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late his conscience; and when the Bishop of | Bishop's innocence, who, with great prudence London was brought before them, gave his voice and diligence, traced the progress and detected in his favour.

the characters of the two informers, and pub. Thus far he suffered interest or obedience to lished an account of his own examination and carry him; but further he refused to go. When deliverance; which made such an impression he found that the powers of the ecclesiastical upon him, that he commemorated it through life commission were to be exercised against those by a yearly day of thanksgiving. who had refused the Declaration, he wrote to With what hope, or what interest, the villains the lords, and other commissioners, a formal had contrived an accusation which they must profession of his unwillingness to exercise that know themselves utterly unable to prove, was authority any longer, and withdrew himself never discovered. from them. After they had read his letter, they After this, he passed his days in the quiet exadjourned for six months, and scarcely ever inet ercise of his function. When the cause of Sa. afierwards.

cheverell put the public in commotion, he hcWhen King James was frighted away, and nestly appeared among the friends of the church. a new government was to be settled, Sprat was He lived to his seventy-ninth year, and died one of those who considered, in a conference, May 20, 1713. the great question, whether the crown was va- Burnet is not very favourable to his memory ; cans, and manfully spoke in favour of his old but he and Burnet were old rivals. On sume master.

public occasion they both preached before the He complied, however, with the new esta- House of Commons. There prevailed in those blishment, and was left unmolested; but, in 1692, days an indecent custom; when the preacher a strange attack was made upon him by one touched any favourable topic in a manner that Roberi Young and Stephen Blackhead, both delighted his audience, their approbation was men convicted of infamous crimes, and both, expressed by a loud hum, continued in proportion when the scheme was laid, prisoners in New- to their zeal or pleasure. When Burnet preachgate. These men drew up an association, in ed, part of his congregation hummed so loudly which they whose names were subscribed de- and so long, that he sat down to enjoy it, and clared their resolution to restore King James, rubbed his face with his hankerchief.' When to seize the Princess of Orange, dead or alive, Sprat preached, he likewise was honoured with and to be ready with thirty thousand men to the like animating hum ; but he stretched out meet King James when he should land. To his hand to the congregation, and cried, “Peace, this they put the names of Sancroft, Sprat, Marl- peace, I pray you peace.” borough, Salisbury, and others. The copy of This I was told in my youth by my father, Dr. Spral's name was obtained by a fictitious re- an old man, who had been no careless observer quest, to which an answer in his own hand was of the passages of those times. desired. His hand was copied so well, that he Burnet's sermon, says Salmon, was remarkconfessed it might have deceived himself. Black- able for sedition, and Sprat's for loyalty. Burhead, wbo had carried the letter, being sent again net had the thanks of the house ; Sprat had no with a plausible message, was very curious to thanks, but a good living from the King, which, see the house, and particularly importunate to he said, was of as much value as the thanks of be let into the study; where, as is supposed, he the Commons. designed to leave the association. This, how- The works of Sprat, besides his few poems, ever, was denied him; and he dropped it in a are, "The History of the Royal Society," « The flower-pot in the parlour.

Life of Cowley," “ The Answer to Sorbiere,” Young now laid an information before the "The History of the Rye-house Plot," "The priry-council; and, May 7, 1692, the Bishop Relation of his own Examination,” and a volunie was arrested, and kept at a messenger's under a of sermons. I have heard it observed, with great strict guard eleven days. His house was search- justness, that every book is of a different kind, ed, and directions were given that the flower and that each has its distinct and characterispois should be inspected. The messengers, how-tical excellence. ever, missed the room in which the paper was My business is only with his poems. He left. Blackhead went therefore a third time; considered Cowley as a model ; and supposed and, finding his paper where he had left it, that, as he was imitated, perfection was apbrought it away,

proached. Nothing, therefore, but Pindarie The Bishop, having been enlarged, was, on liberty was to be expected. There is in his few June the 10th and 13th, examined again before productions no want of such conceits as he the privy-council, and confronted with his ac- ihought excellent: and of those our judgment cusers. Young persisted with the most obdu- may be settled by the first that appears in his rate impudence, against the strongest evidence; praise of Cromwell, where he says, that Crombut the resolution of Blackhead by cegrees gave wel's " fame, like man, will grow white as il way. There remained at last nó coubt of tho I grows old."


The Life of the Earl of Halifax was pro- grant the assistance of counsel in trials for high perly that of an artful and active statesman, em- treason; and, in the midst of his speech, falling ployed in balancing parties, contriving expedi- into some confusion, was for a while silent; but, ents, and combating opposition, and exposed to recovering bimself, observed, “how reasonable the vicissitudes of advancement and degrada- it was to allow counsel to men called as crimi. tion; but in this collection, poetical merit is the nals before a court of justice, when it appeared claim to attention; and the account which is how much the presence of that assembly could here to be expected may properly be proportion- disconcert one of their own body."* ed not to his influence in the state, but to his After this he rose fast into honours and em. rank among the writers of verse.

ployments, being made one of the commissioners

of the Treasury, and called to the privy-council. CHARLES MONTAGUE was born April 16, 1661, In 1694, he became chancellor of the Exchequer ; at Horton, in Northamptonshire, the son of and the next year engaged in the great attempt Mr. George Montague, a younger son of the of the recoinage, which was in two years hapEarl of Manchester. He was educated first in pily completed. 'In 1696, he projected the genethe country, and then removed to Westminster, ral fund, and raised the credit of the Exchequer; where, in 1677, he was chosen a king's scholar, and, after inquiry concerning a grant of Irish and recommended himself to Bushy by his felis crown-lands, it was determined by a vote of the city in extemporary epigrams. He contracted Commons, that Charles Montague, Esq. had a very intimate friendship with Mr. Stepney; deserved his Majesty's favour. In 1698, being and, in 1682, when Siepney was elected at advanced to the first commission of the Treasury, Cambridge, the election of Montague being not he was appointed one of the regency in the to proceed till the year following, he was afraid King's absence; the next year he was made lest by being placed at Oxford he might be sepa- auditor of the Exchequer, and the year atter rated from his companion, and therefore solicited created Baron Halifax. He was, however, imto be removed to Cambridge, without waiting peached by the Commons; but the articles were for the advantages of another year.

dismissed by the Lords. It seems indeed time to wish for a removal; At the accession of Queen Anne he was disfor he was already a school-boy of one-and- missed from the council; and in the first parliatwenty.

ment of her reign was again attacked by the His relation, Dr. Montague, was then master Commons, and again escaped by the protection of the college in which he was placed a fellow- of the Lords. In 1704, he wrote an answer to commo er, and took him under his particular Bromley's speech against occasional conformity. care. Here he commenced an acquaintance with He headed the inquiry into the danger of the the great Newton, which continued through his church. In 1706, he proposed and negotiated life, and was at last attested by a legacy. the Union with Scotland, and when the Elec.

In 1635, his verses on the death of King tor of Hanover had received the garter, after the Charles made such an impression on the Earl act had passed for securing the protestant sucof Dorset, that he was invited to town, and in- cession, he was appointed to carry the ensigns troduced by that universal patron to the other of the order to the electoral court. He sat as wits. In 1687, he joined with Prior in "The one of the judges of Sacheverell; but voted for City Mouse and the Country Mouse," a bur- a mild sentence. Being now no longer in falesque of Dryden's "Hind and Panther.” He vour, he contrived to obtain a writ for summonsigned the invitation to the Prince of Orange, ing the Electoral Prince to parliament as Duke and sat in the convention. He about the same of Cambridge, time married the Countess Dowager of Man- At the Queen's death he was appointed one chester, and intended to have taken orders; but of the regents; and at the accession of George afterwards, altering his purpose, he purchased I. was made Earl of Halifax, knight of the garfor 1,5001. the place of one of the clerks of the ter, and first commissioner of the Treasury, with council.

a grant to bis nephew of the reversion of the After he had written his epistle on the victory auditorship of the Exchequer. More was not to of the Boyne, his patron, Dorset, introduced be had, and this he kept but a little while ; for, him to King William, with this expression : on the 19th of May, 1715, he died of an inflam

-“Sir, I have brought a mouse to wait on your mation of his lungs.
Majesty." To which the King is said to have
replied, “ You do well to put me in the way of

* Mr. Reed observes that this anecdote is related by making a man of him ;" and ordered him a pen-Auhors," of the Earl of Shaftesbury, author of the “Cha.

Mr. Walpole, in his “Catalogue of Royal and Noble sion of five hundred pounds. This story, how- racteristics ;” but it appears to me to be a mistake, if ever current, seems to have been made after the we are to understand that the words were spoken by nvent. The King's answer implies a greater Shaftesbury at this time, when he had no seat in the acquaintance with our proverbial and familiar being thrown out by the House of Lorus. It became a diction than King William could possibly have law in the 7th William, when Halifax and Shellesbury altained.

both had seats. The editors of the “Biographia Britan. In 1691, being member of the House of Com- nica”: adopted Mr. Walpole's story, but they are not mons, he argued warmly in favour of a law to Life of Lor) Halilax, published in 1715.20

speaking of this period. The story first appeared in the

Of him, who froin a poet became a patron of passed in his favour as the sentence of discernpoets, it will be readily believed that the works ment. We admire in a friend that understandwould not miss of celebration. , Addison began ing which selected us for confidence ; we admire to praise him early, and was followed or accom- more, in a patron, that judgment which, instead panied by other poets; perhaps by almost all, of scattering bounty indiscriminately, directed except Swift and Pope, who forebore to flatter it to us; and, if the patron be an author, those him in his life, and after his death spoke of him; performances which' gratitude forbids us to Swift with slight censure, and Pope, in the cha- blame, affection will easily dispose us to exalt. racter of Bufo, with acrimonious contempt. To these prejudices, hardly culpable, interest

He was, as Pope says, "fed with dedica- adds a power always operating, though not tions;" for Tickell affirms that no dedication always, because not willingly, perceived. The was unrewarded. To charge all unmerited modesty of praise wears gradually away; and per praise with the guilt of flattery, and to suppose haps the pride of patronage may be in time so in ihat the encomiast always knows and feels the creased, that modest praise will no longer please. falsehoods of his assertions, is surely to discover Many a blandishment was practised upon great ignorance of human nature and human Halifax, which he would never have known, life. In determinations depending not on rules, had he no other attractions than those of his but on experience and comparison, judgment is poetry, of which a short time has withered the always, in some degree, subject to affection. beauties. It would now be esteemed no honour, Very near to admiration is the wish to admire. by a contributor to the monthly bundles of

Every man willingly gives value to the praise verses, to be told, that in strains either familiar which he receives, and considers the sentencel or solemn, he sings like Montague.


The Life of Dr. PARNELL is a task which I change his party, not without much censure from should very willingly decline, since it has been those whom he forsook, and was received by lately writen by Goldsmith, a man of such the new ministry as a valuable reinforcement. variety of powers, and such felicity of perform- When the Earl of Oxford was told that Dr. Parance, that he always seemed to do best that nell waited among the crowd in the outer room, which he was doing; a man who had the art of he went, by the persuasion of Swift, with his being minute without tediousness, and general treasurer's staff'in his hand, to inquire for him, without confusion; whose language was copious and to bid him welcome ; and, as may be inwithout exuberance, exact without constraint, ferred from Pope's dedication, admitted him as and easy without weakness.

a favourite companion to his convivial hours; What such an author has told, who would tell but, as it seems often to have happened in those again! I have made an abstract from his larger times to the favourites of the great, without at. narrative; and have this gratification from my tention to his fortune, which, however, was in attempt, that it gives me an opportunity of pay- no great need of improvement. ing due tribute to the memory of Goldsmith. Parnell, who did not want ambition or vanity, Το γαρ γέρας έστι θανόντων. .

was desirous to make himselt' conspicuous, and

to show how worthy he was of high preferment. Thomas PARNELL was the son of a common- As he thought himself qualified to become a wealthsman of the same name, who, at the Re- popular preacher, he displayed bis elocution storation, lett Congleton, in Cheshire, where with great success in the pulpits of London ; Sut the family had been established for several cen- the Queen's deaih putting an end to his expecturies, and settling in Ireland, purchased an es- tations, abated his diligence; and Pope repretate, which, with his lands in Cheshire, descended sents him as falling from that time into intemto the poet, who was born in Dublin, in 1679; perance of wine. That in his latter life he was and, after the usual education at a grainmar- too much a lover of the bottle, is not denied; school, was, at the age of thirteen, admitted into but I have heard it inputed to a cause more the College, where, in 1700, he became master likely to obtain forgiveness from mankind-the of arts; and was the same year ordained a dea- untimely death of a darling son ; or, as others con, though under the canonical age, by a dis- tell

, the loss of his wife, who died (1712) in the pensation from the Bishop of Derry.

midst of his expectations. About three years afterwards he was made a He was now to derive every future addition to priest; and in 1705, Dr. Ashe, the Bishop of his preferments from his personal interest with Clogher, conferred upon him the archdeaconry his private friends, and he was not long unreof Clogher. About the same year he married garded. He was warmly recommended by Mrs. Anne Minchin, an amiable lady, by whom Swift to Archbishop King, who gave him a he had two sons, who died young, and a daugh- prebend in 1713; and in May, 1716, presented ter who long survived him.

him to the vicaroge of Finglass, in the diocess At the ejection of the whigs, in the end of of Dublin, worth four hundred pounds a-year. Queen Anne's reign, Parnell was persuaded to Such notice, from such a man, inclines me to believe, that the vice of which he has been ac- “Churchyard :" but, in my opinion, Gray has cused was not gross, or not notorious.

the advantage of dignity, variety, and originality But his prosperity did not last long. His end, of sentiment. He observes, that the story of whatever was its cause, was now approaching the “Hermit” is in More's' “ Dialogues” and He enjoyed his preferment little more than a Howell's. “Letters," and supposes it to have year ; for in July, 1717, in his thirty-eighth been originally Arabian. year, he died at Chester, on his way to Ire- Goldsmith has not taken any notice of the land.

“Elegy to the old Beauty," which is, perhaps, He seems to have been one of those poets who the meanest; nor of the * Allegory on Man," take delight in writing. He contributed to the the happiest of Parnell's performances; the hint papers of that time, and probably published of the “Hymn to Contentment” I suspect to more than he owned. He left many composi- have been borrowed from Cleiveland. tions behind him, of which Pope selected those The general character of Parnell is not great which he thought best, and dedicated them to extent of comprehension, or fertility of mind. the Earl of Oxford. Of these Goldsmith has of the little that appears still less is his own. given an opinion, and his criticism it is seldom His praise must be derived from the easy safe to contradict. He bestows just praise upon sweetness of his diction : in his verses there is The Rise of Woman,” “The Fairy Tale,” more happiness than pains; he is sprightly with. and “The Pervigilium Veneris ;" but has very out effort, and always delights, though he never properly remarked, that in “ The Battle of Mice ravishes; every thing is proper, yet every thing and Frogs,” the Greek names have not in Eng- seems casual. "If there is some appearance of lish their original effect.

elaboration in the “Hermit,” the narrative, as He tells us, that “The Book-Worm” is bor- it is less* airy, is less pleasing. Of his other rowed from Beza ; but he should have added, compositions it is impossible to say whether with modern applications: and, when he disco- they are the productions of nature, so excellent vers that “Gay Bacchus” is translated from as not to want the help of art, or of art so reAugurellus, he ought to have remarked that the fined as to resemble nature. latter part is purely Parnell's. Another poem, This criticism relates only to the pieces pub. “When Spring comes on,” is, he says, taken lished by Pope. Of the large appendages, which from the French. I would add, that the descrip- I find in the last edition, I can only say, that I tion of barrenness, in his verses to Pope, was know not whence they came, nor have ever in. borrowed from Secundus ; but, lately searching quired whither they are going. They stand for the passage, which I had formerly read, I upon the faith of the compilers. could not find it. The “ Night-piece on Death" is indirectly preferred by Goldsmith to Gray's # Dr. Warton asks, "less than whai _E


Samuel GARTH was of a good family in Agreeably to this character, the College of Phy. Yorkshire, and from some school in his own sicians, in July, 1687, published an edict, recountry became a student at Peterhouse, in quiring all the fellows, candidates, and licenCambridge, where he resided till he became doc- tiates, to give gratuitous advice to the neightor of physic on July 7th, 1691. He was ex- bouring poor. amined before the College, at London, on March This edict was sent to the court of aldermen; the 12th, 1691-2, and admitted fellow, June 26th, and, a question being made to whom the appel 1633. He was soon so much distinguished by lation of the poor should be extended, the Col his conversation and accomplishments, as to lege answered, that it should be sufficient to ob'ain very extensive practice; and, if a pam- bring a testimonial from the clergyınan officiatphlet of those times may be credited, had the ing in the parish where the patient resided. favour and confidence of one party, as Radcliffe After a year's experience, the physicians found had of the other.

their charity frustrated by some malignant opHe is always mentioned as a man of bene- position, and made, to a great degree, vain by volence; and it is just to suppose that his desire the high price of physic; they therefore voted, of helping the helpless disposed him to so much in August, 1688, that the laboratory of the Colzeal for the Dispensary; an undertaking, of lege should be accommodated to the preparation which some account, however short, is proper to of medicines, and another room prepared for be given.

their reception; and that the contributors to the Whether what Temple says be true, that phy- expense should manage the charity. sicians have had more learning than the other It was now expected, that the apothecaries faculties, I will not stay to inquire ; but, I be- would have undertaken the care of providing lieve, every man has found in physicians great medicines; but they took another course. Think liberality and dignity of sentiment, very prompting the whole design pernicious to their interest, effusion of beneficence, and willingness to exert they endeavoured to raise a faction against «ti:1 a lucrative art where there is no hope of lucre. the College, and found some physicians meau enough to solicit their patronage, by betraying ,vernment fell into other hands, be writto to them the counsels of the College. The Lord Godolphin, on his dismission, a short poem, greater part, however, enforced by a new edict, which was criticised in the “Examiner,” and so in 1694, the former order of 1687, and sent it to successfully either defended or excused by Mr. the mayor and aldermen, who appointed a com- Addison, that, for the sake of the vindication, it mit'ee to treat with the College, and settle the ought to be preserved. mode of administering the charity.

At the accession of the present family his It was desired by the aldermen that the tesc merits were acknowledged and rewarded. He timonials of churchwardens and overseers should was knighted with the sword of his hero, Mailbe admitted; and that all hired servants, and borough; and was made physician in ordinary all apprentices to handicraftsmen, should be con- to the King, and physician general to the sidered as poor. This likewise was granted by army. the College.

He then undertook an edition of Ovid's “Me. It was then considered who should distribute tamorphoses,” translated by several hands, which the medicines, and who should settle their he recommended by a preface, written with prices. The physicians procured some apothe. more ostentation than ability: his notions are caries to undertake the dispensation, and offered half-formed, and his materials immethodically that the warden and company of the apotheca- confused. This was his last work. He died ries should adjust the price. This offer was Jan. 18, 1717-18, and was buried at Hanow-onrejected; and the apothecaries who had engaged the-hill. to assist the charity were considered as traitors His personal character seems to have been to the company, threatened with the imposition social and liberal. He communicated himself of troublesome offices, and deterred from the through a very wide extent of acquaintance; and performance of their engagements. The apo- though firm in a party, at a time when firmness thecaries ventured upon public opposition, and included virulence, yet he imparted his kindness presented a kind of remonstrance against the to those who were not supposed to favour his design to the committee of the city, which the principles. He was an early encourager of Pope, physicians condescended to confute; and at last and was at once the friend of Addison and of i he traders seem to have prevailed among the Granville. He is accused of voluptuousness sons of trade; for the proposal of the College and irreligion ; and Pope, who says, “that if having been considered, a paper of approbation ever there was a good Christian, without know was drawn up, but postponed and forgotten. ing himself to be so, it was Dr. Garth," seems

The physicians still persisted ; and in 1696 a not able to deny what he is angry 1o hear, and subscription was raised by themselves, accord- loath to confess. ing to an agreement prefixed to the Dispensary. Pope afterwards deciared himself convinced, The poor were, for a time, supplied with medi- that Garth died in the communion of the eines; for how long a time I know not. The church of Rome, having been privately reconmedicinal charity, like others, began with ar- ciled. It is observed by Lowth, that there is less dour, but soon remitted, and at last died gradu- distance than is thought between skepticism and ally away.

popery: and that a mind, wearied with perpe About the uime of the subscription begins the tual doubt, willingly seeks repose in the bosom action of “The Dispensary.” The poem, as its of an infallible church. subject was present and popular, co-operated His poetry bas been praised at least equally with the passions and prejudices then prevalent, to its merit." In “The Dispensary” there is a and with such auxiliaries to its intrinsic merit, strain of smooth and free versification ; but few was universally and liberally applauded. It was lines are eminently elegant. No passages fall on the side of charity against the intrigues of below mediocrity, and few rise much above it. mterest, and of regular learning against the The plan seems formed without just proportion vicentious usurp tion of medical authority, and to the subject; the means and end have no newas therefore naturally favoured by those who cessary connexion. Resnel, in his preface to read and can judge of poetry.

Pope's Essay, remarks, that Garth exhibits no In 1697, Garth spoke that which is now called discrimination of characters; and that what any the Harveian Oration; which the authors of the one says might, with equal propriety, have been “ Biographia” mention with more praise than said by another. The general design is, perthe passage quoted in their notes will fully haps, open to criticism ; but the composition can justily. Garth, speaking of the mischiefs done seldom be charged with inaccuracy or negli by quacks, has these expressions :-“ Non ta- gence. The Author never slumbers in self-in men telis vulnerat ista ayyrtarum colluvies, sed Qulgence; his full vigour is always exerted, theriaca quadam magis perniciosa, non pyrio, scarcely a line is left unfinished; nor is it easy sed pulvere nescio quo exotico certat, non glo- to find an expression used by constraint, or a bulis plumbeis, sed pilulis æque lethalibus inter- thought imperfectly expressed. It was remark ficit." This was certainly thought fine by the ed by Pope, that “The Dispensary” had been author, and is still admired by his biographer. corrected in every edition, and that every change In October, 1702, he became one of the censors was an improvement. It appears, however, to of the College.

want something of poetical ardour, and someGarth, being an active and zealous whig, was thing of general delectation; and, therefore,

member of the Kit-cat club, and, by conse- since it has been no longer supported by acciquence, familiarly known to all the great men dental and intrinsic popularity, it has been of that denomination. In 1710, when the go- scarcely able to support itself.

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