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In the character of his Elegy I rejoice to con- ments to which every bosom returns an echo.
cur with the common reader ; for by the com- The four stanzas, beginning “Yet even these
mon sense of readers, uncorrupted with literary bones,” are to me original: I have never seen
prejudices, after all the refinements of subtlety the notions in any other place; yet he that reads
and the dogmatism of learning, must be finally them here persuades himself that he has always
decided all claim to poetical honours. The felt them. 'Had Gray written often thus, it had
“Churchyard ” abounds with images which been vain to blame, and useless to praise him.
find a mirror in every mind, and with senti-

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George Lyttelton, the son of Sir Thomas | poem, called “The Trial of Selim;" for which
Lyttelton, of Hagley, in Worcestershire, was he was paid with kind words, which, as is com-
born in 1709. He was educated at Eton, where mon, raised great hopes, that were at last dis-
he was so much distinguished, that his exercises appointed.
were recommended as models to his school- Lyttelton now stood in the first rank of op-

position ; and Pope, who was incited, it is not
From Eton he went to Christchurch, where easy to say how, to increase the clamour against
he retained the same reputation of superiority, the ministry, commended him among the other
and displayed his abilities to the public in a poem patriots. This drew upon him the reproaches of
on “Blenheim.”

Fox, who, in the house, imputed to him as a He was a very early writer, both in verse and crime his intimacy with a lampooner so unjust prose. His “ Progress of Love," and his “Per- and licentious. Lyttelton supported his friend; sian Letters,” were both written when he was and replied, that he thought it an honour to he very young; and indeed the character of a young received into the familiarity of so great a poet. man is very visible in both. The Verses cant of While he was thus conspicuous, he married shepherds and flocks, and crooks dressed with (1741) Miss Lucy Fortescue of Devonshire, by flowers; and the Letters have something of that whom he had a son, the late Lord Lyttelton, and indistinct and headstrong ardour for liberty two daughters, and with whom he appears to which a man of genius always catches when he have lived in the highest degree of connubial enters the world, and always suffers to cool as felicity : but human pleasures are short: she he passes forward.

died in childbed about five years afterwards ; He stayed not long in Oxford; for in 1728 he and he solaced himself by writing a long poem began his travels, and saw France and Italy - to her memory; When he returned, he obtained a seat in parlia- He did not, however, condemn himself to perment, and soon distinguished himself among petual solitude and sorrow; for, after a while, the most eager opponents of Sir Robert Wal- he was content to seek happiness again by a pole, though his father, who was commissioner second marriage with the daughter of Sir Robert of the admiralty, always voted with the court. Rich; but the experiment was unsuccessful.

For many years the name of George Lyttel- At length, after a long struggle, Walpole gave ton was seen in every account of every debate in way, and honour and profit were distributed the House of Commons. He opposed the stand- among his conquerors. Lyttelton was made ing army; he opposed the excise; he supported (1744) one of the Lords of the Treasury; and the motion for petitioning the King to remove from that time was engaged in supporting the Walpole. His zeal was considered by the cour- schemes of the ministry. tiers not only as violent, but as acrimonious and Politics did not, however, so much engage malignant ; and when Walpole was at last him as to withhold his thoughts from things of hunted from his places, every effort was made more importance. He had in the pride of jureby his friends, and many friends he had, to ex-nile confidence, with the help of corrupt conclude Lyttelton from the secret committee. versation, entertained doubts of the truth of

The Prince of Wales, being (1737) driven Christianity ; but he thought the time now come from St. James's, kept a separate court, and when it was no longer fit to doubt or believe by opened his arms to the opponents of the minis- chance, and applied himself seriously to the try. Mr. Lyttelton became his secretary, and great question. His studies being honest, ended was supposed to have great influence in the di. in conviction. He found that religion was true; rection of his conduct. He persuaded his mas- and what he had learned he endeavoured to ter, whose business it was now to be popular, teach (1747) by “Observations on the Conver that he would advance his character by patron- sion of St. Paul;" a treatise to which infidelity age, Mallet was made under-secretary with has never been able to fabricate a specious antwo hundred pounds; and Thomson had a pen- swer. This book his father had the happiness sion of one hundred pounds a year. For Thom- of seeing, and expressed his pleasure in a letter son, Lyttelton always retained his kindness, and which deserves to be inserted. was able at last to place him at ease.

"I have read your religious treatise with in Moore courted his favour by an apologetical finite pleasure and satisfaction. The style is

fine and clear, the arguments close, cogent, and impression ; but the charges and repeated operairresistible. May the King of kings, whose tions of the press were at the expense of the glorious cause you have so well defended, re- author, whose ambitious accuracy is known to ward your pious labours, and grant that I may have cost him at least a thousand pounds. llc be found worthy, through the merits of Jesus began to print in 1755. Three volumes apChrist, to be an eye-witness of that happiness peared in 1764, a second edition of them in 1767, which' I don't doubt he will bountifully bestow a third edition in 1768, and the conclusion upon you. In the mean time I shall never cease) in 1771. glorifying God, for having endowed you with Andrew Reid, a man not without considerablo such useful talents, and giving me so good a son. abilities, and not unacquainted with letters or “Your affectionate father,

with life, undertook to persuade Lyttelton, as “Tuomas LYTTELTON." he had persuaded himself

, that he was master

of the secret of punctuation; and, as fear begets A few years afterwards, (1751,) by the death credulity, he was employed, I know not at what of his father, he inherited a baronet's title with price, to point the pages of "Henry the Second.” a large estate, which, though perhaps he did not The book was at last pointed and printed, and augment, he was careful to adorn, by a house of sent into the world. Lyttelton took money for great elegance and expense, and by much alten his copy, of which, when he had paid the printer, tion to the decoration of his park.

he probably gave the rest away; for he was very As he continued his activity in parliament, he liberal to the indigent. was gradually advancing his claim to profit and When time brought the History to a third preferment; and accordingly was made in time edition, Reid was either dead or discarded; and (1754) cofférer and privy counsellor : this place the superintendence of typography and punche exchanged next year for the great office of tuation was committed to a man originally a chancellor of the Exchequer; an office, however, comb-maker, but then known by the style of that required some qualifications which he soon Doctor. Something uncommon was probably perceived himself to want.

expected, and something uncommon was at last The year after, his curiosity led him into done; for to the Doctor's edition is appended, Wales; of which he has given an account, per- what the world had hardly seen before, a list of haps rather with too much affectation of delight, errors in nineteen pages. to Archibald Bower, a man of whom he had But to politics and literature there must be an conceived an opinion more favourable than he end. Lord Lyttelton had never the appearance seems to have deserved, and whom, having once of a strong or of a healthy man; he had a slenespoused his interest and fame, he was never der uncompacted frame, and a meagre face; he persuaded to disown. Bower, whatever was lasted however sixty years, and was then seized his moral character, did not want abilities; at- with his last illness. Of his death a very affecttacked as he was by a universal outery, and ing and instructive account has been given by that outcry, as it seems, the echo of truth, he his physician, which will spare me the task of kept his ground; at last, when his defences be- his moral character. gan to fail him, he sallied out upon his adver- "On Sunday evening the symptoms of his saries, and his adversaries retreaied.

Lordship’s disorder, which for a week past had About this time Lyttelton published his alarmed us, put on a fatal appearance, and his “Dialogues of the Dead,” which were very Lordship believed himself to be a dying man. eagerly

read, gh the production rather, as it From this time he suffered by restlessness raseems, of leisure than of study: rather effusions ther than pain; though his nerves were appathan compositions. The names of his persons rently much futtered, his mental faculties never too often enable the reader to anticipate their seemed stronger, when he was thoroughly conversation; and when they have met, they awake. too often part without any conclusion. He has "His Lordship's bilious and hepatic comcopied Fenelon more than Fontenelle.

plaints seemed alone not equal to the expected When they were first published, they were mournful event; his long want of sleep, whether kindly commended by the “Critical Review the consequence of the irritation in the bowels, ers:"' and poor Lyttelton, with humble grati- or, which is more probable, of causes of a differtude, returned in a note which I have read, ac- ent kind, accounts for his loss of strength, and knowledgments which can never be proper, for his death, very sufficiently, since they must be paid either for flattery or for “Though his Lordship wished his approachjustice.

ing dissolution not to be lingering, he waited for When, in the latter part of the last reign, the it with resignation. He said, 'It is a folly, a inauspicious commencement of the war made keeping me in misery, now to attempt to prothe dissolution of the ministry unavoidable, Sir long life;' yet he was easily persuaded, for the George Lyttelton, losing with the rest his em- satisfaction of others, to do or take any thing ployment, was recompensed with a peerage ; thought proper for him. On Saturday he had and rested from political turbulence in the House been remarkably better, and we were not withof Lords.

out some hopes of his recovery.. His last literary production was his “History “On Sunday about eleven in the forenoon, of Henry the Second,” elaborated by the searches his Lordship sent for me, and said he felt a great and deliberations of twenty years, and pub- Aurry, and wished to have a little conversation lished with such anxiety as vanity can dictate. with me in order to divert it. He then pro

The story of this publication is remurkable. ceeded to open the fountain of that heart, The whole work was printed twice over, a great from whence goodness had so long flowed, part of it three times, and many sheets four or as from a copious spring. Doctor, said he, five times. The booksellers paid for 'he first l' you shall be my confessor: when I first set out

in the world, I had friends who endeavoured to dying, but with very little uneasiness, till Tues shake my belief in the Christian religion. I saw day morning, August 22, when between seven difficulties which staggered me; but I kept my and eight o'clock he expired, almost without mind open to conviction. The evidences and a groan.” doctrines of Christianity, studied with attention, His Lordship was buried at Hagley; and the made me a most firm and persuaded believer of following inscription is cut on the side of his the Christian religion. I have made it the rule Lady's monument: of my life, and it is the ground of my future

This unadoru'd stone was placed here hopes. I have erred and sinned; but have re- By the particular desire and express pented, and never indulged any vicious habit. Directions of the Right Honourable In politics, and public life, I have made public

GEORGE LORD LYTTELTON, good the rule of my conduct. I never gave

Who died August 22, 1773, aged 64. counsels which I did not at the time think best. Lord Lyttelton's Poems are the works of I have seen that I was sometimes in the wrong, man of literature and judgment, devoting part but I did not err designedly. I have endeavour- of his time to versification. They have nothing ed, in private life, to do all the good in my power, to be despised, and little to be admired. Of his and never for a moment could indulge malicious “Progress of Love,” it is sufficient blame to or unjust designs upon any person whatsoever.' say that it is pastoral. His blank verse in

"At another time he said, 'I must leave my “Blenheim” has neither much force nor much soul in the same state it was in before this ill- elegance. His little performances, whether ness; I find this a very inconvenient time for songs or epigrams, are sometimes sprightly, and solicitude about any thing.'

sometimes insipid. His epistolary pieces have "On the evening, when the symptoms of a smooth equability, which cannot much tire, death came on, he said, 'I shall die; but it will because they are short, but which seldom elenot be your fault.' When Lord and Lady Va- vates or surprises. But from this censure ought lentia came to see his Lordship, he gave them to be excepted his “Advice to Belinda,” which, his solemn benediction, and said, “Be good, be though for the most part written when he was virtuous, my Lord; you must come to this.' very young, contains much truth and much pru Thus he continued giving his dying benediction dence, very elegantly and vigorously expressed to all around him. On Monday morning a lu- and shows a mind attentive to life, and a power cid interval gave some small hopes, but these of poetry which cultivation might have raised to vanished in the evening; and he continued I excellence.



FATHER PAUL, whose name, before he entered parts of natural philosophy, and chemistry itself; into the monastic life, was Peter Sarpi, was born for his application was unintermitted, his head at Venice, August 14, 1552. His father followed clear, his apprehension quick, and his memory merchandise, but with so little success, that, at retentive. his death, he left his family, very ill provided for, Being made a priest at twenty-two, he was disbut under the care of a mother, whose piety was tinguished by the illustrious Cardinal Borromeo likely to bring the blessing of Providence upon with his confidence, and employed by him on them, and whose wise conduct supplied the want many occasions, not without the envy of persons of fortune by advantages of greater value. of less merit, who were so far exasperated as to

Happily for young Sarpi, she had a brother lay a charge against him, before the Inquisition, master of a celebrated school, under whose direc- for denying that the Trinity could be proved from tion he was placed by her. Here he lost no time, the first chapter of Genesis : but the accusation but cultivated his abilities, naturally of the first was too ridiculous to be taken notice of. rate, with unwearied application. He was born After this he passed successively through the for study, having a natural aversion to pleasure dignities of his order, and in the intervals of his and gayety, and a memory so tenacious, that he employment applied himself to the studies with so could repeat thirty verses upon once hearing them. extensive a capacity, as left no branch of know

Proportionable to his capacity was his progress ledge untouched. By him Aquapendente, the in literature: at thirteen, having made himself great anatomist, confesses that he was informed master of school-learning, he turned his studies how vision is performed; and there are proofs to philosophy and the mathematics, and entered that he was not a stranger to the circulation of upon logic under Capella of Cremona, who, though the blood. He frequently conversed upon astroa celebrated master of that science, confessed nomy with mathematicians, upon anatomy with himself in a very little time unable to give his surgeons, upon medicine with physicians, and with pupil farther instructions.

chemists upon the analysis of metals, not as a As Capella was of the order of the Servites, superficial inquirer, but as a complete master, his scholar was induced, by his acquaintance with But the hours of repose, that he employed so him, to engage in the same profession, though his well, were interrupted by a new information in uncle and his mother represented to him the hard the Inquisition, where a former acquaintance proships and austerities of that kind of life, and ad-duced a letter written by him in ciphers, in which vised him with great zeal against it. But he was he said, “ that he detested the court of Rome, steady in his resolutions, and in 1566 took the and that no preferment was obtained there but by habit of the order, being then only in his 14th dishonest means." This accusation, however danyear, a time of life in most persons very improper gerous, was passed over on account of his great for such engagements, but in him attended with reputation, but made such impression on that court, such maturity of thought, and such a settled tem- that he was afterwards denied a bishopric by Cleper, that he never seemed to regret the choice he ment VIII. After these difficulties were sur then made, and which he confirmed by a solemn mounted, Father Paul again retired to his solitude, public profession in 1572.

where he appears, by some writings drawn up by At a general chapter of the Servites, held at him at that time, to have turned his attention more Mantua, Paul, (for so we shall now call him,) to improvements in piety, than learning.. Such being then only twenty years old, distinguished was the care with which he read the scriptures, himself so much in a public disputation by his that, it being his custom to draw a line under any genius and learning, that William Duke of Man- passage which he intended more nicely to contua, a great patron of letters, solicited the consent sider, there was not a single word in his New of his superiors to retain him at his court, and Testament but was underlined;

the same marks not only made him public professor of divinity in of attention appeared in his Old Testament, Psalthe cathedral, but honoured him with many proofs ter, and Breviary. of his esteem.

But the most active scene of his life began about But Father Paul, finding a court life not agree the year 1605, when Pope Paul V. exasperated able to his temper, quitted it two years afterwards, by some decrees of the senate of Venice that inand retired to his beloved privacies, being then terfered with the pretended rights of the church, not only acquainted with the Latin, Greek, He- laid the whole state under an interdict. brew, and Chaldee languages, but with philoso- The senate, filled with indignation at this treatphy, the mathematics, canon and civil law, alll ment, forbade the bishops to receive or publish the Pope's bull ; and convening the rectors of the Pope's dominions, but were pursued by divme churches, commanded them io celebrate divine justice, and all, except one man, who died in pri service in the accustomed manner, with which son, perished by violent deaths. This and other most of them readily complied; but the Jesuits attempts upon his life obliged him to contine him and some others refusing, were by a solemn ediet self to his convent, where he engaged in writing expelled the state.

the history of the Council of Trent, a work un Both parties, having proceeded to extremities, equalled for the judicious disposition of the matemployed their ablest writers to defend their mea- ter, and artful texture of the narration, commended sures : on the Pope's side, among others, Cardi- by Dr. Burnet as the completest model of historinal Bellarmine entered the rists, and with his cal writing, and celebrated by Mr. Wotton as confederate authors defended the papal claims equivalent to any production of antiquity; in with great scurrility of expression, and very so which the reader finds “Liberty withoat licenphistical reasonings, which were confuted by the tiousness, piety without hypocrisy, freedom of Venetian apologist in much more decent lan-speech without neglect of decency, severity withguage, and with much greater solidity of argu- oat rigour, and extensive learning without ostenment.

tation." On this occasion Father Paul was most emi- In this and other works of less consequence he nently distinguished, by his “Defence of the spent the remaining part of his life, to the beginRights of the supreme Magistrate,” his “ Trea- ning of the year 1622, when he was seized with tise of Excommunication” translated from Ger- a cold and fever, which he neglected till it became son, with an “Apology,” and other writings; for incurable. He languished more than twelve which he was cited before the Inquisition at Rome; months, which he spent almost wholly in a prebut it may be easily imagined that he did not obey paration for his passage into eternity; and among the summws.

his prayers and aspirations was often heard to The Venetians writers, whatever might be the repeat, Lord ! now let thy serymi depart in peace. abilities of their adversaries, were at least supe- On Sunday the eighth of January of the next rior to them in the justice of their cause. The year, he rose, weak as he was, to mass, and went propositions maintained on the side of Rome to take his repast with the rest, but on Monday were these: that the Pope is invested with all the was seized with a weakness that threatened imauthority of heaven and earth. That all princes mediate death ; and on Thursday prepared for are his vassals, and that he may annul their laws his change by receiving the Viaticum with such at pleasure. That kings may appeal to him, as marks of devotion, as equally melted and edified he is temporal monarch of the whole earth. That the beholders. he can discharge subjects from their oaths of alte- Through the whole course of his illness to the giance, and make it their duty to take up arms last hour of his life, he was consulted by the seagainst their sovereign. That he may depose nate in public affairs, and returned answers, in kings without any fault committed by them, if the his greatest weakness, with such presence of good of the church requires it. That the clergy mind as could only arise from the consciousness are exempt from all tribute to kings, and are not of innocence. accountable to them even in cases of high treason. On Sunday, the day of his death, he had the That the Pope carmot err: that his decisions are passion of our blessed Saviour read to him out of to be received and obeyed on pain of sin, though St. John's gospel, as on every other day of that all the world should judge them

to be false : that weck, and spoke of the mercy of his Redeemer, the Pope is God upon earth ; that his sentence and his confidence in his merits. and that of God are the same; and that to call As his end evidently approached, the brethren bis power in question, is to call in question the of the convent came to pronounce the last praypower of God; maxims equally shocking, weak, ers with which he could only join in his thoughts, pernicious, and absurd ; which did not require the being able to pronounce no more than these words, abilities or learning of Father Paal to demonstrate Esto perpetua, Mayest thou last for erer; which their falsehood, and destructive tendency. was understood to be a prayer for the prosperity

It may be easily imagined that such principles of his coumtry. were quickly overthrown, and that no court but Thus died Father Paul, in the 71st year of his that of Rome thought it for its interest to favour age ; bated by the Romans as their most formithem. The Pope, therefore, finding his authors dable enemy, and honoured by all the learned for confuted, and his cause abandoned, was willing his abilities, and by the good for his integrity. to conclude the affair by treaty, which, by the His detestation of the corruption of the Roman mediation of Henry IV. of France, was accom- church appears in all his writings, but particularmodated upon ternis very much to the honour of ly in this memorable passage of one of his letters: the Venetians.

- There is nothing more essential than to ruin the But the defenders of the Venetian rights were, reputation of the Jesuits : by the rain of the though comprehended in the treaty, excluded by Jesuits, Rome will be ruined; and if Rome is the Romans from the benefit of it'; some upon ruined religion will reform of itself.". different pretences were imprisoned, some sent He appears by many passages of his life to to the galleys, and all debarred from preferment. have had a high esteem of the church of England But their malice was chiefly aimed against Father and his friend, Father Fulgentio, who had adopted Paul, who soon found the effects of it; for as he alt his notions, made no seruple of administering was going one night to his convent,' about six to Dr. Duncomb, an English gentleman that fell months after the accommodation, he was attacked sick at Venice, the communion in both kinds, ac: by five ruffians armed with stilettoes, who gave cording to the Common Prayer which he had bim ne less than fifteen stabs, three of which with him in Italian. wounded him in such a manner, that he was left He was buried with great pomp at the public. for dead. The murderers fled for refuge to the charge, and a magnificent monument was erected nuncio, and were afterwards received into the I to tus memory.

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