagine, tellus Induit ignotas hominum conversa figuras.?

Fab. III.—The Four Ages.'
AUREA prima sata est ætas, quæ, vindice' nullo,
Sponte suâ, sine lege, fidem rectumque colebat."
Pæna metusque aberant ; nec verba minacia fixo
Ære' legebantur : nec supplex turba timebant
Judicis ora sui ; sed erant sine judice tuti.
Nondum cæsa suis, peregrinum ut viseret orbem,
Montibus in liquidas pinus descenderat undas ;
Nullaque mortales præter sua litora nôrant.
Nondum præcipites cingebant oppida fossæ ;
Non tuba directi, non æris cornua flexi,

10
Non galeæ, non ensis erant; sine militis usu
Mollia securæ peragebant otia gentes.
Ipsa quòque immunis rastroque intacta, nec ullis
Saucia vomeribus, per se dabat omnia tellus ;
Contentique cibis, nullo cogente, creatis,

15 Arbuteos fetus, montanaque fraga legebant, 1 Prona spectent terram, stooping downwards look upon the earth.

2 Conversa induit figuras hominum ignotas, being changed assumed the figures of men, till then unknown. 3 Nullo vindice, without any avenger of wrong. The ablative absolute. 4 Colebat fidem rectumque, practised honesty and integrity. 5 Fixo ære, on plates of brass fixed up. See Adam's Roman Antiquities, p. 79.

6 Nondum descenderat in liquidas undas, had not yet descended into the liquid waves, had not yet been launched. Pinus is here used for a ship, because ships were frequently made of pine. A. R. A. 347.

7 Non tuba directi (æris), no trumpet of straight brass. A. R. A. 314. 8 Ipsa per se dabat omnia, produced spontaneously all kinds of fruit.

9 Arbuteos fetus, the fruit of the arbute, or strawberry tree. The evergreen strawberry tree grows wild in Italy, and produces a fruit very much resembling our strawberry, but larger. Fraga, wild strawberries, which are often found on wooded hills. Corna, cornels, the fruit of the cornel tree, a species of cherry of a beautiful red colour. Mora, blackberries, the fruit of the bramble.

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