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Because it may casily happen, and in effect thinks it necessary that man should be debarred, wül happen very frequently, that our own pri- because pain is necessary to the good of the univate happiness may be promoted by an act inju- verse; and the pain of one order of beings exrious to others, when yet no man can be obliged tending its salutary influence to innumerablo by nature to prefer ultimately the happiness orders above and below, it was necessary that of others to his own; therefore, to the instruc- man should suffer; but because it is not suitable tions of infinite wisdom it was necessary that to justice that pain should be inflicted on innoinfinite power should add penal sanctions. That cence, it was necessary that man should be every man to whom those instructions shall be criminal. imparted may know, that he can never ultimate- This is given as a satisfactory account of the ly injure himself by benefiting others, or ulti- Original of moral Evil, which amounts only to mately by injuring others benefit himself; but this, that God created beings, whose guilt he that however the lot of the good and bad may foreknew, in order that he might have proper be huddled together in the seeming confusion of objects of pain, because the pain of part is, no our present state, the time shall undoubtedly man knows how or why, necessary to the felicity come, when the most virtuous will be most happy of the whole.

I am sorry that the remaining part of this Let- The perfection which man once had, may be ter is not equal to the first. The author has so easily conceived, that without any unusual indeed engaged in a disquisition in which we strain of imagination we can figure its revival. need not wonder if he fails, in the solution of All the duties to God or man that are neglected, questions on which philosophers have employed we may fancy performed; all the crimes that are their abilities from the earliest times,

committed, we may conceive forborne. Man

will then be restored to his moral perfections : And found no end, in wandering mazes lost.

and into what head can it enter, that by this He denies that man was created perfect, be change the universal system would be shaken, cause the system requires subordination, and or the condition of any order of beings altered because the power of losing his perfection, of for the worse? “ rendering himself wicked and miserable, is the He comes in the fifth Letter to political, and highest imperfection imaginable.” Besides, the in the sixth to religious Evils. Of political Evil, regular gradations of the scale of being required if we suppose the Origin of moral Evil dissomewhere “such a creature as man with all his covered, the account is by no means difficult: infirmities about him, and the total removal of polity being only the conduct of immoral men in those would be altering his nature, and when he public affairs. The evils of each particular became perfect he must cease to be man." kind of government are very clearly and elegantly

I have already spent some considerations on displayed, and from their secondary causes very the scale of being, of which yet I am obliged to rationally deduced ; but the first cause lies still renew the mention whenever a new argument is in its ancient obscurity. There is in this Letter made to rest upon it; and I must therefore again nothing new, nor any thing eminently instrucremark, that consequences cannot have greater tive; one of his practical deductions, that “from certainty than the postulate from which they are government Evils cannot be eradicated, and drawn, and that no system can be more hypo- their excess only can be prevented," has been thetical than this, and perhaps no hypothesis always allowed"; the question upon which all more absurd.

dissension arises is, when that excess begins, at He again deceives himself with respect to the what point men shall cease to bear, and attempt perfection with which man is held to be origi- to remedy. nally vested. “That man came perfect, that is, Another of his precepts, though not new, well endued with all possible perfection, out of the deserves to be transcribed, because it cannot be hands of his Creator, is a false notion, derived too frequently impressed. from the philosophers. The universal system “What has here been said of their imperfecrequired subordination, and consequently com- tions and abuses, is by no means intended as a parative imperfection.” That man was ever en- defence of them; every wise man ought to redued with all possible perfection, that is, with all dress them to the utmost of his power ; which perfection of which the idea is not contradictory, can be effected by one method only; that is, by or destructive of itself, is undoubtedly false. a reformation of manners : for as all political But it can hardly be called a false nolion, because Evils derive their original from moral, these can no man ever thought it, nor can it be derived never be removed until those are first amended. from the philosophers; for without pretending to He, therefore, who strictly adheres to virtue and guess what philosophers he may mean, it is very sobriety in his conduct, and enforces them by safe to affirm, that no philosopher ever said it. This example, does more real service to a state, Of those who now maintain that man was once than he who displaces a minister, or dethrones a perfect, who may very easily be found, let the tyrant ; this gives but a temporary relief, bat author inquire whether man was ever omni- that exterminates the cause of the disease. No scient, whether he was ever omnipotent, whether immoral man then can possibly be a true patriot: he ever had even the lower power of archangels and all those who profess outrageous zeal for the or angels. Their answers will soon inform him, liberty and prosperity of their

country, and at that the supposed perfection of man was not ab- the same time infringe her laws, affront her relisolute but respective, that he was perfect in a gion, and debauch her people, are but despicable sense consistent enough with subordination, quacks, by fraud or ignorance increasing the disperfect, not as compared with different beings, orders they pretend to remedy.". but with himself in his present degeneracy; not Of religion he has said nothing but what ko perfect as an angel, but perfect as man, has learned, or might have learned from the de

From this perfection, whatever it was, he / vines; that it is not universal, because it must do neceived upon conviction, and successively re- admit copiousness than to affect brevity. Many ceived by those whom conviction reached ; that informations will be afforded by this book to the its evidences and sanctions are not irresistible, biographer. I know not where else it can be because it was intended to induce, not to compel; found, but here and in Ward, that Cowley was and that it is obscure, because we want faculties doctor in physic. And whenever any other instito comprehendit. What he means by his asser- tution of the same kind shall be atiempted, the tion, that it wants policy, I do not well under- exact relation of the progress of the Royal Sostand; he does not mean to deny that a good ciety may furnish precedents

. christian will be a good governor, or a good sub

These volumes consist of an exact journal of rect; and he has before justly observed, that the the Society; of some papers delivered to them, good man only is a patriot.

which, though registered and preserved, had been Religion has been, he says, corrupted by the never printed ; and of short memoirs of the more wickedness of those to whom it was communi- eminent members, inserted at the end of the year cated, and has lost part of its efficacy by its con- in which each died. nexion with temporal interest and human pas- The original of the Society is placed earlier ir sion.

this history than in that of Dr. Sprat. Theodore Ile justly observes, that from all this, no con- Haak, a German of the Palatinate, in 1645, proclusion can be drawn against the divine original posed to some inquisitive and learned men a of christianity, since the objections arise not weekly meeting for the cultivation of natural from the nature of the revelation, but of him to knowledge. The first Associates, whose names whom it is communicated.

ought surely to be preserved, were Dr. Wilkins, All this is known, and all this is true ; but why, Dr. Wallis, Dr. Goddard, Dr. Ent, Dr. Glisson, we have not yet discovered. Our author, it' i Dr. Merret, Mr. Foster of Gresham, and Mr. understand hiin right, pursues the argument Haak. Sometime afterwards Wilkins, Wallis, thus: the religion of man produces evils, because and Goddard being removed to Oxford, carried the morality of man is imperfect; his morality on the same design there by stated meetings, and is imperfect, that he may be justly a subject of adopted into their society Dr. Ward, Dr. Bapunishment ; he is made subject to punishment, thurst, Dr. Petty, and Dr. Willis. because the pain of part is necessary to the hap- The Oxford Society coming to London in 1659, piness of the whole; pain is necessary to happi- joined their friends, and augmented their numsess, no mortal can tell why or how.

ber, and for some time met in Gresham-College. Thus, after having clambered with great labour After the restoration their number was again from one step of argumentation to another, in increased, and on the 28th of November, 1660, stead of rising into the light of knowledge, we a select party happening to retire for conversaare devolved back into dark ignorance ; and all tion to Mr. Rooke's apartment in Gresham. our effort ends in belief, that for the Evils of life College, formed the first plan of a regular socithere is some good reason, and in confession, ety. Here Dr. Sprat's history begins, and therethat the reason cannot be found. This is all fore from this period the proceedings are well that has been produced by the revival of Chry- known.* sippus's untractableness of matter, and the Arabian scale of existence. A system has been raised, which is so ready to fall to pieces of itself, that no great praise can be derived from its

REVIEW OF THE GENERAL HISTORY OF destruction. To object is always easy, and it

POLYBIUS, has been well observed by a late writer, that the IN FIVE BOOKS, TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK, hand which cannot build a hovel, may demolish a

BY MR. HAMPTON. temple. *

This appears to be one of the books which will long do honour to the present age. It has

been by some remarker observed, that no man REVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL

ever grew immortal by a translation: and unSOCIETY OF LONDON,

doubtedly translations into the prose of a living

language must be laid aside whenever the lanPOR IMPROVING OF NATURAL KNOWLEDGE, FROM ITS guage changes, because the matter being always IN WHICH the most CONSIDERABLE to be found in the original, contributes nothing

to the preservation of the form superinduced by HAVE HITHERTO NOT BEEN PUBLISHED, ARE INSERTED the translator. But such versions may last long,

though they can scarcely last always; and there D.D. SECRETARY TO THE SOCIETY. 2 VOLS. 4to.

is reason to believe that this will grow in reputa

tion while the English tongue continues in its This book might more properly have been en- present state. utled by the author a diary than a history, as it The great difficulty of a translator is to preproceeds regularly from day to day so minutely serve the native form of his language, and the as to number over the members present at each unconstrained manner of an original writer. committee, and so slowly, that two large volumes This Mr. Hampton seems to have attained in a contain only the transactions of the eleven first degree of which there are few examples. His years from the institution of the Society. book has the dignity of antiquity, and the easy

I am yet far from intending to represent this flow of a modern composition. work as useless. Many particularities are of It were, perhaps, to be desired that he had importance to one man, though they appear tri- illustrated with notes an author which must have Ring to another, and it is always more safe to many diffaulties to an English reader, and par New Practice of Physic.

"iterary Magazine, 1756.

FIRST RISE.
PAPERS COMMUNICATED TO THE SOCIETY, WHICH

IN THEIR PROPER ORDER, AS A SUPPLEMENT TO THE
PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. BY THOMAS BIRCH,

ticularly that he had explained the ancient art of of thought, and liberty of press. Our clamor war; but these omissions may be easily supplied ous praises of liberty sufficiently prove that we by an inferior hand, from the antiquaries and enjoy it; and if by liberty nothing else be meant, commentators.

than security from the persecutions of power, To note omissions where there is so much per- it is so fully possessed by us, that little more is formed, would be invidious, and to commend is to be desired, except that one should talk of it unnecessary where the excellence of the work less, and use it better. may be more easily and effectually shown by But a social being can scarcely rise to comexhibiting a specimen. *

plete independence; he that has any wants, which others can supply, inust study the gratifi.

cation of them whose assistance he expects; this REVIEW OF MISCELLANIES ON MORAL AND RELIGIOUS SUBJECTS,

is equally true, whether his wants be wants of

nature or of vanity. The writers of the present IN PROSE AND VERBE, BY ELIZABETH HARRISON,

time are not always candidates for preferment, This volume, though only one name appears nor often the hirelings of a patron. They proupon the first page, has been produced by the fess to serve no interest, and speak with loud contribution of many hands, and printed by the contempt of sycophants and slaves encouragement of a numerous subscription, both

There is, however, a power, from whose influwhich favours seem to be deserved by the mo

ence neither they nor their predecessors have desty and piety of her on whom they were be ever been free. Those who have set greatness stowed.

at defiance, have yet been the slaves of fashion. The authors of the essays in prose seem gene- When an opinion has once become popular, very rally to have imitated, or tried to imitate, the few are willing to oppose it. Idleness is more copiousness and luxuriance of Mrs. Rowe; this willing to credit than inquire ; cowardice is afraid however is not all their praise : they have la- of controversy, and vanity of answer; and he boured to add to her brightness of imagery her that writes merely for sale, is tempted to court purity of sentiments. The poets have had Dr. purchasers by Aattering the prejudices of the Watts before their eyes, a writer, who, if he public. stood not in the first class of genius, compen

It has now been fashionable for near half a sated that defect by a ready application of his century, to defame and vilify the house of Stuart, powers to the promotion of piety. The attempt and to exalt and magnify the reign of Elizabeth. to employ the ornaments of romance in the deco-The Stuarts have found few apoligists, for the ration of religion was, I think, first made by Mr. dead cannot pay for praise; and who will

, withBoyle's Martyrdom of Theodora, but Boyle's ont reward, oppose the tide of popularity? Yet philosophical studies did not allow him time for there remains still among us, not wholly extinthe cultivation of style, and the

completion of the guished, a zeal for truth, a desire of establishing great design was reserved for Mrs. Rowe. Dr. right, in opposition to fashion. The author, Watts was one of the first who taught the dis- whose work is now before us, has attempted a senters to write and speak like other men, by vindication of Mary of Scotland, whose name showing them that elegance might consist with has for some years been generally resigned to piety. They would have both done honour to a infamy, and who has been considered as the better society, for they had that charity, which murderer of her husband, and condemned by her might well make their failings forgotten, and

own letters. with which the whole Christian world might

Of these letters, the author of this vindication wish for communion. They were pure from all confesses the importance to be such, that if they the heresies of an age, to which every opinion is be genuine, the queen was guilty; and if they be become a favourite that the universal church has spurious, she was innocent. He has, therefore hitherto detested. This praise the general interest of mankind his treatise into six parts.

undertaken to prove them spurious, and divided requires to be given to writers who please and

In the first is contained the history of the letdo not corrupt, who instruct and do not weary. ters, from their discovery by the earl of Morton, But to them all human eulogies are vain, whom their being produced against queen Mary, and I believe applauded by angels, and numbered their several appearances in England, before with the just.t

queen Elizabeth and her commissioners, until

they were finally delivered back again to the earl ACCOUNT OF A BOOK ENTITLED, AN HISTO. of Morton. RICAL AND CRITICAL INQUIRY INTO THE

The second contains a short abstract of Mr. EVIDENCE PRODUCED BY THE EARLSBF Goodall's arguments for proving the letters to be

AND MORTON QUEEN OF SCOTS :

spurious and forged; and of Dr. Robertson and WITH AN EXAMINATION OF THE REV. DR. ROBERTSON'S Mr. Hume's objections by way of answer to DISSERTATION, AND MR. htMe’s HISTORY, WITH RE. Mr. Goodall, with critical observations on these SPECT TO THAT EVIDENCE. O

authors. We live in an age in which there is much talk The third contains an examination of the arof independence, of private judgment, of liberty guments of Dr. Robertson and Mr. Hurne, in From the Literary Magazine, 1756.

support of the authenticity of the letters. + From the Literary Magazine, 1756.—There are

The fourth contains an examination of the other Reviews of Books by Dr. Johnson in this Maga confession of Nicholas Hubert, commonly called zine, but, in general, very short, and consisting chiefly French Paris, with observations showing the of a few introductory remarks, and an extract. Thai on same to be a forgery. Mrs. Harrison's Miscellanies may be accounted some. what interesting from the notice of Dr. Watts.

The fifth contains a short recapitulation or Written by Mr. Tytler, of Edinburgh.

summary of the arguments on both sides of the Printed in the Genilemen's Magazine, October, 1760. I question. And,

MORAY

The last is an iristorical collection of the direct time, to declare them false and feigned, jorged or positive evidence still on record, tending to and invented, observing that there were many show what part the earls of Murray and Morton, that could counterfeit her hand. and secrezary Lethington, had in the murder of To counterfeit a name is easy, to counterfeit the lord Darnley.

a hand through eight letters very difficult. But The author apologizes for the length of this it does not appear that the letters were ever book, by observing, that it necessarily comprises shown to those who would desire to detect them; a great number of particulars, which could not and to the English commissioners a rude and easily be contracted the same plea may be remote imitation might be sufficient, since they made for the imperfection of our extract, which were not shown as judicial proofs, and why they will naturally fall below the force of the book, were not shown as proof, no other reason can be because we can only select parts of that evidence, given than they must have then been examined, which owes its strength to its concatenation, and that examination would have detected the and which will be weakened whenever it is dis- forgery. joined.

These letters, thus timorously and suspiciously The account of the seizure of these controvert- communicated, were all the evidence against ed letters is thus given by the queen's enemies : Mary; for the servants of Bothwell, executed

"That in the castell of Edinburgh thair was for the murder of the king, acquitted the queen left be the Erle of Both well, before his fleeing at the hour of death. These letters were so neaway, and was send for be ane George Dalgleish, cessary to Murray, that he alleges them as the his servand, who was taken be the Erle of Mor reason of the queen's imprisonment, though he toun, ane small gylt coffer, not fully ane fute imprisoned her on the 16th, and pretended not lang, garnisht in sindrie places with the Roman to have intercepted the letters before the 20th of letter F. under ane king's crowne: wharin were June. certane letteris and writings weel knawin, and Of these letters, on which the fate of princes be aithis to be affirmit to have been written with and kingdoms was suspended, the authority the Quene of Scottis awn hand to the Erle." should have been put out of doubt; yet that

The papers in the box were said to be eight such letters were ever found, there is no witness letters in French, some love sonnets in French but Morton, who aceused the queen, and Crawalso, and a promise of marriage by the Queen to ford, a dependent on Lennox, another of her acBothwell.

cusers. Dalgleish, the bearer, was hanged withTo the reality of these letters our author out any interrogatories concerning them; and makes some considerable objections, from the Hulet, mentioned in them, though then in prinature of things; but as such arguments do not son, was never called to authenticate them, nor always convince, we will pass to the evidence of was his confession produced against Mary till facts.

death had left him no power to disown it. On June 15th, 1567, the queen delivered her- Elizabeth, indeed, was easily satisfied ; she self to Morton, and his pariy, who imprisoned declared herself ready to receive the proofs her.

against Mary, and absolutely refused Mary the June 20th, 1567, Dalgleish was seized, and liberty of confronting her accusers, and making six days after he was examined by Morton; his her defence. Before such a judge, a very little examination is still extant, and there is no men- proof would be sufficient. She gave the accution of this fatal box.

sers of Mary leave to go to Scotland, and the December 4th, 1567, Murray's secret council box and letters were seen no more. They have published an act, in which is the first mention of been since lost, and the discovery, which comthese letters, and in which they are said to be parison of writing might have made, is now no written and subscrivit with her awin hand. Ten longer possible. Hume has, however, endeadays after Murray's first parliament met, and voured to palliate the conduct of Elizabeth, but passed an act, in which they mentior: previe let his account, says our author, is contradicted aliers written halelie (wholly) with her awin hand. most in every sentence by the records, which, it The difference beiween written and subscribed, appears, he has himself perused. and wholly written, gives the author just reason In the next part, the authenticity of the letters to suspect, first, a forgery, and then å variation is examined ; and it seems to be proved beyond of the forgery. It is indeed very remarkable, contradiction, that the French letters, supposed that the first account asserts more than the se- to have been written by Mary, are translated cond, though the second contains all the truth; from thc Scotch copy, and, if originals, which it for the letters, whether written by the queen or was so much the interest of such numbers to not, were not subscribed. Had the second ac- preserve are wanting, it is much more likely that count differed from the first only by something they never existed, than that they have been lost. added, the first might have contained truth, The arguments used by Dr. Robertson, to though not all the truth; but as the second cor- prove the genuineness of the letters, are next rects the first by diminution, the first cannot be examined. "Robertson makes use principally of cleared from falsehood.

what he calls the internal evidence, which, In October, 1569, these letters were shown at amounting at most to conjecture, is opposed by York to Elizabeth's commissioners, by the conjecture equally probable. agents of Murray, but not in their public cha- In examining the confession of Nicholas Huracter as commissioners, but by way of private bert, or French Paris, this new apologist of information, and were not therefore exposed to Mary seems to gain ground upon her accuser. Mary's commissioners. Mary, however, hear- Paris is mentioned in the letters, as the bearer ing that some leiters were intended to be pro- of them to Bothwell ; when the rest of Bothduced against her, directed her commissioners to well's servants were executed, clearing the queen require them for her inspection, and in ' in the last moment, Paris, instead of suffering

his trial with the rest at Edinburgh, was con- of every formality requisite in a judicial evidence. veyed to St. Andrew's, where Murray was abso- In what dark corner, then, this strange produclute, put into a dungeon of Murray's citadel, and tion was generated, our author may endeavour to two years after condemned by Murray himself find out, if he can. nobody knew how. Several months after his As to his second assertion, that it was redeath, a confession in his name, without the regularly and judicially given in, and therefore gular testifications, was sent to Cecil, at what ought to have been canvassed by Mary during exact time nobody can tell.

the conferences, we have already seen that this of this confession, Lesly, Bishop of Ross, likewise is not fact: the conferences broke up openly denied the genuineness, in a book printed in February, 1569: Nicholas Hubert was not at London, and suppressed by Elizabeth ; and hanged till August thereafter, and his dying conanother historian of that time declares, that fession, as Mr. Hume calls it, is only dated the Paris died without any confession; and the 10th of that month. How then can this genulo confession itself was never shown to Mary, or man gravely tell us, that this confession was juto Mary's commissioners. The author makes dicially given in, and ought to have been at that this reflection:

very time canvassed by queen Mary, and ber “From the violent presumptions that arise commissioners ? Such positive assertions, apfrom their carrying this poor ignorant stranger parently contrary to fact, are unworthy the chafrom Edinburgh, the ordinary seat of justice ; racter of an historian, and may very justly rentheir keeping him hid from all the world, in á der his decision, with respeci to evidences of remote dungeon, and not producing him with a higher nature, very dubious. In answer then their other evidences, so as he might have been to Mr. Hume: As the queen's accusers did not publicly questioned; the positive and direct tes- choose to produce this material witness, Paris, timony of the author of Crawfurd's manuscript, whom they had alive, and in their hands, nor any then living, and on the spot at the time ; with declaration or confession from him at the critical the public affirmation of the Bishop of Ross at and proper time for having it canvassed by the time of Paris's death, that he had vindicated the queen, I apprehend our author's conclusion the queen with his dying breath; the behaviour may fairly be used against himsef; that it is of Murray, Morton, Buchanan, and even of in vain at present to support the improbabilities Hay, the attester of this pretended confession, and absurdities in a confession, taken in a clanon that occasion ; their close and reserved si-destine way, nobody knows how; and produced lence at the time when they must have had this after Paris's death, by nobody knows whom; confession of Paris in their pocket; and their and from every appearance destitute of every publishing every other circumstance that could formality requisite and common to such sort of tend to blacken the queen, and yet omitting this evidence: for these reasons, I am under no sort confession, the only direct evidence of her sup- of hesitation to give sentence against Nicholas posed guilt; all this duly and dispassionately Hubert's confession, as a gross imposture and considered, I think one may safely conclude, forgery.” that it was judged not fit to expose so soon to

The state of the evidence relating to the letlight this piece of evidence against the queen: ters is this : which a cloud of witnesses, living, and present Morton affirms that they were taken in the at Paris's execution, would surely have given hands of Dalgleish. The examination of Dalclear testimony against, as a notorious impos- gleish is still extant, and he appears never to ture."

have been once interrogated concerning the letMr. Hume, indeed, observes, “It is in vain at ters. present to seek for improbabilities in Nicholas Morton and Murray affirm that they were Hubert's dying confession, and to magnify the written by the queen's hand; they were caresmallest difficulties into a contradiction. It was fully concealed from Mary and her commiscertainly a regular judicial paper, given in re-sioners, and were never collated by one man, gularly and judicially, and ought to have been who could desire to disprove them. canvassed at the time, if the persons whom it Several of the incidents mentioned in the lefconcerned, had been assured of their innocence.” ters are confirmed by the oath of Crawfurd, one

– To which our author makes a reply, which of Lennox's defendants, and some of the incicannot be shortened without weakening it. dents are so minute, as that they could scarcely

“Upon what does this author ground his sen- be thought on by a forger. Crawfurd's testitence ? Upon two very plain reasons, first, That mony is not without suspicion. Whoever practhe confession was a judicial one, that is, taken tises forgery, endeavours to make truth the vehiin presence, or by authority of a judge. And cle of falsehood. Of a prince's life very minute secondly, That it was regularly and judicially incidents are known; and if any are too slight given in; that must be understood during the to be remarked, they may be safely feigned, for time of the conferences before queen Elizabeth they are likewise too slight to be contradicted. and her council, in presence of Mary's commis- But there are still more reasons for doubting the sioners; at which time she ought to have can- genuineness of these letters. They had no date vassed it, says our author, if she knew her in- of time or place, no seal, no direction, no supernocence.

scription. “ That it was not a judicial confession, is The only evidences that could prove their auevident; the

paper itself does not bear any thenticity were Dalgleish and Paris, of which such mark; nor does it mention that it was Dalgleish, at his trial, was never questioned taken in presence of any person, or by any au- about them ; Paris was never publicly tried, thority whatsoever; and, by comparing it with though he was kept alive through the time of the the judicial examinations of Dalgleish, Hay, conference. and Hepburn, it is apparent, that it is destitute The servants of Bothwell, who were put to

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