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be right, that by passing up the river Senegal | of Storms to be called thenceforward Capo de his dominions would be found. It was therefore buena Esperanza, or the Cape of Good Hope. ordered that when the fortress was finished, an Some time before the expedition of Diaz, the attempt should be made to pass upward to the river Zaire and the kingdom of Congo had been source of the river. The design failed then, and discovered by Diego Can, who found a nation has never yet succeeded.
of negroes who spoke a language which those Other ways likewise were tried of penetrat- that were in his ships could not understand. He ing to the kingdom of Prester John, for the landed, and the natives, whom he expected to king resolved to leave neither sea nor land un-Ay like the other inhabitants of the coast, met searched till he should be found. The two mes- them with confidence, and treated them with sengers who were sent first on this design, went kindness; but Diego, finding that they could to Jerusalem, and then returned, being per- noi understand each other, seized some of their suaded that for want of understanding the lan-chiefs, and carried them to Portugal, leaving guage of the country, it would be vain or impos- some of his own people in their room to learn sible to travel farther. Two more were then the language of Congo. despatched, one of whom was Pedro de Covillan, The negroes were
soon pacified, and the Porthe other Alphonso de Paiva ; they passed from tuguese left to their inercy were well treated; Naples to Alexandria, and then travelled to Cairo, and as they by degrees grew able to make themfrom whence they went to Aden, a town of Ara-selves understood, recommended themselves, bia, on the Red Sea, near its mouth. From Aden, their nation, and their religion. The king of Pavia set sail for Ethiopia, and Covillan for the Portugal sent Diego back in a very short time Indies. Covillan visited Canavar, Calicut, and with the negroes whom he had forced away; Goa in the Indies, and Sosula in the eastern and when they were set safe on shore the king Africa; thence he returned to Aden, and then of Congo conceived so much esteem for Diego, to Cairo, where he had agreed to meet Paiva, that he sent one of those who had returned, back At Cairo he was informed that Paiva was dead, again in the ship to Lisbon, with two young men but he met with two Portuguese Jews, one of despatched as ambassadors, to desire instructors whom had given the king an account of the situ- to be sent for the conversion of his kingdom. ation and trade of Ormus: they brought orders The ambassadors were honourably received, to Covillan, that he should send one of them and baptized with great pomp, and a fleet was home with the journal of his travels, and go to immediately fitted out for Congo, under the Ormus with the other.
command of Gonsalvo Sorza, who dying in his Corvillan obeyed the orders, sending an exact passage, was succeeded in authority by his account of his adventures to Lisbon, and pro- nephew Roderigo. ceeding with the other messenger to Ormus; When they came to land, the king's uncle, where having made sufficient inquiry, he sent who commanded the province, immediately rehis companion homewards with the caravans quested to be solemnly initiated in the christian that were going to Aleppo, and embarking once religion, which was granted to him and his young more on the Red Sea, arrived in time at Abys- son, on Easterday, 1491. The father was named sinia, and found the prince whom he had sought Manuel, and the son Antonio. Soon afterwards so long, and with such danger.
the king, qucen, and eldest prince, received at Two ships were sent out upon the same search, the font the names of John, Eleanor, and Alof which Bartholomew Diaz had the chief com- phonso; and a war breaking out, the whole mand; they were attended by a smaller vessel army was admitted to the rites of christianity, laden 'with provisions, that they might not re- and then sent against the enemy. They return upon pretence of want either felt or feared. zurned victorious, but soon forgot their faith, and
Navigation was now brought nearer to per- formed a conspiracy to restore paganism; a fection. The Portuguese claim the honour of powerful opposition was raised by infidels and many inventions by which the sailor is assisted, apostates headed by one of the king's younger and which enable him to leave sight of land, and sons: ani !he missionaries had been destroyed, commit himself to the boundless ocean. Diaz had not Alphonso pleaded for them and for had orders to proceed beyond the river Zaire, christianity. where Diego Can had stopped, to build monu- The enemies of religion now became the enements of his discoveries, and to leave upon the mies of Alphonso, whom they accused to his coasts negro men and women well instructed, father of disloyalty. His mother, queen Eleanor, who might inquire after Prester John, and fill gained time, by one artifice after another, till the the natives with reverence for the Portuguese. king was calmed; he then heard the cause again,
Diaz, with much opposition from his crew, declared his son innocent, and punished his acwhose mutinies he repressed, partly by softness cusers with death. and partly by steadiness, sailed on till he reached The king died soon after, and the throne was the utmost point of Africa, which from the bad disputed by Alphonso, supported by the chrisweather that he met there, he called Cabo Tor- tians, and Aquitimo, his brother, followed by mentoso, or the Cape of Storms. He would the infidels. A battle was fought, Aquitimo was have gone forward, but his crew forced him to taken and put to death, and christianity was
In his way back he met the Victualler, for a time established in Congo; but the nation from which he had been parted nine months has relapsed into its former follies. before ; of the nine men which were in it at the Such was the state of the Portuguese naviseparation, six had been killed by the negrocs, gation, when, in 1492, Columbus made the daring and of the three remaining, one died for joy at and prosperous voyage which gave a new world the sight of his friends. Diaz returned to Lis- to European curiosity and European cruelty: bon in December, 1457, and gave an account of He had' offered his proposal, and declared his ais voyage to the king, who ordered the Cape expectations to king Jolin of Portugal, who had slighted him as a fanciful and rash projector, The Portuguese and Spaniards becanie now that promised what he had not reasonable jealous of each other's claim to countries which hopes to perform. Columbus had solicited other neither had yet seen; and the Pope, to whom princes, and had been repulsed with the same they appealed, divided the new world between indignity; at last Isabella of Arragon furnished them by a line drawn from north to south, a him with ships, and having found America, he hundred leagues westward from Cape Verd and entered the mouth of the Tagus in his return, the Azores, giving all that lies west from that and showed the natives of the new country.- line to the Spaniards, and all that lies cast to the When he was admitted to the king's presence, Portuguese.' This was no satisfactory division, he acted and talked with so much haughtiness, for the east and west must meet at last, but that and reflected on the neglect which he had un- time was then at a great distance. dergone with so much acrimony, that the cour- According to this grant, the Portuguese contiers who saw their prince insulted, offered to tinued their discoveries eastward, and became destroy him; but the king, who knew that he masters of much of the coast both of Africa and deserved the reproaches that had been used, and the Indies; but they seized much more than they who now sincerely regretted his incredulity, could occupy, and while they were under the would suffer no violence to be offered him, but dominion of Spain, lost the greater part of their dismissed him with presents and with honours. Indian territories,
PREFACE TO THE PRECEPTOR;
CONTAINING A GENERAL PLAN OF EDUCATION.
PUBLISHED IN 1748, BY DODSLEY.
The importance of education is a point so with the forms of education, is to be checked, generally understood and confessed, that it would will be readily granted; but .since, though it be of little use to attempt any new proof or illus- may be in some degree obviated, it cannol ration of its necessity and advantages. wholly be suppressed, it is surely rational to
At a time when so many schemes of educa- turn it to advantage, by taking care that the tion have been projected, so many proposals mind shall never want objects on which its faculoffered to the public, so many schools opened ties may be usefully employed. It is not imposfor general knowledge, and so many lectures in sible, that this restless desire of novelty which particular sciences attended; at a time when gives so much trouble to the teacher, may be mankind seems intent rather upca familiarising often the struggle of the understanding starting than enlarging the several arts; and every age, from that, to which it is not by nature adapted, sex, and profession, is invited to an acquaintance and travelling in search of something on which with those studies, which were formerly sup-it jaay Sx with greater satisfaction. For with posed accessible only to such as nad devoted out supposing each man particularly marked out themselves to literary leisure, and Acúicated by his genius for particular performances, it may their powers to philosophical inquiries; it seems be easily conceived, that when a numeroas class rather requisite that an apology should be made of boys is confined indiscriminately to the ame for any further attempt to smooth a path so fre- forms of composition, the repetition of the same quently beaten, or to recommend attainments words, or the explication of the same sentiments, so ardently pursued, and so officiously directed. the employment must, either by nature or acc.
That this general desire may not be frustrated, dent, be less suitable to some than others; that our schools seem yet to want some book, which the ideas to be contemplated may be too difficult may excite curiosity by its variety, encourage for the apprehension of one, and too obvious for diligence by its facility, and reward application that of another: they may be such as some us: oy its usefulness. In examining the treatises derstandings cannot reach, though others look nitherto offered to the youth of this nation, there down upon them as below their regard. Every appeared none that did not fail in one or other mind in its progress through the different stages of these essential qualities; none that were not of scholastic learning, must be often in one of either unpleasing, or abstruse, or crowded with these conditions, must either flag with the lalearning very rarely applicable to the purposes bour, or grow wanton with the facility, of the of common life.
work assigned; and in either state it naturally Every man who has been engaged in teaching, turns aside from the track before it. Weariness knows with how much difficulty youthful minds looks out for relief, and leisure for employment, are confined to close application, and how rea- and surely it is rational to indulge the wanderdily they deviate to any thing, rather than at.ings of both. For the faculties which are too tend to that which is imposed as task. That lightly burdened with the business of the day, this disposition. when it becomes inconsistent may with great propriety add to it some other Inquiry; and he that finds himself overwearied | mitted with little alteration. But so widely does by a task, which perhaps, with all his efforts, he this plan differ from all others, so much has the :s not able to perform, is undoubtedly to be jus- state of many kinds of learning been changed, tified in addicting himself rather to easier stu- or so unfortunately have they hitherto been culdies, and endeavouring to quit that which is tivated, that none of the other subjects were exabove his attainment, for that which nature has plained in such a manner as was now required; made him capable of pursuing with advantage. and therefore neither care nor expense has been
That therefore this roving curiosity may not spared to obtain new lights, and procure to this be unsatisfied, it seems necessary to scatter in book the merii of an original. its way such allurements as may withhold it With what judgment the design has been from a useless and unbounded dissipation; such formed, and with what skill it has been exe as may regulate it without violence, and direct cuted, the learned world is now to determine. it without restraint ; such as may suit every in- But before sentence shall pass, it is proper to clination, and fit every capacity; may employ explain more fully what has been intended, that the stronger genius, by operations of reason; censure may not be incurred by the omission of and engage the less active or forcible mind, bý that which the original plan did not comprehend; supplying it with easy knowledge, and obviating to declare more particularly who they are tó that despondence, which quickly prevails, when whose instructions these treatises pretend, that nothing appears but a succession of difficulties, a charge of arrogance and presumption may be and one labour only ceases that another may be obviated; to lay down the reasons which di. imposed.
rected the choice of the several subjects; and to A book intended thus to correspond with all explain more minutely the manner in which each dispositions, and afford entertainment for minds particular part of these volumes is to be used. of different powers, is necessarily to contain The title has already declared, that these votreatises on different subjects. As it is designed lumes are particularly intended for the use of for schools, though for the higher classes, it is schools, and therefore it has been the care of the confined wholly to such parts of knowledge as authors to explain the several sciences, of which young minds may comprehend; and as it is they have treated, in the most familiar manner; drawn up for readers yet unexperienced in life, for the mind used only to common expressions, and unable to distinguish the useful from the and inaccurate ideas, does not suddenly conform ostentations or unnecessary parts of science, it itself to scholastic modes of reasoning, or conis requisite that a very nice distinction should be ceive the nice distinctions of a subtle philosophy, made, that nothing unprofitable should be ad- and may be properly initiated in speculative stumitted for the sake of pleasure, nor any arts of dies by an introduction like this, in which the attraction neglected, that might fix the attention grossness of vulgar conception is avoided, withupon more important studies.
out the observation of metaphysical exactness. These considerations produced the book which It is observed that in the course of the natural is here offered to the public, as better adapted world no change is instantaneous, but all its to the great design of pleasing by instruction, vicissitudes are gradual and slow; the motions than any which has hitherto been admitted into of intellect proceed in the like imperceptible proour seminaries of literature. There are not in gression, and proper degrees of transition from deed wanting in the world compendiums of one study to another are therefore necessary; science, but many were written at a time when but let it not be charged upon the writers of this philosophy was imperfect, as that of G. Valla; book, that they intended to exhibit more than many contain only naked schemes, or synopti- the dawn of knowledge, or pretended to raise in cal tables, as that of Stierius; and others are the mind any nobler product than the blossoms too large and voluminous, as that of Alstedius; of science, which more powerful institutions and, what is not to be considered as the least may ripen into fruit. objection, they are generally in a language, For this reason it must not be expected, that which to boys is more difficult than the sub- in the following pages should be found a comject; and it is too hard a task to be condemned plete circle of the sciences; or that any authors, to learn a new science in an unknown tongue. now deservedly esteemed, should be rejected to As in life, so in study, it is dangerous to do more make way for what is here offered. It was inthings than one at a time; and the mind is not tended by the means of these precepts, not to to be harassed with unnecessary obstructions, deck the mind with ornaments, but to protect it in a way, of which the natural and unavoidable from nakedness; not to enrich it with affluence, asperity is such as too frequently produces but to supply it with necessaries. The inquiry, despair.
therefore, was not what degrees of knowledge If the language however had been the only are desirable, but what are in most stations of objection to any of the volumes already extant, life indispensably required; and the choice was the schools might have been supplied at a small determined not by the splendour of any part of expense by a translation; but none could be literature, but by the extent of its use, and the found that was not defective, redundant, or er- inconvenience which its neglect was likely to roneous, as to be of more danger than use. It produce. was necessary then to examine, whether upon I. The prevalence of this consideration ap every single science there was not some treatise pears in the first part, which is appropriated to writien for the use of scholars, which might be the humble purposes of teaching to read, and adapted to this design, so that a collection might speak, and write lellers; an attempt of little be made from different authors, without the ne- magnificence, but in which no man needs to cessity of writing new systems. This search blush for baving employed his time, if honour was not wholly without success, for two authors be estimated by use. For precepts of this kind, were found, whose performances might be ad-however neglected, extend their importance as
far as men are found who communicate their proposition may be fully understood before thoughts one to another; they are equally useful another is attempted. For which purpose it is to the highest and the lowest; they may often not sufficient, that when a question is asked in contribute to make ignorance less inelegant; the words of the book, the scholar likewise can, and may it not be observed, that they are fre- in the words of the book, return the proper anquently wanted for the embellishment even of swer; for this may be only an act of memory learing?
not of understanding; it is always proper to In order to show the proper use of this part, vary the words of the question, to place the which consists of various exemplifications of proposition in different points of view, and to such differences of style as require correspondent require of the learner an explanation in his own diversities of pronunciation, it will be proper to terms, informing him however when they are inform the scholar, that there are in general improper. By this method the scholar will be three forms of style, each of which demands its come cautious and attentive, and the master will particular mode of elocution: the familiar, the know with certainty the degree of his proficiency. colemn, and the pathetic. That in the familiar, Yet, though this rule is generally right, I cannot ..e that reads is only to talk with a paper in his but recommend a precept of Pardie's, that when aand, and to indulge himself in all the lighter the student cannot be made to comprehend some liberties of voice, as when he reads the common particular part, it should be, for that time, laid articles of a newspaper, or a cursory letter of aside, till new light shall arise from subsequent intelligence or business. That the solemn style, observation. such as that of a serious narrative, exacts a When this compendium is completely under. uniform steadiness of speech, equal, ciear, and stood, the scholar may proceed to the perusal of calm. That for the pathetic, such as an ani- Tacquet, afterwards of Euclid himself, and then mated oration, it is necessary the voice be re- of the modern improvers of geometry, such as gulated by the sense, varying and rising with Barrow, Keil, and Sir Isaac Newton. the passions. These rules, which are the most III. The necessity of some acquaintance with general, admit a great number of subordinate geography and astronomy will not be disputed. observations, which must be particularly adapted If the pupil is born to the ease of a large forto every scholar; for it is observable, that though tune, no part of learning is more necessary to very few read well, yet every man errs in a dif- him than the knowledge of the situation of na
But let one remark never be tions, on which their interests generally depend; omitted; inculcate strongly to every scholar the if he is dedicated to any of the learned profesdanger of copying the voice of another; an sions, it is scarcely possible that he will not be attempt which, though it has been often repeat obliged to apply himself in some part of his ed, is always unsuccessful.
life to these studies, as no other branch of liteThe importance of writing letters with pro- rature can be fully comprehended without them; priety, justly claims to be considered with care, if he is designed for the arts of commerce or since, next to the power of pleasing with his agriculture, some general acquaintance with presence, every man would wish to be able to these sciences will be found extremely useful to give delight at a distance. This great art should him; in a word, no studies afford more extenbe diligently taught, the rather, because of those sive, more wonderful, or more pleasing scenes; letters which are most useful, and by which the and therefore there can be no ideas impressed general business of life is transacted, there are upon the soul, which can more conduce to its no eramples easily to be found. It seems the future entertainment. general fault of those who undertake this part In the pursuit of these sciences, it will be proof education, that they propose for the exercise per to proceed with the same gradation and car. of their scholars, occasions which rarely hap- tion as in geometry. And it is always of use pen; such as congratulations and condolences, iu decorate the nakedness of science, by interand neglect those without which life cannot spersing such observations and narratives as may proceed. It is possible to pass many years with amuse the mind, and excite curiosity. Thus, out the necessity of writing panegyrics or epi- in explaining the state of the polar regions, it thalamiums; but every man has frequent occa- mighi be fit to read the narrative of the Englishsion to state a contract, or demand a debt, or men that wintered in Greenland, which will make make a narrative of some minute incidents of young minds sufficiently curious after the cause common life. On these subjects, therefore, of such a length of night, and intenseness of young persons should be taught to think justly, cold; and many stratagems of the same kind and write clearly, neatly, and succinctly, lest might be practised to interest them in all parts they come from school into the world without of their studies, and call in their passions to aniany acquaintance with common affairs, and mate their inquiries. When they have read stand idle spectators of mankind, in expectation this treatise, it will be proper to recommend to that so'ne great event will give them an oppor- them Varenius's Geography, and Gregory's Astunity to exert their rhetoric,
tronomy. II. The second place is assigned to geometry; IV. The study of chronology and history seems on the usefulness of which it is unnecessary to to be one of the most natural delights of the expatiate in an age when mathematical studies human mind. It is not easy to live without in. have so much engaged the attention of all classes quiring by what means every thing was brought of men. This treatise is one of those which into the state in which we now behold it, or have. been borrowed, being a translation from without finding in the mind some desire of being the work of M. Le Clerc; and is not intended informed concerning the generations of man. as more than the first initiation. In delivering kind, that have been in possession of the world the fundamental principles of geometry, it is before us, whether they were better or worse necessary to proceed by slow steps, that each than ourselves; or whai good or evil has been
derimou to us from their schemes, practices, and which the literature of this nation will be in a ansutucions. These are inquiries which history short time augmented. alone can satisfy; and history can only be made VI. With regard to the practice of drawing, intelligible by some knowledge of chronology, it is not necessary to give any directions, the use the science by which events are ranged in their of the treatise being only to teach the proper order, and the periods of computation are set-method of imitating the figures which are antled ; and which therefore assists the memory nexed. It will be proper to incite the scholars by method, and enlightens the judgment by to industry, by showing in other books the use showing the dependence of one transaction on of the art, and informing them how much it asanother. Accordingly it should be diligently sists the apprehension, and relieves the memory; inculcated to the scholar, that unless he fixes in and if they are obliged sometimes to write de his mind some idea of the time in which each scriptions of engines, utensils, or any complex man of eminence lived, and each action was per- pieces of workmanship, they will more fully formed, with some part of the contemporary his apprehend the necessity of an expedient which tory of the rest of the world, he will consume so happily supplies the defects of language, and his life in useless reading, and darken his mind enables the eye to conceive what cannot be conwith a crowd of unconnected events; his me- yeyed to the mind any other way. When they mory will be perplexed with distant transactions have read this treatise, and practised upon these resembling one another, and his reflections be figures, their theory may be improved by the like a dream in a fever, busy and turbulent, but Jesuit's Perspective, and their manual operaconfused and indistinct.
tions by other figures which may be easily proThe technical part of chronology, or the art cured. of computing and adjusting time, as it is very VII. Logic, or the art of arranging and condifficult, so it is not of absolute necessity, but necting ideas, of forming and examining argushould however be taught, so far as it can be ments, is universally allowed to be an attainment learned without the loss of those hours which are in the utmost degree worthy the ambition of required for attainments of nearer concern. The that being whose highest honour is to be endued student may join with this treatise Le Clerc's with reason; but it is doubted whether that Compendium of History; and afterwards may, ambition has yet been gratified, and whether for the historical part of chronology, procure the powers of ratiocination have been much imHelvicus's and Isaacson's Tables; and, if he proved by any systems of art, or methodical inis desirous of attaining the technical part, may stitutions. The logic which for so many ages first peruse Holder's Account of Time, Hearne's kept possession of the schools, has at last been Ducior Historicus, Strauchius, the first part of condemned as a mere art of wrangling, of very Petavius's Rationarium Temporum; and at little use in the pursuit of truth ; and later wrilength, Scaliger de Emendatione Temporum. ters have contented themselves with giving an And for instruction in the method of his histori- account of the operations of the mind, marking cal studies, he may consult Hearne's Ductor the various stages of her progress, and giving Historicus, Wheare's Lectures, Rawlinsou's some general rules for the regulation of her conDirections for the Study of History; and for duct. The method of these writers is here folecclesiastical history, Cave and Dupin, Baronius lowed; but without a servile adherence to any, and Fleury.
and with endeavours to make improvements V. Rheloric and poetry supply life with its upon all. This work, however laborious, has highest intellectual pleasures; and in the hands yet been fruitless, if there be truth in an obserof virtue are of great use for the impression of vation very frequently made, that logicians out just sentiments, and recommendation of illus- of the school do not reason better than men untrious examples. In the practice of these great assisted by those lights which their science is arts, so much more is the effect of nature than supposed to bestow. It is not to be doubted but the effect of education, that nothing is attempted that logicians may be sometimes overborne by here but to teach the mind some general heads their passions, or blinded by their prejudices; of observation, to which the beautiful passages and that a man may reason ill, as he may act ill, of the best writers may commonly be reduced. not because he does not know what is right, but In the use of this it is not proper that the teacher because he does not regard it; yet it is no more should confine himself to the examples before the fault of his art that it does not direct him him ; for by that method he will never enable when his attention is withdrawn from it, than his pupils to make just application of the rules; it is the defect of his sight, that he misses his but, having inculcated the true meaning of each way when he shuts his eyes. Against this cause figure, he should require them to exemplify it of error there is no provision to be made, by their own observations, pointing to them the otherwise than by inculcating the value of poem, or, in longer works, the book or canto in truth and the necessity of conquering the paswhich an example may be found, and leaving sions. But logic may likewise fail to produce them to discover the particular passage by the its effects upon common occasions, for want light of the rules which they have lately learned of being frequently and familiarly applied, till
For a farther progress in these studies, they its precepts may direct the mind imperceptibly, may consult Quintilian and Vossius's Rhetoric; as the fingers of a musician are regulated by his the art of poetry will be best learned from Bossu knowledge of the tune. This readiness of reand Bohours in French, together with Dryden's collection is only to be procured by frequent imEssays
and Prefaces, the Critical Papers of Ad- pression; and therefore it will be proper, when dison, Spence on Pope's Odyssey, and Trapp's logic has been once learned, that the teacher take Prælectiones Poeticæ ; but a more accurate and frequent occasion, in the most easy and familiar philosophical account is expected from a com- conversation, to observe when its rules are prementary upon Aristotle's Art of Poetry, with served, and when they are broken : and that