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afterwards he read no authors without exacting When therefore the obligations of morality are of his pupil an account of every remarkable ex- laught, let the sanctions of Christianity never be emplification, or breach of the laws of reasoning. I forgotten; by which it will be shown, that they

When this system has been digested, if it be give strength and lustre to each other; renging thouglıl necessary to proceed farther in the study will appear to be the voice of reason, and moraof method, it will be proper to recommend lity the will of God. Under this article must be Crousaz, Watts, Le Clerc, Wolfius, and Locke's recommended Tully's Offices, Grotius, PuffenEssay on Human Understanding; and if there dorf, Cumberland's Laws of Nature, and the be imagined any necessity of adding the peri- excellent Mr. Addison's Moral and Religious patetic logic, which has been perhaps condemned Essays. without a candid trial, it will be convenient to X. Thus far the work is composed for the use ploceed to Sanderson, Wallis, Crackanthorp, of scholars, merely as they are men. But it was and Aristotle.

thought necessary to introduce something that VIII. To excite a curiosity after the works of might be particularly adapted to that country for God, is the chief design of the small specimen which it is designed; and therefore a discourse of natural history inserted in this collection ; has been added upon trade and commerce, of which, however, may be sufficient to put the which it becomes every man of this nation to un mind in motion, and in some measure to direct derstand at least the general principles, as it is its steps ; but its effects may easily be improved impossible that any should be high or low enough by a philosophic master, who will every day find noi to be in some degree afiected by their decien a thousand opportunites of turning the atten- sion or prosperity. It is therefore necessary that tion of his scholars to the contemplation of the it should be universally known among us, what objects that surround them, of laying open the changes of property are advantageous, or when wonderful art with which every part of the uni- the balance of trade is on our side ; what are the verse is formed, and the providence which governs products or manufactures of other countries ;the vegetable and animal creation. He may lay and how far one nation may in any species of before them the Religious Philosopher, Ray, traffic obtain or preserve superiority over anoDerham's Physico-Theology, together with the ther. The theory of trade is yet but little unSpectacle de la Nature; and in time recommend derstood, and therefore the practice is often with to their perusal Rondoletius and Aldrovandus. out rcal advantage to the public; but it might

IX. But how much soever the reason may be be carried on with more general success, it is strengthened by logic, or the conceptions of the principles were better considered ; and to excite mind enlarged by ihe study of nature, it is ne- that aitention is our chief design. To the peru. cessary the man be not suffered to dwell upon sal of this book may succeed that of Mun upon them so long as to neglect the study of himself

, Foreign Trade, Sir Josiah Child, Locke upon the knowledge of his own station in the ranks Coin, Dprenant's Treatises, the British Merof being, and his various relations to the in-chant, Dictionnaire de Commerce, and, for an numerable multitudes which surround him, and abstract or compendium, Gee, and an improvewith which his Maker has ordained him to be ment that may hereafter be made upon his plan. united for the reception and communication of XI. The principles of laros and government happiness. To consider these aright is of the come next to be considered; by which men are greatest iinportance, since from these arise duties taught to whom obedience is due, for what it is which he cannot neglect. Ethics, or morality, paid, and in what degree it may be justly requir. therefore, is one of the studies which ought to ed. This knowledge, by peculiar necessity, cott begin with the first glimpse of reason, and only stitutes a part of the education of an Engliste end with life itself. Other acquisitions are man who professes to obey liis prince accoruing merely temporary benefits, except as they con- to the law, and who is himself a secondary leo tribute to illustrate the knowledge, and confirin gislatur, as he gives his consent, by his represen, the practice, of morality and piety, which ex- tative, to all the laws by which he is bound, and tend their influence beyond the grave, and in- has a right to petition the great council of the crease our happiness through endless duration. nation, whenever he thinks they are deliberating

This great science, therefore, must be incul- upon an act detrimental to the interest of the cated with care and assiduity, such as its impor-community. This is therefore a subject to which tance ought to incite in reasonable minds: and the thoughts of a young man ought to be direels for the prosecution of this design, fit opportuni- ed; and that he may obtain such knowledge as ties are always at hand. As the importance of may qualify him to act and judge as one of a free logic is to be shown by deteeting false arguments, people, let him be directed to add to this intro the excellence of morality is to be displayed by duction, Fortescue's Treatises, N. Bacon's His proving the deformity, the reproach, and the mi-lorical Discourse on the Laws and Government sery of all deviations from it." Yet it is to be re- of England, Temple's Introduction, Locke on membered, that the laws of mere morality are Government, Zouch's Elementa Juris Civilis, no coercive power; and, however they may by Plato Redivivus, Gurdon's History of Parliaconviction of their fitness please the reasoner in ments, and Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity. the shade, when the passions stagnate without XII. Having thus supplied the young student impulse, and the appetites are secluded from their with knowledge, it remains now that he learns ius objects, they will be of little force against the ar- application ; and that thus qualified to act his dour of desire, or the vehemence of rage, amidst part, he be at last taught to choose it. For this the pleasures and tumults of the world. To purpose a section is added upon human life and counteract the power of temptations, hope must manners; in which he is cautioned against the he excited by the prospect of rewards, and fear danger of indulging his passions, of vitiating his by the expectation of punishment; and virtue habits, and depraving his sentiments. He is 10may owe her panegyrics to morality, but must structed in these points by three fables, two al derive her authority from religion.

which were of the highest authority in the ancient Pagan world. But at this he is not to dicate or prevent vice, by turning to a better use rest; for if he expects to be wise and happy, those moments in which it is learned or indulged: he must diligently study the SCRIPTURES of and in some sense lengthen life, by teaching proce Gon.

terity to enjoy those years which have hitherto Such is the book now proposed, as the first been lost. The success, and even the trial of miliation into the knowledge of things, which this experiment, will depend upon those to whom has been thought by many to be too long delay- the care of our youth is committed ; and a due ed in the present forms of education. Whether sense of the inportance of their trust will easily the complaints be not often ill-grounded, may prevail upon them to encourage a work which perhaps be disputed; but it is at least reasonable pursues the design of improving education. If to believe, that greater proficiency inight some- any part of the following performance shall upon times be made; that real knowledge might be trial be found capable of amendment: if any more early communicated ; and that children thing can be added or altered, so as to render the might be allowed, without injury to health, to attainment of knowledge more easy ; the Edispend many of those hours upon useful employ tor will be extremely obliged to any gentleman, ments, which are generally lost in idleness and particularly those who are engaged in the busiplay; therefore the public will surely cacourage ness of teaching, for such hints or observations an experiment, by which, if it fails, nobody is as may tend towards the improvement, and will hurt; and if it succeeds, all the future ages of spare neither expense nor trouble in making the the world may find advantage ; which may era- | best use of their information.

PREFACE TO

ROLT'S DICTIONARY.*

No expectation is more fallacious than that crecting mercantile companies, and prepanng to which authors form of the reception which their traffic in the remotest countries. labours will find among mankind. Scarcely Nor is the form of this work less popular than any man publishes a book, whatever it be, with the subject. It has lately been the practice of out believing that he has caught the moment the learned to range knowledge by the alphabet, when the public attention is vacant to his call, and publish dictionaries of every kind of lite:a. and the world is disposed in a particular manner ture. This practice has perhaps been carried to learn the art which he undertakes to teach. too far by the force of fashion. Sciences, in

The writers of this volume are not so far themselves systematical and coherent, are not exempt from epidemical prejudices, but that very properly broken into such fortuitous distrithey likewise please themselves with imagining, butions.' A dictionary of arithmetic or geometry that they have reserved their lavours to a pro- can serve only to confound; but commerce, conpitious conjuncture, and that this is the proper sidered in its whole extent, seems to refuse any time for the publication of a Dictionary of Com other method of arrangement, as it comprises merce.

innumerable particulars unconnected with each The predictions of an author are very far from other, among which there is no reason why any infallibility ; but in justification of some degree should be first or last, better than is furnished by of confidence it may be properly observed, that the letters that compose their names. there was never from the earliest ages a time in We cannot indeed boast ourselves the inven. which trade so much engaged the attention of tors of a scheme so comnodious and compremankind, or commercial gain was sought with hensive. The French, among innumerable prosuch general emulation. Nations which have jects for the promotion of traffic, have taken care hitherto cultivated no art but that of war, nor to supply their merchants with a Dictionnaire de conceived any means of increasing riches but by Commerce, collected with great industry and plunder, are awakened to more inoffensive in exactness, but too large for common use, and dustry. Those whom the possession of subter- adapted to their own trade. This book, as well raneous treasures have long disposed to accom- as others, has been carefully consulted, that our modate themselves by foreign industry, are at merchants may not be ignorant of any thing last convinced, that idleness never will be rich. known by their enemies or rivals. The merchant is now invited to every port, ma- Such indeed is the extent of our undertaking, nufactures are established in all cities, and princes that it was necessary to solicit every information, who just can view the sea from some single cor- to consult the living and the dead. The great ner of their dominions, are enlarging harbours, qualification of him that attempts a work thus

general is diligence of inquiry. No man has • A new Dictionary of Trade and Commerce, compiled opportunity or ability to acquaint himself with from the Informa ion of the most eminent Merchants, all the subjects of a commercial dictionary, 80 and from the Works of the best Writers on commercial as to describe from his own knowledge, or assert Subjecte in all Languages, by Mr. Roll Folio, 1767.

on his own experience. He must therefore often | and that an anvil is forged. But as it is to mast depend upon the veracity of others, as every man traders of more use to know when their goods depends in cominon life, and have no other skill are well wrought, than by what means, care has to boast than that of selecting judiciously, and been taken to name the places where every maarranging properly.

nufacture has been carried furthest, and the Bul to him who considers the extent of our marks by which its excellency may be ascersubject, linited only by the bounds of nature tained. and of art, the task of selection and method will By the places of trade are urderstood all ports, appe ir suiticieni to overburden industry and dis- cities, or towns, where staples are established, tract attention. Many branches of commerce inanofactures are wrought, or any commodities are su'ulivided into smaller and smaller parts, till are bought and sold advaniageously. This part at list they become so minute as not easily to be of our work includes an enumeration of almost noted by observation. Many interests are so all the remarkable places in the world, with such woven ám'ng each other as not to be disen- an account of their situation, customs, and pro tingled without long inquiry; many arts are in. ducts, as the merchant would require, who being distriously kept secret, and many practices ne to begin a new trade in any foreign country, was cess try to be known, are carried on in parts 100 vet ignorant of the commodities of the place and remote for intelligence.

the manners of the inhabitants. But the knowledge of trade is of so much im- But the chief attention of the merchant, and portance to a maritime nation, that no labour consequently of the author who writes for mercan be thought great by which information may chants, ought to be employed upon the means of be obtained; and therefore we hope the reader trade, which include all the knowledge ani pracwill not have reason to complain, that, of what tice nccessary to the skilful and successful conhe might justly expect to find, any thing is duct of commerce. omitted.

The first of the means of trade is proper exluTo give a detail or analysis of our work is cation, which may confer a competent skill in very difficult; a volume intended to contain numbers; to be afterwards compleled in the whatever is requisite to be known by every counting-house, by observation of the manner of trader, necessarily becomes so miscellaneous and stating accounts, and regulating books, which is unconnected as not to be easily reducible to one of the few arts which having been studied heads; yet, since we pretend in some measure in proportion to its inportance, is carried as far to treat of traffic as a science, and to make that as use can require. The counting-house of an regular and systematical which has hitherto been accomplished merchant is a school of method, to a great degree fortuitous and conjectural, and where the great science may be learned of rang. his ofien succeeded by chance rather than by ing particulars under generals, of bringing the conduct, ii will be proper to show that a distri- different parts of a transaction ingether, and of bution of parts has been attempted, which, showing at one view a long series of deztling and thvugh rude and inadequate, will at least pre-exchange. Let no man venture into large bus. serve some order, and enable the mind to take a ness while he is ignorant of the method of rege. methodical and successive view of this design. lating books; never let him imagine that any

In the dictionary which we here offer to the degree of natural abilities will enable him to suppublic, we propose to exhibit the materials, the ply this deficiency, or preserve multiplicity of places, and ihe means of traffic.

attirs from inextricable confusio!?. The materials or subjects of traffic are rohnt- This is the study, without which all other ever is bought and solid, and include therefore studies will be of little avail; but this alone is cvery production of nature.

not sufficient. It will be necessary to learn In giving an account of the commodities of many other things, which however may be easily nature, whether those which are to be used in included in the preparatory institutions, such as their original state, as drugs and spices, or those an exact knowledge of the weights and measure: which become useful when they receive a new of different countries, and soine skill in geográform from human art, as ilux, cotton, and metals, phy and navigation, with which this book may we shall show the places of their production, the perhaps sufficiently supply him. manner in which they grow, the art of cultivating In navigation, considered as part of the skill of or collecting them, their discriminations and va- a merchant, is included not so much the art of rie:ies, hy which the hest sorts are known from steering a ship, as the knowledge of the sea. the worst, and genuine from fictitious, the arts coast, and of the different parts to which his car. by which they are counterfeited, the casualties goes are sent; the customs to be paid ; the by which they are impaired, and the practice by passes, permissions, or certificates to be pri which the damage is palliated or concealed. We cured; the hazards of every voyage, and the true shall likewise show their virtues and uses, and rate of insurances. To this must be added, an trace them through all the changes which they acquaintance with the policies and arts of other undergo.

nations, as well those to whom the commodities The history of manufactures is likewise deli- are sold, as of those who carry goods of the same vered. Of every artificial commodity, the man- kind to the same market; and who are therefore ner in which it is made is in some measure to be watched as rivals endeavouring to take ad. described, though it must be remembered, that vantage of every error, miscarriage, or debate. muual operations are scarce to be conveyed by The chief of the means of trade is money, of any words to him that has not seen them. which our late refinements in traffic hare made Some general notions may however be afforded : the knowledge extremely difficult. The mer it is easy to comprehend, that plates of iron are chant must not only inform himself of the vardas formed by the pressure of rollers, and bars by denominations and value of foreign coins, to the strokes of a hammer: that a cannon is cast, I gether with their method of counting and reducing; such as the milleries of Portugal, and facturer. Much of the prosperity of a trading the livres of France; but he must learn what is nation depends upon duties properly apperiionell; of more difficult aitainment; the discount of so that whal is necessary inay con mue clieal', exchanges, the nature of current paper, the prin- and what is of use only to luxury may in scnic ciples upon which the several banks of Europe measure atone to the public for the mischief done are established, the real value of funds, the true to individuals. Duties may of en be so regucredit of trading companies, with all the sources lated as to become useful even to those that pay of profit, and possibilities of loss.

them; and they may be likewise so unequally All this he must learn merely as a private imposed as to discourage honesty, and depress dealer, attentive only to his own advantage ; but industry, and give temptation to fraui and allas every man ought to consider himself as part of lawful practices. the community to which he belongs, and while To teach all this is the design of the Com. he prosecutes his own interest to promote like-mercial Dictionary; which though immediately wise that of his country, it is necessary fo: the and primarily writien for the merchants, will be trader to look abroad upon mankind, and study of use to every man of business or curiosily. many questions which are perhaps more pro- There is no man who is not in scme degree a perly political than mercantile.

merchant, who has not something to buy and He ought therefore to consider very accurately something to sell, and who does not therefore the balance of trade, or the proportion between want such instructions as may leach him the things exported and imported; to examine what true value of possessions or commodities, kinds of commerce are unlawful, either as being The descriptions of the productions of the earth expressly prohibited, because detrimental to the and water, which this volume will contain, nay manufactures or other interests of his country, as be equally pleasing and useful to the speculatiet the exportation of silver to the East Indies, and with any other natural history; and tie acthe introduction of French commodities; or un- counts of various manufactures will constitute ne lawful in itself, as the traffic for negroes. He contemptible body of experimental philosophy. ought to be able to slale with accuracy, the The descriptions of ports and cities may insti uct benefits and mischiefs of monopolies, and exclu- the geographer as well as if they were found in sive companies; to inquire into the arts which books appropriated only to his own science; and have been practised by them to make them the doctrines of funds, insurances, currency, monecessary, or by their opponents to make them nopolies, exchanges, and dutics, is so necessary odious. He should inform hiniself what trades to the politician, that without it he ran be of no are declining, and what are improveable; when use either in the council or the senate, nor can the advantage is on our side, and when on that speak or think justly either on war or tiade. of our rivals.

We therefore hope that we shall not repent the The state of our colonies is always to be dili- labour of compiling this work; nor flatier ourgently surveyed, that no advantage may be lost selves unreasonably, in predicting a favourable which they can afford, and that every opportu- reception to a book which no condition of life can nity may be improved of increasing their wealth render useless, which may contribuie to the and power, or of making them useful to their advantage of all that make or receive laws, of all mother country:

that buy or sell, of all that wish to keep or iinThere is no knowledge of more frequent use prove their possessions, of all that desire to bo than that of duties and imposts, whether customs rich, und all ihat desire to be wise. paid at the ports, or excises levied on the manu

PREFACE

TO THE TRANSLATION OF

FATHER LOBO'S VOYAGE TO ABYSSINIA.

The following relation is so curious and enter-dibie fictions: whatever he relates, whetner taining, and the dissertations that accompany true or not, is at least probable; and he wlio it so judicious and instructive, that the trans-, tells nothing exceeding the bounds of proba. laior is confident his attempt stands in need of bility, has a right to demand that they should no apology, whatever censures may fall on the believe him who cannot contradict him. performance.

He appears by his modest, and unaffected The Portuguese traveller, contrary to the narration, to have described things as he saw general vein of his countrymen, has amused his hem, to have copied nature from the life, and reader with no romantic absurdities or incre- to have consulted his senses, nut his imagina

tion. He meets with no basilisks that destroy For an account of this book, see the Life of Dr. with their eyes; his crocodiles devour their Johnson, by Mr. Murphy,

prey without tears; and his cataracts fall from

PREFACE TO LOBO'S VOYAGE. the rock without deafening the neighbouring / from the temper of his religion ; bat in the inhabitants,

others has left proofs, that learning and honesty The reader will here find no regions cursed are often too weak to oppose prejudice. He with irremediable barrenness, or blessed with has made no scraple of preferring the testimony spontaneous fecundity; no perpetual gloom or of father Du Bernat to the writings of all the unceasing sunshine; nor are the nations here Portuguese jesuits, to whom he allows great described either devoid of all sense of humanity, zeal, but little learning, without giving any or consummate in all private and social virtues: other reason than that his favourite was a here are no ilottentots without religion, polity, Frenchman. This is writing only to French. or articuiale language; no Chinese perfectly men and to papists: a protestant would be polite, and completely skiiled in all sciences: he desirous to know, why he must imagine that will discover what will always be discovered father Du Bernat had a cooler head or more by a diligent and impartial inquirer, that wher- knowledge, and why one man whose account is ever human nature is to be found, there is a singular, is not more likely to be mistaken than mixture of vice and virtue, a contest of passion many agreeing in the same account. and reason; and that the Creator doth not ap- If the Portuguese were biassed by any partipear partial in his distributions, but has balanced cular views, another bias equally powerful may in most countries their particular inconveniences have deflected the Frenchiman from the truth; by particular favours.

for they evidently write with contrary designs : In his account of the mission, where his vera- the Portuguese, to make their mission seem city is most to be suspec:ed, he neither cxag- more necessary, endeavoured to place in the gerates over-much the merits of the jesuits, if strongest light the differences between the Abys. we consider the partial regard paid by the Por- sinian and Roman church; but the great Lutuguese to their countrymen, by the jesuits to dolfus, laying hold on the advantage, reduced their society, and by the papists to their church, these later writers to prove their contormily. nor aggravates the vices of the Abyssinians; Upon the whole, the controversy seems of no but if the reader will not be satisfied with a greai importance to those who believe the Holy popish account of a popish mission, he may have Scriptures sufficient to teach the way of salrecourse to the History of the Church of Abys- vation ; but, of whatever moment it may be sinia, written by Dr. Geddes, in which he will thought, there are no proofs sufficient to defind the actions and sufferings of the missiona- cide it. ries placed in a different light, though the same His discourses on indifferent subjects will in which Mr. Le Grand, with all his zeal for the divert as well as instruct; and if either in these, Roman church, appears to have seen them. or in the relation of father Lobo, any argument

This learned dissertator, however valuable shall appear unconvincing, or description oh for his industry and erudition, is yet more to scure, they are defects incident to all mankind, be esteemed for having dured so freely, in the which, however, are not too rashly to be in. midst of France, to declare his disapprobation puted to the authors, being sometimes perhaps of the patriarch Oviedo's sanguinary zeal, who more justly chargeable on the translator. was continually iinportuning the Portuguese to In this translation (if it may be so called) beat up their drums for missionaries who might great liberties have been taken, which, whether preach the gospel with swords in their hands, justifiable or not, shall be furly confessed, and and propagate by desolation and slaughter the let the judicious part of mankind pardon or contrue worship of the God of peace.

demn them. It is not easy to forbear reflecting with how

In the first part the greatest freedom has been little reason these men profess themselves the used, in reducing the narration into a narrow followers of Jesus, who left this great charac-compass; so that it is by no means a translateristic to his disciples, that they should be tion, but an epitome, in which, whether every known by loving one another, by universal and thing either useful or entertaining be comprised, unbounded churity and benevolence.

the compiler is least qualified to determine. Let us suppose an inhabitant of some remote In the account of Abyssinia, and the conand superior region, yet unskilled in the ways tinuation, the authors have been followed with of men, having read and considered the precepts more exactness; and as few passages appeared of the gospel, and the example of our Saviour, either insignificant or tedious, few have been to come down in search of the true church. If either shortened or omitted. he would not inquire after it among the cruel, The dissertations are the only part in which the insolent, and the oppressive; among those an exact translation has been attempted; and who are continually grasping at dominion over even in those, abstracts are sometimes given souls as well as bodies; among those who are instead of literal quotations, particularly in the cn.ployed in procuring io themselves impunity first; and sometimes other parts have been con for the most enormous villanies, and studying tracted. inethods of destroying their fellow-creatures, Several memorials and letters, which are not for their crimes bu: their errors-if he would printed at the end of the dissertations to secure not expect to incet benevolence engaged in mas- the credit of the foregoing narrative, are entirely sucres, or to find mercy in a court of inquisition, left out. ne would not look for the true church in the It is hoped that after this confession, whoever church of Rome. Mr. Le Grand has given in one dissertation he shall find no proofs of fraud or partiality, will

shall compare this attempt with the original, if an example of great moderation, in deviating I candidly overlook any failure of judgment.

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