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the left hand and in front. We desired our We did not perceive that this tract was pos
But we visited the place at an unseasonable joying the benefit of their labours, begged leave
ANOCH. the rest of the way easy and delightful, deprived Early in the afternoon we came to Anoch, a us of the pleasure expected from the Fall of village in Glenmollison of three huts, one of Fiers. The river having now no water but what which is distinguished by a chimney. Here we the springs supply, showed us only a swift cur- were to dine and lodge, and were conduced rent, clear and shallow, fretting over the asperi- through the first room, that had the chimney, ties of the rocky bottom; and we were left to into ano'her lighted by a small glass window. exercise our thoughts, by endeavouring to con- The landlord attended us with great civility, and ceive the effect of a thousand streams poured told us what he could give us to eat and drink, from the mountains into one channel, struggling I found some books on a shelf, among which for expansion in a narrow passage, exasperated were a volume or more of Prideaux's Connection. hy rocks rising in their way, and at last dis- This I mentioned as something unexpected, charging all their violence of waters by a sudden and perceived that I did not please him. i fall through the horrid chasm.
praised the propriety of his language, and was The way now grew less easy, descending by answered that I need not wonder, for he had an uneven declivity, but without either dirt or learned it by grammar. danger. We did not arrive at Fort Augustus By subsequent opportunities of observation ! till it was late. Mr. Boswell, who, between found that my host's diction had nothing pecu his father's merit and his own, is sure of recep- liar. Those Highlanders that can speak Eng. tion wherever he comes, sent a servant before to lish, commonly speak it well, with few of the heg admission and entertainment for that night. words, and little of the tone, by which a ScoichMr. Trapaud, the governor, treated us wi'h that man is distinguished. Their language seems to courtesy which is so closely connected with the have been learned in the army or the navy, or military character. He came out to meet us be by some communication with those who could yond the gates, and apologized that, at so late an give them good examples of accent and pronun hour, the rules of a garrison suffered him to give ciation. By their Lowland neighbours they us entrance only at the postern.
would not willingly be taught ; for they have
long considered them as a mean and degenerate FORT AUGUSTUS.
race. These prejudices are wearing fast away; In the morning we viewed the fort, which is but so much of them sull remains, that when much less than that of St. George, and is said to asked a very learned minister in the islands, be commanded by the neighbouring hills. It which they considered as their most savage clans : was not long ago taken by the Highlanders. “ Those,” said he, “that lire next the Lorclands.' But its situation seems well chosen for pleasure, As we came hither carly in the day, we had if not for strengeh ; it stands at the head of the time sufficient to survey the place. 1 he house lake, and, by a sloop of sixty lons, is supplied was built like other huts, of loose stones ; but from Inverness with great convenience.
the part in which we dined and slept was lived We were now to cross the Highlands towards with turf and waitled with twigs which kept the the western coast, and to content ourselves with earth from falling. Near it was a garden of such accommodation, as a way so little fre- turnips, and a field of potatoes. It stands in a qriented could afford. The journey was not glen or valley, pleasantly watered by a winding f'irmidable, for it was but of two days, very un- river. But this country, however it may delight equally divided, because the only house where the gazer or amuse the naturalist, is of no great we could be entertained was not farther off than advantage in its owners.
Our landlord told us a third of the way. We soon came to a high of a gentleman who possesses lands eighteen hill, which we mounted by a military road, cut Scotch miles in length, and three in breadth ; in traverses, so that, as we went upon a higher a space containing at least a hundred square stage, we saw the baggage following us below in English milcs. He has raised his rents, to the a contrary direction. To make this way, the danger of depopulating his surms, and he fells his rock has been hewn to a level, with labour that timber, and by exertir.g every art of augmenmight have broken the perseverance of a Roman tation, has ohtained a yeariy revenue of four lcgion.
hundred pounds, which for a hundred square The country is totally dennded of its wood, miles is threc halfpence an acre. - but the stumps both of oaks and firs, which are Some time after dinner we were surprised by still found, show that it has been once a forest of the entrance of a young woman, not inelegant large timber. I do not remember that we saw any ei'her in die oor drres, who asked us whether animals, but we were told that, in the mountains,
We found that she was there are stags, roebucks, goats, and rabbits.
19, and desired her lo
make it. Her conversation, like her appear-monly bog, through which the way must be ance, was gentle and pleasing. We knew that picked with caution. Where there are hils
, the girls of the Highlands are all gentlewomen, there is much rain, and the torrents pouring and treated her with great respect, which she down into the intermediate spaces, seld im find received as customary and due, and was neither so ready an outlet, as not to s:agnate, till they elated by it, nor confused, but repaid my civili- have broken the texture of the ground. ties withont embarrassment, and told me how Of the hills, which our journey offered to the much I honoured her country by coming to sur-view on either side, we did not iake the height, vey it.
nor did we see any that astonished us with their She had been at Inverness to gain the com- loftiness. Towards the summit of one, there mon female qualifications, and had, like her was a white spot, which I should have called a futher, the English pronunciation. I presented naked rock, but the guides, who had better eyes, her with a brok, which I happened to have and were acquainted with the phenomena of the about me, and should not be pleased to think country, declared it to be snow. It had already that she forgets me.
las'ed to the end of August, and was likely to In the evening the soldiers, whom we had maintain its contest with the sun, till it should be passed on the road, came to spend at our inn the reinforced by winter. I'tile money that we had given them. They had The height of mountains philosophically con. the true military impatience of coin in their sidered, is properly computed from the surface pockets, and had marched at least six miles to of the next sea; but as it affects the eye or imas find the first place where liquor could be bought gination of the passenger, as it makes either a Having never been before in a place so wild and spectacle or an obstruction, it must be reckoned nnfrequented, I was glad of their arrival, because from the place where the rise begins to make a I knew that we had made them friends; and 10 considerable angle with the plain. In extensive gain still more of their good will, we went to continents the land may, by gradual eleration, them where they were carousing in the barn, and attain great height, without any other appear. added something to our former gifi. All that we ance than that of a plane gently inclined, and if give was not much, but it detained them in the a hill placed upon such raised ground be de burn, either merry or quarrelling, the whole scribed as having its altitude equal to the while night, and in the morning they went back to space above the sea, the representation will be their work, with great indignation at the bad fallacious. qualities of whiskey.
These mountains may be properly, enough We had gained so much the favour of our measured from the inland base; for it is not host, that, when we left his house in the morn- much above the sei. As we advanced at evening, he walked by us a great way, and entering towards the western coast, I did not obserre tained us with conversation both on his own the declivity to be greater than is necessary for condi'ion, and that of the country. His life the discharge of the inland waters. sesme 1 to be merely pastoral, except that he dif- We passed many rivers and rivulets, which Cired from some of the ancient Nomades in hav- commonly ran with a clear shallow stream over ing settle: dwelling. His weilth consists of a hard pebbly bottoni. These channels, wh ch one hun tred sheep, as many gouts, twelve milk- seem so much wider than the water that they cows, and tiven:y-eight beves ready for the convey would naturally require, are formed by drover.
the violence of wintry fonds, produced by the From him we first heard of the general dissa- accumulation of innumerable screams that fall in tisfaction which is now driving the Highlanders rainy weather from the hills, and bursting away in'o the other hemisphere; and when I asked him with resistless impetuosity, make themselves a whether they would stay at home, if they were passage proportionate to their mass. weli ircited, he answered with indignuion, that Such capricious and temporary waters cannot no mun willingly left his native country. Of the he expected to produce many fish. The rapidity firm, which he him e!f ocrupied, the rent had, in of the wintry deluge sweeps them away, and twenty-five years, been advan ed from five to the sianliness of the sunimer stream would hardly tiventy pounds, which fund himself so little sustain them above the ground. This is the reis able to pły, that he would be glad to try his for- son why, in fording the northern rivers, no fishes tune in some o:her place. Yet he owned the are seen, as in England, wandering in the water. reasonableness of raising the Highland rents in Of the hills many may be called, with Hoa certain degree, and diclared himself willing to mer's Ida, abundant in springs, but few can de piy ten pounds for the ground which he had serve the epithe! which he bestows upon Pelion, formerly had for five.
by waving iheir leaves. They exhibit very little Our host, having amused 13 for a time, re- variety; being almost wholly covered with dark signed us to our guid-s. The journey of this heath, and even that seems to be checked in its day was long, n.: that the distance was great, growih. What is not heath is nakedness, a lite but that the way we difficult. We were now tle diversified by now and then a stream rushing in tlie bosom of the Highlands, with full leisure down the steep. An eye accustomed to flowery to contemplate the appearance and properties of pastures and waving harvesis, is astonished and mountainous regions, such as have been, in repelled by this wide extent of hopeless sterility: many countries, the last shelters of national dis. The appearance is that of matter incapable of tress, and are every where the scenes of adven- form or lisefulness, dismissed by Nature from tures, stratarems, surprises, and escapes. her care, and disinherited of her favours, left in
Moun'ainous cuirios are not passed but its original elemental slale, or quickened only with dificul:v, nomrely fron the ia'our of with one sullen power of uselass vegetation. climbing; forto cind is not alırays necessary: It will very readily occur, that this uniiormity 6911 Le use thit which is no: mo intain is com- of barrenness can afford very little amusement
to the traveller; that it is easy to sit at home froad from the hills on the other hand. These and conceive rocks, and heath, and waterfalls; currents, in their diminished state, after several and that these journeys are useless labours, dry months, afford, to one who has always lived which neither impregnate the imagination, nor in level countries, an unusual and delightful enlarge the understanding. It is true, that of spectacle; but in the rainy season, such as far the greater part of things, we must content every winter may be expected to bring, must ourselves with such knowledge as description precipitate an impetuous and tremendous flood. may exhibit, or analogy supply; but it is true, I suppose the way by which we went is at this likewise, that these ideas are always incom- time impassable. plete, and that, at least, till we have compared inem with realities, we do not know them to be
GLENSHEALS. just. As we see more, we become possessed of The lough at last ended in a river broad and more certainties, and consequently gain more shallow like the rest, but that it may be passed principles of reasoning, and found a wider basis when it is deeper, there is a bridge over it. Be. of analogy.
yond it is a valley called Glensheals, inhabited Regions mountainous and wild, thinly inha- by the clan of Macrae. Here we found a village bited, and little cultivated, make a great part of called Auknasheals, consisting of many huts, the earth, and he that has never seen them, must perhaps twenty, built all of dry-stone, that is, live unacquainted with much of the face of na- stones piled up without mortar. ture, and with one of the great scenes of human We had, by the direction of the officers at Fort existence.
Augustus, taken bread for ourselves, and toAs the day advanced towards noon, we en- bacco for those Highlanders who might show us tered a narrow valley not very flowery, but any kindness. We were now at a place where sufficiently verdant. Our guides told us, that we could obtain milk, but must have wanted the horses could not travel all day without rest bread if we had not brought it. The people of or meat, and entreated us to stop here, because this valley did not appear to know any English, no grass would be found in any other place. and our guides now became doubly necessary as The request was reasonable, and the argument interpreters. A woman, whose hut was distincogent. We therefore willingly dismounted, guished by greater spaciousness and better arand diverted ourselves as the place gave us op-chitecture, brought out some pails of milk. The portunity
villagers gathered about us in considerable numI sat down on a bank, such as a writer of bers, I believe, without any evil intention, but romance might have delighted to feign. I had, with a very savage wildness of aspect and manindeed, no t ees to whisper over my head, but a When our meal was over, Mr. Boswell clear rivulet streamed at my feet. The day sliced the bread, and divided it amorgst them, was calm, the air was sof', and all was rudeness, as he supposed them never to have tasted á silence, and solituuic. Before me, and on either wheaten loaf before. He then gave them little side, were high hills, which, by hindering the pieces of twisted tobacco, and among the chileye from ranging, forced the mind to find enter- dren we distributed a small handful of halfpence, tainment for itself. Whether I spent the hour which they received with great eagerness. Yet well I know not; for here I first conceived the I have been since told, that the people of that thonght of this narration.
valley are not indigent; and when we mentioned We were in this place at ease and by choice, them afterwards as needy and pitiable, a Highand had no evils to suffer or to fear; yet the land lady let us know, that we might spare our imaginations excited by the view of an unknown commiseration; for the dame whose milk we and untravelled wilderness are not such as arise drank, had probably more than a dozen milkin the artificial solitude of parks and gardens, a
She seemed unwilling to take any price, Antering notion of self-sufficiency, a placid in- but being, pressed to make a demand, ai last dulgence of voluntary delusions, a secure ex. named a shilling. Honesty is not greater, where pansion of the fancy, or a cool concentration of elegance is less. One of the by-standers, as we the mental powers. The phantoms which haunt were told afterwards, advised her to ask more, a desert are want, and misery, and danger; the but she said a shilling was enough. We gave evils of dereliction rush upon the thoughis ; man her half-a-crown, and I hope got some credit by is made unwillingly acquainted with his own our behaviour; for the company said, if our weakness, and meditation shows him only how interpreters did not fiatter us, that they had not little he can sustain, and how little he can per- scen such a day since the old laird of Maclecd finn. There were no traces of inhabitants, passed through their country. except perhaps a rude pile of clods called a The Macraes, as we heard afterwards in the simmer-but, in which a herdsman had rested in Hebrides, were originally an indigent and subthe favourable seisons. Whoever had been in ordinate clan, and having no farms nor stock, the place where I then sat, unprovided with pro- were in great numbers servants to the Maclelvisions, and ignorant of the country, mighi, at lans, who, in the war of Charles the First, tock least before the roads were irade, have wandered arms at the call of the heroic Montrose, and arnong the rocks, till he had perished with hard were, in one of his balles, almost all destroved, ship, before he could have found either food or The women that were left at home, being thus shelter. Yet what are these hillocks to the deprived of their husbands, like the Scythiar ridges of Taurus, or these spots of wilderness to ladies of old, married their servants, and tho the deserts of America!
Macraes became a considerable race. It was not long before we were insied to mount, and continued our journey along the side of a logh, kept full by many s'reams, which As we continued our journey, we were al with pore or less'sapility and noise cr. ssed the Iles ir to extend cur specuasions, and to inves
tigate the reason of those peculiarities by which | Trent. A tract intersected by many ridges of such rugged regions as these before us are ge- mountains naturally divides its inhabitants into nerally distinguished.
petty nations, which are made, by a thousand Mountainous countries commonly contain the canses, enemies to each other. Each will exul: original, at least the oldest, race of inhabitants, its own chiefs, each will boast the valour of its for they are not easily conquered, because they men, or the beauty of its women, and every must be entered by narrow ways, exposed to claim of superiority irritates compe:ition; injievery power of mischief from those that occupy r.18 will sometiines be done, and be more inthe heights; and every new ridge is a new för- juriously defended; retaliation will sometimes tross, where the defendants have again the same be attempied, and the debt exacied with 100 advantages. If the assailants cither force the much interest. strait, or storm the summit, they gain only so In the Highlands it was a law, that if a rob. much ground; their enemies are ded to take ber was sheltered from justice, any man of the possession of the next rock, and the pursuers same clan might be taken in his place. This stand at gaze, knowing neither where the ways was a kind of irregular justice, which, though of escape wind among the steeps, nor where the necessary in savage times, could hardly fail to bag has firmness to sustain them: besides that, end in a feud; and a feud once kindled among mountaineers have an agility in climbing and an idle people, with no variety of pursuits to descending, distinct from strength or courage, divert their thoughts, burnt on for a ges, either and attainable only by use.
sullenly glowing in secret mischief, or openly If the war be not soon concluded, the invaders blazing into public violence. Of the effects of are dislodged by hunger; for in those anxious this violent judicature, there are not wanting and toilsome marches, provisions cannot easily memorials. The cave is now to be seen, to be carried, and are never to be found. The which one of the Campbells, who had injured wealth of mountains is cattle, which, while the the Macdonalds, retired with a body of his can men stand in the passes the women drive away. clan. The Macdonalds required the off pler, Euch lands at last cannot repay the expense of and being refused, made a fire at the mouth of conquest, and therefore, perhaps, have not been the cave, hy which he and his adherents were so often invaded by the mere ambition of domi- suffocated together. nion, as by resentment of robberies and insults, Mountaineers are warlike, because by their or the desire of enjoying in security the more feuds and competitions they consider themselves fruitful provinces.
as surrounded with enemics, and are always As mountaineers are long before they are con- prepared to repel incursions, or to make thea. quered, they are likewise long before they are Like the Greeks in their unpolished state, deo civilized. Men are softened by intercourse mu- scribed by Thucydides, the Highlanders, will tually profitable, and instructed by comparing lately, went always armed, and carried thir their own notions with those of oihers. Thus weapons to visits, and to church. Cæsar found the maritime parts of Britain made Mountaineers are thievish, because they are less barbarous by their cominerce with the Gauls. poor, and having neither manufactures nor comInto a barren and rough tract no stranger is merce, can grow richier only by robhery. The brought either by the hope of gain or of pleasure. regularly plunder their neighbours, for their The inhabitants having neither commodities for neighbours are commonly their enemies; an! sale, nor money for purchase, seldom visit more having lost that reverence for property by ubah polished places; or if they do visit them, seldom the order of civil life is preserved, soon consid Ieturn.
all as enemies whom they do not reckon as It sometimes happens that by conquest, inter- friends, and think themselves licensed to burace mixture or gradual refinemeni, the culivated whatever they are not obliged to protect. parts of a country change their language. The By a strict administration of the laws since ino'mtaineers then become a distinct natin, cu: the laws have been introduced into the Eigi off by dissimilitude of speech from conversation lands, this disposition to thicvery is vriy pinch with their neighbours. Thus in Biscay, the repressed. Thirty years ago no herd had ever original Cantabrian, and in Dalecarlia, the old been conducted through the mountains wilali Swedish, still subsists. Thus Wales and the paying tribute in the night to some of the clans : Highlands speak the tongue of the first inhab - but cattle are now driven, a d passengers tar tants of Britain, while the other parts have re- without danger, fear, or molestations. ceived fi s: the Saxon, and in some degrce after- Among a warlike people, the quality of liche wards the French, and then förmed a third lan- est esteem is personal courage, and with the guage between thern.
ostentations display of courage are closely coa. That the primi:ive manners are continued nected promptitude of oflnce, and quicknes:ci where the primitive language is spoken, no na- resentment. The Highlanders, before they tion will desire me lo suppose, for ihe manners were disarmed, wire so addic:el to quarrels, of mountaineers are commonly savage, but they that the boys used to follow any publie proare ra: her produced by their situation than d:- cession or cerc:nony, however testie or box. rived from their ances ors.
ever solemn, in expectation of the battle, which Smih seems to be the disposition of man, that was sure to happen before the company diswha:ever makes a d stinction produces rivalry. persad. England, before other ciuses of enmity were Mountainous regions are sometimes so remote frad, was disturbed for some cenfuries by the from the seat of covernment, and so ditlicult of ones's of the northern and southern coun:ies; access, that ther are verr little nder the fin Nithat at Oxford the peace of study could fo: a furnce rif the sor.rerum, , with the reach long time ba preserved only by choing - national justice. Lawie neueinu si914, waly 0.0 of the prootors fi0.72 cach sides of ..... t'e since ci a vista: cilit could som vi inte
easil: executed, nor perhaps very safely promul. I will preserve local stories and hereditary prejulgated, among inen, ignorantly proud and habitu- dices. Thus every highlander can talk of his ally violent, unconnected with the general system, ancestors, and recount the out, ages which they and accustomed to reverence only theirown lords. suffered from the wicked inhabitants of the next It has therefore been necessary to erect many valley. particular jurisdictions, and commit the punish- Such are the effects of habitation among ment of crimes, and the decision of. right, to the mountains, and such were the qualities of the prop ictors of the country who could enforce Highlanders, while their rocks secluded them iheir own decrees. It immediately appears that from the rest of mankind, and kept them an such judges will be often ignorant, and olten unaltered and discriminated race. They are now partial; but in the immaturity of political esta- losing their distinction, and hastening io mingle blishinents no better expedient could be found. with the general community. As government advances towards perfection, provincial judicature is perhaps in every empire gradually abolished.
We left Auknasheals and the Macraes in the Those who had thus the dispensation of law, afternoon, and in the evening came to Ratiken, were hy consequence themselves lawless. Their a bigh hill on which a road is cut, but so steep vassals had no shelter from outrages and op- and narrow that it is very difficult. There is pressions; but were condemned to endure with now a design of making another way round the ont resistance, the caprices of wantonness and hottum. Upon one of the precipices, my horse, the rage of cruelty.
weary with the steepness of the rise, staggered In the Highlands, some great lords had an
a little, and I called in haste to the High ander hereditary jurisdiction over counties; and some
to hold him. This was the only moment of my chieftains over their own lands; till the final journey in which I thought myself endangered. conquest of the Highlands afforded an opportu.
Having surmounted the hill at last, we were nity of crushing all the local courts, and of ex- told, that at Glenelg, on the seaside, we should tending the general benefits of equal law to the come to a house of lime and slate and glass. low and the high in the deepest 'recesses, and This image of magnificence raised our expectaobscurest corners.
tion. At last we came to our inn, weary and While the chiefs had this resemblance of peevish, and began to inquire for meat and beds. royalty, they had little inclination to appeal, on
Of the provisions the negative catalogue was any question, to superior judicatures. "A claim very copious. Here was no meat, no milk, no of lands between two powerful lairds was de- bread, no eggs, no wine. We did not express cided like a contest for dominion between sove-much satistaction. Here, however, we were to reign powers.
They drew their forces into stay. Whiskey we might have, and I believe at the field, and right attended on the strongest. last they caught a fowl and killed it. We had This was in ruder times the common practice, some bread, and with that we prepared ourselves which the kings of : cotland could seldom control. to be contented, when we had a very eminent
Even so lately as in the last years of king proof of Highland hospitality. Along some William a battle was fought at Null Roy, on a miles of the way, in the evening, a gentleman's plain a few miles to the south of Inverness, be- servant had kept us company on foot with very iween the clans of Mackintosh and Macdonald little notice on our fait. He left us of Keppoch. Colonel Macdonald, the head of Glenelg, and we thought on him no more till he a small clan, refused to pay the dues demanded came to us again in about two hours, with a from hin by Mackintosh, as his superior lord. present from his master of rum anú sugar. The They disdained the interposition of judges and man had mentioned his company, and the gen. laws, and calling each his followers io maintain t'eman, whose name I think is Gordon, well the dignity of the clan, fought a formal battle, knowing the penury of the place, had this atten. in which several considerable men fell on the tion to two men, whose names perhaps he had side of Mackintos!ı, without a complete victory not heard, by whom his kindness was not likely to either. This is said to have been the last to be ever repaid, and who could be recoinmenda open war made between the clans by their own
ed to him only by their necessities. authority.
We were now to examine our lodging. Out The Highland lords made ireatics, and formed of one of the beds on which we were to repose, alliances, of which some traces may still be started up, at our entrance, a man black as a f17 l, and solna consequences still remain as
Cyclops from the forge. Other circumstances lasting evidences of petty legality. The terms of ro elegant recital concurred to disgust us. of one of these conférleracies, were, that cach We had been frighted by a lady at Fdinburgh, should support the other in the right, or in the with discouraging representations of Highland wrong, except against the king.
lodgings. Sleep, however, was necessary. (ur The inliabitants of mountains form distinct Highlanders had at last found some hay, with race, and are careful to prese: ve their genca- which the inn could not supply them. I direeted logies. Men in a small district necessarily them to bring a bundle into the room, and slepe mingle blood by intermarriages, and combine upon it in my riding coat. Mr. Boswell being at last into one family, with a common interest more delicate, laid himself sheets, wiih hay over in the honour and disgrace of every indivi lual. and under him, and lay in linen like a gentle. Then begins that union of aff:ctions, and cooperation of endeavours, that constitute a clan. They who consieler thens Ives as ennobled by In the morning, September the twentieth, we their family, will think highly of their proge- found ourselves on the edge of the sea. Having gitors; and they who through successive gene- procured a boat, we dismissed our highlanders, rations live always together in the same place, whom I would recommend to the service of auy