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exile. He that goes this accompanied, carries the restitution of their arms will reconcile them with him all that makes lif: pleasant. He sits to their country, let them have again tus down in a bette: climate, surroundid by his weapons, which will not be more mischievous at kindred and his friends: they carry with them home than in the colonies. That they may not their language, thrir opinions, their popular fly from the increase of rent, I know not whe songs, and hereditary merriment; they change ther the general good does not require that the nothing but the place of their abode; and of that landlords be, for a time, restrained in their dechange they perceive the beneit.

mands, and kept quiet by pensions proportionate This is the real fact of emigration, if those to their loss. that go away together settle on the same spot, To hinder insurrection by driving away the and preserve their ancient union. But some re people, and to govern peaceably by having no late ihat these adventurous visitants of unknown subjects, is an expedient that argues no great. regions, after a voyage passed in dreams of plenty profundity of politics. To soften the obdurate, and felicity, are di-persed at list upon a sylvan io convince the mistaken, to mollify the resentwilderness, where their first years must be spent ful, are worthy oi a statesman; but it affords a in toil to clear the ground which is afterwards legislator little self-applause to consider, that to be tilled, and that the whole effect of their where there was formerly an insurrection, there undertaking is only more fatigue and equal is now a wilderness. scarcity.

It has been a question often agitated, without Poth accounts may be suspected. Those who solution, why those northern regions are now are gone, will endeavour by every art to draw so thinly peopled, which formerly overwhelmed others after them; for as their numbers are with their armies the Roman empire? The greater, thay will provide better for themselves. question supposes what I believe is not true, When Nova Scotia was first peopled, I remember that they had once more inhabitants than they a letter, published under the character of a New could maintain, and overflowed only because Planter, who related how much the climate put they were full. him in mind of Italy. Such intelligence the This is to estimate the manners of all counHehridians probably receive from their trans- tries and ages by our own. Migration, while marine correspondents. But wiih equal temp- the state of life was unsettled, and there was tations of interest, and perhaps with no greater little communication of intelligence between niceness of veracity, the owners of the islands distant places, was among the wilder nations of spread stories of American hardships to keep Europe capricious and casual. An adventurous their people content at home.

projector heard of a fertile coast unoccupied, and Some method to stop this epidemic desire of led out a colony; a chief of renown for bravery wandering, which spreads its contagion from called the young men together, and led them valley to valley, deserves to be sougbe with great out to try what fortune would present. When diligence. In more fruitful couniries, the re- Cæsar was in Gaul, he found the Helvetians moval of one only makes room for the succes preparing to go they knew not whither, and put sion of another; but in the Hebrides, the loss of a stop to their motions. They settled again in an inhabitant leaves a lasting vacuity; for no- their own country, where they were so far from body bom in any o her part of the world will wanting room, that they had accumulated three choose this country for his residence; and an years' provision for their march. island once depapulated will remain a desert, as The religion of the north was military; it long as the present facility of liavel gives every they could not find enemies, it was their duty to one, who is discontented and unscttled, the choice make them: they travelled in quest of danger, of his abode.

and willingly took the chance of empire or death. Let it be inquired, whether the first intention If their troops were numerous, the countries from of those who are fluttering on the wing, and col. which they were collected are of vast extent, lecting a flock that they may take their flight, and without much exuberance of people, great be to attain good or avoid evil? If they are armics may be raised where every man is a sol. dissatisfied with that pari of the globe which dier. But their true numbers were never known. their bith has allotted'them, and resolve not to Those who were conquered by them are their live without the pleasures of happier climates; historians, and shame may have excited thein to if they long for bright suns, and calm skies, and say, that they were overwhelmed with multiflowery fields, and tragrant gardens, I know not tudes. To count is a modern practice, the an. by what eloquenre they can be persuaded, or by cient method was to guess; and when numbers what offers they can be hired to stay.

are guessed, they are always magnified. But if they are driven from their native coun- Thus England has for several ycars been try by positive evils, and disgusted by ill treat- filled with the achievements of seventy thou. ment, real or imaginary, it were fit to remove sand Highlanders employed in America. 1 their grievances, and quiet their resentment; have heard from an English officer, not much since, if they have been hitherto undutiful sub-inclined to favour them, that their behaviour jects, they will not much mend their principles deserved a very bigh degree of military praise; by American conversation.

but their number has been much exaggerated. To allure them into the army, it was thought One of the ministers told me, that seventy thouproper to indulge them in the continuance of sand men could not have been found in all the iheir national dress. If this concession could Highlands, and that more than twelve thousand have any effect, it might easily be inade. That never took the field. Those that went to the dissimilitude of appearance, which was supposed American war, went to destruction. Of the old to keep them distinct from the rest of the nation, Highland regiment, consisting of twelve hun. might disincline them from coalescing with the dred, only seventy-six survived to see their Pennsylvanians, or people of Connecticut. If country again.

The Gothic swarms have at least been mul- | purchase, the rooms are very heterogeneously tiplied with equal liberality. That they bore filled. With want of cleanliness it were ingrátino great proportion to the inhabitants in whose tude to reproach them. The servants having countries they settled, is plain from the paucity been bred upon the naked earth, think every of northern words now found in the provincial door clean, and the quick succession of guests, languages. Their country was not deserted for perhaps not always over-elegant, does not allow want of room, because it was covered with much time for adjusting their apartments. forests of vast extent; and the first effect of ple- Huts are of many gradations; from murky nitude of inhabitants is the destruction of wood. dens to commodious dwellings. As the Europeans spread over America, the The wall of a common hut is always brult lands are gradually laid naked.

without mortar, by a skilful adaption of loose I would not be understood to say, that neces- stones. Sometimes perhaps a double wall of sity had never any part in their expeditions. A stones is raised, and an intermediate space filled nation whose agriculture is scanty or unskilful, with earth. The air is thus completely excluded. may be driven out by famine. A nation of hun- Some walls are, I think, formed of turfs, held ters may have exhausted their game. I only together by a wattle, or texture of twigs. Of affirm that the northern regions were not, when the meanest huts the first room is lighted by the their irruptions subdued the Romans, overpeo- entrance, and the second by the smoke hole. pled with regard to their real extent of territory, The fire is usually made in the middle. But and power of fertility. In a country fully in there are huts or dwellings of only one story inhabited, however afterwards laid waste, evident habited by gentlemen, which have walls cement. marks will remain of its former populousness.ed with mortar, glass windows, and boarded But of Scandinavia and Germany, nothing is floors. Of these all have chimneys, and some known but that as we trace their state upwards chimneys have grates. into antiquity, their woods were greater, and The house and the furniture are not always their cultivated ground was less.

nicely suited. We were driven once by missing That causes very different from want of room a passage, to the hut of a gentleman, where, may produce a generat disposition to seek ano- after a very liberal supper, when I was conther country is apparent from the present conducted to my chamber, I found an elegant bed of duct of the Highlanders, who are in some places Indian cotton, spread with fine sheets. The ready to threaten a total secession. The num- accommodation was Aattering; I undressed bers which have already gone, though like other myself, and felt my feet in the mire. The bed numbers they may be magnified, are very great, stood upon the bare earth, which a long course and such as if they had gone together and agreed of rain had softened to a puddle. upon any certain settlement, might have founded

In pastoral countries, the condition of the an independent government in the depths of the lowest rank of people is sufficiently wretched. western continent. Nor are they only the low- Among manufacturers, men that have no proest and most indigent; many men of consider-perty may have art and industry, which make able wealth have taken with them their train of them necessary, and therefore valuable. But labourers and dependants: and if they continue where flocks and corn are the only wealth, there the feudal scheme of polity, may establish new are always more hands than work, and of that clans in the other hemisphere.

work there is little in which skill and dexterity That the immediate motives of their desertion can be much distinguished. He therefore who must be imputed to their landlords, may be is born poor, never can be rich. The son merely reasonably concluded, because some lairds of occupies the place of the father, and life know's more prudence and less rapacity have kept their nothing of progression or advancement. vassals undiminished. From Raasay only one The petty tenants, and labouring peasants, man had been seduced, and at Col, there was no live in miserable cabins, which afford them little wish to go away.

more than shelter from the storms. The boor The traveller who comes hither from more of Norway is said to make all his own utensils opulent countries, to speculate upon the remains In the Hebrides, whatever might be their ingeof pastoral life, will not much wonder that a nuity, the want 'of wood leaves them no maiecommon Highlander has no strong adherence rials. They are probably content with such ac to his native soil ; for of animal enjoyments, or commodations as stones of different forms and of physical good, he leaves nothing that he may sizes can afford them. not find again wheresoever he may be thrown. Their food is not better than their lodging.

The habitations of men in the Hebrides may They seldom taste the flesh of land-animals; be distinguished into huts and houses. By a for here are no markets. What each man eats house, I mean a building with one story over is from his own stock. The great effect of another : by a hut a dwelling with only one money is to break property into small parts. In floor. The laird who formerly lived in a castle, towns, he that has a shilling may have a piece now lives in a house; sometimes sufficiently of meat; but where there is no commerce, no neat, but seldom very spacious or splendid. The man can eat mutton but by killing a sheep. tacksmen and the ministers have commonly Fish in fair weather they need not want; but, houses. Wherever there is a house, the stranger I believe, man never lives long on fish, but by finds a welcome, and to the other evils of exter- constraint: he will rather feed upon roots and minating tacksmen, may be added the unavoid berries. able cessation of hospitality, or the devolution The only fuel of the islands is peat. Their of too heavy a burden on the ministers.

wood is all consumed, and coal they have not Of the houses little can be said. They are vet found. Peat is dug out of the marshes sinall, and by the necessity of accumulating from the depth of one foot to that of six. That stores, where there are so faw opportunities of is accounted the hest which is nearest the sur. face. It appears to be a mass of black earth of another world, and then thinks it peculiar held together by vegetable fibres. I know not that they take their turn to inquire whence he whether the earth be bituminous, or whether the comes, and whither he is going. fibres be not the only combustible part; which, The islands were long unturnished with in. by heating the interposed earth red-hot, make a struction for youth, and none but the sons of burning mass. The heat is not very strong or gentlemen could have any literature. There lasting. The ashes are yellowish, and in a are now parochial schools, to which the lord of large quantity. When they dig peat, they cut every manor pays a certain stipend. Here the it into square pieces, and pile it up to dry beside children are taught to read; but hy the rule of the house. In some places it has an offensive their institution they teach only English, so that smell. It is like wood charred for the smith. the natives read a language which they may The common method of making peat fires is by never use or understand. It a parish, which ofheaping it on the hearth; but it burns well in ten happens, contains several islands, the school grates, and in the best houses is so used. being but in onc, cannot assist the rest. This is

The common opinion is, that peat grows again the state of Col, which, however, is more enlightwhere it has been cut; which, as it seems to be ened than some other places ; for the deficiency chiefly a vegetable substance, is not unlikely to is supplied by a young gentleman, who, for his be true, whether known or not to those who re- own improvement, travels every year on foot over late it.

the Highlands to the session of Aberdeen: and There are watermills in Sky and Raasay: at his return, during the vacation, teaches to read but where they are too far distant, the house- and write in his native island. wires grind their oats with a quern, or hand- In Sky there are two grammar-schools, where miil, which consists of two stones, about a foot boarders are taken to be regularly educated. and a half in diameter; the lower is a little con- The price of board is from three pounds to four vex, to which the concavity of the upper must pounds ten shillings a year, and that of instrucbe fitted. In the middle of the npper stone is a tion is halt-a-crown a quarter. But the scholars round hole, and on one side is a long handle. are birds of passage, who live at school only in The grinder sheds the corn gradually into the the summer; for in winter provisions cannot be hole with one hand, and works the handle round made for any considerable number in one place.' with the other. The corn slides down the con- This periodical dispersion impresses strongly the vexity of the lower stone, and by the motion of scarcity of these countries. the upper is ground in its passage. These stones Having heard of no boarding-school for ladies are found in Lochabar.

nearer than Inverness, I suppose their education The islands afford few pleasures, except to the is generally domestic. The elder daughters of hardy sportsman, who can tread the moor and the higher families are sent into the world, and climb the mountain. The distance of one fa- may contribute by their acquisitions to the im mily from another, in a country where travelling provement of the rest. has so much difficulty, makes frequent inter- Women must here study to be either pleasing course impracticable. Visits last several days, or useful. Their deficiencies are seldom suppliand are commonly paid by water; yet I never ed by very liberal fortunes. A hundred pounds is saw a boat furnished with benches, or made a portion beyond the hope of any but the laird's commodious by any addition to the first fabric. daughter. They do not indeed often give money Conveniences are not missed where they never with their daughters; the question is, How many were enjoyed.

cows a young lady will bring her husband ? A The solace which the bagpipe can give, they rich maiden has from ten to forty; but two cows have long enjoyed; but among other changes, are a decent fortune for one who pretends to no which the last revolution introduced, the use of distinction. the bagpipe begins to be forgotten. Some of the The religion of the islands is that of the kirk chief families still entertain a piper, whose office of Scotland. The gentlemen with whom I conwas anciently hereditary. Macriminon was piper versed are all inclined to the English liturgy; to Macleod, and Rankin to Maclean of Col. but they are obliged to maintain the established

The tunes of the bagpipe are traditional. minister, and the country is too poor to afford There has been in Sky, beyond all time of me- payment to another, who inust live wholly on the mory, a college of pipers, under the direction of contribution of his audience. Macrimmon, which is not quite extinct. There They therefore all attend the worship of the was another in Mull, superintended by Rankin, kirk, as often as a visit from their minister, or which expired about sixteen years ago. To these the practicability of travelling, gives them opporcolleges, while the pipe retained its honour, the tunity; nor have they any reason to complain students of music repaired for education. I have of insufficient pastors; for I saw not one in the had my dinner exhilarated by the bagpipe, at islands, whom I had reason to think either defiArmidale, at Dunvegan, and in Col.

cient in learning, or irregular in life; but inund The general conversation of the islanders has several with whom I could not converse without nothing particular. I did not meet with the wishing, as my respect increased, that they had inquisitiveness of which I have read, and sus- not been presbyterians. pect the judgment to have been rashly made. A The ancient rigour of puritanism is now very stranger of curiosity comes into a place where a much relaxed, though all are not yet equally stranger is seldom seen : he importunes the enlightened. I sometimes met with prejudices people with questions, of which they cannot sufficiently malignant, but they were prejudices guess the motive, and gazes with surprise on of ignorance. The ministers in the islands had things which they, having had them always attained such knowledge as may justly be adbefore their eyes, do not suspect of any thing mired in men who have no motive to study but wonderful He appears to them like some being generous curiosity, or what is still better, desire

of usefulness; with such politeness as so narrow work. They now pay him no wages, and are a circle of converse could not have supplied, but content to labour for themselves. to minds naturally disposed to clegance.

In Troda, within these three-and-thirty years, Reason and truth wil prevail at last. The milk was put every Saturday for Greogach, or most learned of the Scottish doctors would now the Old Man with the Long Beard. Whether gladly admit a form of prayer, if the people would Greogach was courted as kind, or dreaded as endure it. The zeal or rage of congregations terrible, whether they meant, by giving him the has its different degrees. In some parishes the milk, to obtain good or avert evil, I was not inLord's prayer is suff:red; in others it is still formed. The minister is now living by whom rejected as a form; and he that should make it the practice was abolished. part of his supplication would be suspected of They have still among them a great number heretical pravity.

of charms for the cure of different diseases; they The principle upon which extemporary prayer are all invocations, perhaps transmitted to them was originally introduced, is no longer admitted. from the times of popery, which increasing know. The minister formerly, in the effusion of his ledge will bring into disuse. prayer, expected immediate, and perhaps per- They have opinions which cannot be ranked ceptible inspiration, and therefore thought it his with superstition, because they regard only naduty not to think before what he should say. It tural effects. They expect better crops of grain is now universally confessed, that men pray as by sowing their seed in the moon's increase they speak on other occasions, according to the The moon has great influence in vulgar philosogeneral measure of their abilities and attain- phy. In my memory it was a precept annual, ments. Whatever each may think of a form given in one of the English almanacs, “ to kill prescribed by another, he cannot but believe that hogs when the moon was increasing, and the he can himself compose by study and meditation, bacon would prove the better in boiling." a better prayer than will rise in his mind at a We should have had little claim to the praise sudden call; and if he has any hope of super- of curiosity, if we had not endeavoured with parnatural help, why may he not as well receive it ticular attention to examine the question of the when he writes as when he speaks?

Second Sight. Of an opinion received for cenIn the variety of mental powers, some must turies by a whole nation, and supposed to be perform extemporary prayer with much imper- confirmed through its whole descent by a series fection; and in the eagerness and rashness of of successive facts, it is desirable that the truth contradictory opinions, if public liturgy be left should be established or the fallacy detected. to the private judgment of every minister, the The Second Sight is an impression made either congregation may often be offended or misled. by the mind upon the eye, or by the eye upoa

There is in Scotland, as among ourselves, a the mind, by which things distant or future are restless suspicion of popish machinations, and a perceived, and seen as if they were present. A clamour of numerous converts to the Romish man on a journey far from home falls from his religion. The report is, I believe, in both parts horse; another, who is perhaps at work about of the island equally false. The Romish religion the house, sees hin bleeding on the ground, comis professed only in Egg and Canna, two small monly with a landscape of the place where the islands, into which the reformation never made accident befalls him. Another scer driving home its way. If any missionaries are busy in the his cattle, or wandering in idleness, or musing Highlands, their zeal entitles them to respect, in the sunshine, is suddenly surprised by the even from those who cannot think favourably of appearance of a bridal ceremony, or funeral protheir doctrine.

cession, and counts the mourners or attendants, The political tenets of the islanders I was not of whom, if he knows them, he relates the names, curious to investigate, and they were not eager if he knows them not, he can describe the dresses, to obtrude. Their conversation is decent and Things distant are seen at the instant when they inoffensive. They disdain to drink for their prin- happen. Of things future I know not that there ciples, and there is no disaffection at their tables. is any rule for determining the time between the I never heard a health offered by a Highlander sight and the event. that might not have circulated with propriety This receptive faculty, for power it cannot be within the precincts of the king's palace. called, is neither voluntary nor constant. The

Legal government has yet something of no- appearances have no dependence upon choice : velty to which they cannot perfectly conform. they cannot be summoned, detained, or recalled. The ancient spirit that appealed only to the The impression is sudden, and the effect often sword, is yet among them. The tenant of Scalpa, painfnl. an island belonging to Macdonald, took no care By the term Second Sight, seems to be meant to bring his rent; when the landlord talked of a mode of seeing, superadded to that which na: exacting payment, he declared his resolution to ture generally bestows. In the Erse it is called keep his ground, and drive all intruders from Taish; which signifies likewise a spectre, or a the island, and continued to feed his cattle as on vision. I know not, nor is it likely that the his own land, till it became necessary for the Highlanders ever examined, whether by Taish, sheriff to dislodge him by violence.

used for Second Sight, they mean the power of The various kinds of superstition which pre- seeing, or the thing seen. vailed here, as in all other regions of ignorance, I do not find it to be true, as it is reported, are by the diligence of the ministers almost ex- that to the Second Sight nothing is presented but terminated.

phantoms of evil. Good seems to have the same of Browny, mentioned by Martin, nothing proportion in thuse visionary scenes as it obtains has been heard Inr many years. Browny was a in real life: almost all remarkable events have

fairy ;, who, if he was fed, and kindly evil for their basis; and are either miseries intreated, would, as they said, do a great deal of curred, or miseries escaped. Our sense is so much stronger of what we suffer than of what to have any part. Those who profess to feel it, we enjoy, that the ideas of pain predominate in do not boast of it as a privilege, nor are consialmost every mind. What is recollection but a dered by others as advantageously distinguished. revival of vexations, or history but a record of They have no temptation to feign; and their wars, treasons, and calamities? Death, which hearers have no motive to encourage their inis considered as the greatest evil, happens to all. posture. The greatest good, be it what it will, is the lot To talk with any of these seers is not easy: but of a part.

There is one living in Sky, with whom we would That they should often see death, is to be ex- have gladly conversed; but he was very gross pected ; because death is an event frequent and and ignorant, and knew no English. The pro. important. But they see likewise more pleasing portion in these countries of the poor to the rich incidents. A gentleman told me, that when he is such, that if we suppose the quality to be ac. had once gone far from his own island, one of cidental, it can very rarely happen to a man of his labouring servants predicted his return, and education; and yet on such men it has sometimes described the livery of his attendant, which he fallen. There is now a second-sighted gentlehad never worn at home; and which had been, man in the Highlands, who complains of the terwithout any previous design, occasionally given rors to which he is exposed. him.

The foresight of the seers is not always preOur desire of information was keen, and our science: they are impressed with images, of inquiry frequent. Mr. Boswell's frankness and which the event only shows them the meaning. gayety made every body communicative, and we They tell what they have seen to others, who are heard many tales of these airy shows, with more at that time not more known than themselves, or less evidence and distinctness.

but may become at last very adequate witnesses It is the common talk of the Lowland Scots, by comparing the narrative with its verification. that the notion of the Second Sight is wearing To collect sufficient testimonies for the satisaway with other superstitions: and that its faction of the public, or of ourselves, would have reality is no longer supposed but by the grossest required more time than we could bestow. There people. How far its prevalence ever extended, is, against it, the seeming analogy of things conor what ground it has lost, I know not. The fusedly seen, and little understood; aid for it, islanders of all degrees, whether of rank or un- the indistinct cry of national persuasion, which derstanding, universally admit it, except the may be perhaps resolved at last into prejudice ministers, who universally deny it, and are sus- and tradition. I never could advance my curiopected to deny it, in consequence of a system, sity to conviction; but came away at last only against conviction. One of them honestly told willing to believe. me, that he came to Sky with the resolution not As there subsists no longer in the islands much to believe it.

of that peculiar and discriminative form of life, Strong reasons for incredulity will readily of which the idea had delighted our imagination, occur. This faculty of seeing things out of sight we were willing to listen to such accounts of is local, and commonly useless. It is a breach past times as would be given us. But we soon of the common order of things, without any vi- found what memorials were to be expected from sible reason or perceptible benefit

. It is ascribed an illiterate people, whose whole time is a series only to a people very little enlightened ; and of distress ; where every morning is labouring among them, for the most part, to the mean and with expedients for the evening: and where all ignorant.

mental pains or pleasures arose from the dread To the confidence of these objections it may of winter, the expectation of spring, the caprices be replied, that by presuming to determine what of their chiefs, and the motions of the neighbour. is fit, and what is beneficial, they presuppose ing clans; where there was neither shame from more knowledge of the universal system than ignorance, nor pride in knowledge; neither cuman has attained ; and therefore depend upon riosity to inquire, nor vanity to communicate. principles too complicated and extensive for our The chiefs indeed were exempt from urgent comprehension; and there can be no security in penury and daily difficulties; and in their houses the consequence, when the premises are not un- were preserved what accounts remained of past derstood; that the Second Sight is only wonder- ages.' But the chiefs were sometimes ignorant ful because it is rare, for, considered in itself, it and careless, and sometimes kept busy by turbuinvolves no more difficulty than dreams, or per- lence and contention; and one generation of ighaps than the regular exercise of the cogitative norance effaces the whole series of unwritten faculty; that a general opinion of communica- history. Books are faithful repositories, which tive impulses, or visionary representations, has may be for a while neglected or forgotten ; but prevailed in all ages and all nations; that par- when they are opened again, will again impart ticular instances have been given with such evi- their instruction : memory, once interrupted, is dence as neither Bacon nor Boyle has been able not to be recalled. Written learning is a fixed to resist ; that sudden impressions, which the luminary, which, after the cloud that had bidden event has verified, have been felt by more than it has passed away, is again bright in its proper own or publish them; that the Second Sight of station. Tradition is but a meteor, which, it the Hebrides implies only the local frequency of once it falls, cannot be rekindled. a power which is no where totally unknown; It seems to be universally supposed, that much and that where we are unable to decide by ante- of the local history was preserved by the bards, cedent reason we must be content to yield to the of whom one is said to have been retained by force of testimony.

every great family. After these bards were By pretension to Second Sight, no profit was some of my first inquiries ; and I received such ever sought or gained. It is an involuntary af- answers as, for a while, made me please myself fection, in which neither hope por fear are known with my increase of knowledge; for I had not

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