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SECTION. 3. 1 Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in


Court. United States v. The Insurgents, 2 Dall., 335; United States v. Mitchell, 2 Dall., 348; Ex parte Bollman and Swartwout, 4 Cr., 75; United States v.

Aaron Burr, 4 Cr., 469. 2 The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

Bigelow v. Forest, 9 Wall., 339; Day v. Micou, 18 Wall., 156; Ex parte 1.ange, 18 Wall., 163; Wallach et al. v. Van Riswick, 92 U. S.,



SECTION. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Mills v. Duryee, 7 Cr., 481; Hampton v. McConnel, 3 Wh., 234; Mayhew v. Thatcher, 6 Wh., 129; Darby's Lessee v. Mayer, 10 Wh., 465; The United States v. Amedy, 11 Wh., 392; Caldwell et al. v. Carrington's heirs, 9 Pet., 86; M'Elmoyle v. Cohen, 13 Pet., 312; The Bank of Augusta v. Earle, 13 Pet., 519; Bank of the State of Alabama v. Dal. ton, 9 How., 522; D'Arcy v. Ketchum, 11 How., 165; Christmas v. Russell, 5 Wall., 290; Green v. Van Buskirk, 7 Wall., 139; Paul « Virginia, 8 Wall., 168; Board of Public Works v. Columbia College, 17 Wall., 521; Thompson v. Whitman, 18 Wall., 457; Bonaparte v. Tax

Court, 104 U. S., 592. SECTION. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

Bank of United States v. Devereux, 5 Cr., 61; Gassies v. Ballou, 6 Pet., 761; The State of Rhode Island v. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 12 Pet., 657; The Bank of Augusta v. Earle, 13 Pet., 519; Moore v. The People of the State of Illinois, 14 How., 13; Conner et al. v. Elliott et al., 18 How., 591 ; Dred Scott v. Sanford, 19 How., 393;

Crandall v. State of Nevada, 6 Wall., 35 ; Woodruff v. Parham, 8 Wall., 123; Paul v. Virginia, 8 Wall., 168; Downham v. Alexandria Council, 1o Wall., 173; Liverpool Insurance Company v. Massachusetts, 10 Wall., 566; Ward v. Maryland, 12 Wall., 418; Slaughterhouse Cases, 16 Wall., 36; Bradwell v. The State, 16 Wall., 130; Chemung Bank v. Lowery,

93 U. S., 72; McCready v. Virginia, 94 U. S., 391. A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

Holmes v. Jennison et al., 14 Pet., 540; Commonwealth of Kentucky

v. Dennison, governor, 24 How., 66; Taylor v. Tainter, 16 Wall., 366. 3 No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Prigg v. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 16 Pet., 539; Jones v. Van Zandt, 5 How., 215; Strader et al. v. Graham, 10 How., 82; Moore v. The People of the State of Illinois, 14 How., 13; Dred Scott v. Sanford, 19 How., 393; Ableman v. Booth and United States v. Booth, 21 How.,

506. SECTION. 3. 'New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

American Insurance Company et al. v. Canter (356 bales cotton), 1 Pet., 511; Pollard's Lessee v. Hagan, 3 How., 212; Cross et al. v Harrison, 16

How., 164. ?The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all need ful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution

shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

McCulloch v. State of Maryland, 4 Wh., 316; American Insurance Company v. Canter, 1 Pet., 511; United States v. Gratiot et al., 14 Pet., 526; United States v. Rogers, 4 How., 567; Cross et al. v. Harrison, 16 How 164; Muckey et al. v. Coxe, 18 How., 100; Gibson v. Chouteau, 13 Wall., 92; Clinton v. Englebert, 13 Wall., 434; Beall v. New Mexico, 16 Wall.,

535. SECTION. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

Luther v. Borden, 7 How., I; Texas v. White, 7 Wall., 700.


The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equa) Suffrage in the Senate.


1 All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

*This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

Hayburn's case, 2 Dall., 409; Ware v. Hylton, 3 Dall., 199; Calder and wife v. Bull and wife, 3 Dall., 386; Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cr., 137 ; Chirac v. Chirac, 2 Wh., 259; McCulloch v. The State of Maryland, 4 Wh., 316; Society v. New Haven, 8 Wh., 464; Gibbons v. Ogden, 9 Wh., 1; Foster and Elam v. Neilson, 2 Pet., 253; Buckner v. Finley, 2 Pet., 586; Worcester v. State of Georgia, 6 Pet., 515; Kennett et al. v. Chambers, 14 How., 38; Dodge v. Woolsey, 18 How., 331; State of New York v. Dibble, 21 How., 366; Ableman v. Booth and United States v. Booth, 21 How., 506; Sinnot v. Davenport, 22 How., 227; Foster v. Davenport,

22 How., 244; Haver v. Yaker, 9 Wall., 32. 3 The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Ex parte Garland, 4 Wall., 333.


The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same. Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present

the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independance of the United States of America the Twelfth In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

G? WASHINGTONPresidt, and Deputy from Virginia

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