Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB

INTRODUCTION TO NATURALIST'S CALENDAR.

317

showing the influence, climate or the seasons may have in the distribution of animal life. On the coast, it is also curious to mark the habits of the different sea-fowl previous to, or after the occurrence of a storm, or any marked change in the weather.

Independent of regular migration, by which we mean the arrival of some birds (not at other seasons found in our islands) in spring, for the purpose of incubation, and then remaining with us during the summer months; or the arrival of some birds in late autumn from another county, and remaining during the winter months, apparently to enjoy a larger supply of food and a milder climate, not afforded by their more northern summer quarters; there are large accessions made to the numbers of some permanently resident birds, either altogether from another country, or by a partial migration from one locality to another temporarily more suitable. In many districts, a large addition is received in autumn to the stock of our common thrush and blackbird. So is there also of the common snipe, in many places where it breeds and is permanently resident. They arrive before or about the usual migratory period, and are, probably, supplied both from abroad and from the more exposed districts of this country. Many of the hawks disappear altogether during spring and summer, seeking the wilder and more unfrequented grounds to breed and rear their young. They reappear again in their usual haunts about the middle or end of September. Along our shores and sea marshes, vast numbers of the plovers, sandpipers, curlews, &c., spend the winter, many of which have merely returned with their young from a more inland breeding resort. The numerous congregations of the young, in autumn, assembling in large flocks together, show another kind of migration, being very marked in the black and white wagtail, chaffinch, titmice, lapwing and other plovers, &c. A few species, again, which spend the whole season of incubation in other parts, are seen once or twice yearly for a short period only. . The short-eared owl, which in some parts of England is met with regularly about the commencement of the winter migratory period, is in great part only on return from the more northern parts of this country, where it is known to breed. The ring ousel breeds in the alpine districts of England and Scotland, but it is only seen upon the English downs, and so often recorded by White, and among the mountain ash and cottage gardens in Scotland only for a few days, in going and returning to and from their breeding quarters. So it is with the common dotterel upon our lower moors, and large numbers of our sandpipers, &c., are also only seen for a day or two, in similar circumstances.

The periodical change of colour in the plumage of birds is often very marked; it is incidental in great measure to the season of incubation, previous to which it gradually approaches completion; and, as that important time arrives, it, along with the voice, obtains its fullest vigour, clearness and brilliancy, and the latter sometimes puts on changes of great contrast with the full and usually chaste winter garb. These changes are most characteristic and distinct in the waders, water fowl, and gallinaceous birds, and among these are almost general ; in other families, although a greater brilliancy always occurs, it is only in some that the changes are very marked. In some species these changes take place by a loss of some parts of a feather, thereby bringing into view some other portion, and so producing a different tint; in others, the colour of the feather entirely changes. These variations take place more or less rapidly with the seasons; but in some instances, the change is effected in a day or two, as in many of the plovers and sandpipers, some ducks, and the head of the black-headed gull, &c., so that exactness in the registration of these changes should be observed. Some of our summer visitants assume their breeding dress after arrival here, while others are partially changed, as if the operation had commenced, and was going on at the same time with the instinctive desire to migrate. And again, on the cessation of the duties of the male, does the brilliancy begin to fade, and the dark or rich contrasted tints to blend into a plumage broken and worn, and now commencing to be renovated by a new moult-all these mutations are worthy to be noted, and can be easily done at the same time that other facts are registered.

It is during this same important period that a great change periodically takes place in the song and voice of birds. Many species sit and utter their call from some selected spot, which is frequented day after day ; but others practise peculiar modes of flight, calling as they fly. The pleasing song of our warblers and thrushes, the call of the pigeons and cuckoo, are familiar examples of the first. The towering flight of the greenfinch, and the rise and fall of the pipits singing as they fly; the drone and flight of the "snipe, and the shrill whistle of the curlew, are examples of the combined exercise ; but in every species there is a change more or less marked, which will be easily seen and noted by a practised or willing observer. · There is yet another point worthy of attention, that is, the change in the general zoology of a district or locality which has taken place within a limited period, by an alteration of its physical character; by improvement, cultivation, draining ; by planting and the increase of wood; by the rooting out and destruction of copse or natural wood; by the introduction of some particular trees or brushwood. All these matters have a much greater influence on animal life than is at first imagined ; and in the space of twenty or thirty years, we have seen the character of a locality almost changed, by the forsaking of some species, and the coming in of others. These changes go gradually on, but are at last complete, being naturally incidental to the artificial causes above-mentioned.

::..A COMPARATIVE VIEW

WHITE'S AND MARKWICK'S. CALENDARS.

Of the abbreviations used, i. signifies ftowering ; 1. leafing; and ap. the first

appearance.

[blocks in formation]

Jan. 2

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Redbreast (sylvia rubecula) sings . Jan. 1–12 . .

s Jan. 3—21, and again

| Oct. 6. Larks (alauda arvensis) congregate . . Jan. 1–18 Oct. 16, Feb. 9. Nuthatch (sitta europæa) heard .. Jan. 1-14. Mar. 3, Apr. 10. Winter aconite (helleborus hiemalis) fl. Jan. 1, Feb. 18 . Feb. 28, Apr. 17. Shell-less snail or slug (limax) ap.

Jan. , May 31. ((motacilla bo Grey and gtail

Jan. 24, Mar. 26. ap.

Jan. 2-11 . .

. White S on (motacilla alba)ap. )

7. Dec. 12, Feb. 23. Missel thrush (turdus viscivorus) sings. Jan. 2-14 , :| Feb. 19, Apr. 14. Bearsfoot (helleborus fætidus) A... Jan. 2, Feb. 14. Mar. 1, May 5. Polyanthus (primula polyantha)

Jan. 2, Apr. 12. Jan. 1, Apr. 9. Double daisy (bellis perennis ple

Jan. 2, Feb. 1 . Mar. 17, Apr. 29. Mezereon (daphne mezereum) fi.

Jan. 3, Feb. 16 . | Jan. 2, Apr. 4. Pansy (viola tricolor) fl. .

Jan. 3. . . Jan. 1, May 10. Red dead-nettle (lamium purpureum) fl. Jan, 3—21 ..Jan. 1, Apr. 5. Groundsel (senccio vulgaris) f... . . Jan. 3–15. Jan. 1, Apr. 9. Hazel (corylus avellana) fl.

Jan. 3, Feb. 28. Jan. 21, Mar. 11. Hepatica (anemone hepatica

Jan. 4. Feb. 18 Jan, 17, Apr. 9. Hedge-sparrow (sylvia modularis) sings Jan. 5—12 .. Jan. 16, Mar. 13. Common flies (musca domestica) seen

Jan. 5, Feb. 3 . Maj 15., in numbers . . .

. Greater titmouse (parus major) sings Jan. 6, Feb. 6 Feb. 17, Mar. 17. Thrush (turdus musicus) sings .. Jan. 6—22. Jan. 15, Apr. 4. Insects swarm under sunny hedges. . Jan. 6 . Primrose (primula vulgaris) fl. . Jan. 6, Apr. 7 . Jan. 3, Mar. 22. . Bees (apis mellifica) ap

Jan. 6, Mar. 19. Jan. 31, Apr. 11; last Gnats play about .

Jan. 6, Feb. 3 . · [seen Dec. 30. Chamaches, male and female fringilla | Jan. 6-11 . Dec. 2. Feb. 3. _coelebs) seen in equal numbers .) Furze.or gorse (ulex europæus) fl.. Jan. 8-Feb. 1 . Jan. 1, Mar. 27. Wall-flower (cheiranthus cheiri; seu

Jan. 8; Apr. 1 : Feb. 21, May 9. fruticulosus of Smith) fi. Stock (cheiranthus incanus) fi. .. ? Jan. 8–12 . . Feb. 1, June 3. Emberiza alba (bunting) in great flocks Jan. 9 . . Linnets (fringilla linota) congregate . . | Jan. 9 . . . Jan. 11. Lambs begin to fall . . . .Jan. 9–11 .. Jan. 6, Feb. 21. .

[blocks in formation]

5

[ocr errors]

Jan. 21

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Rooks (corvus frugilegus) resort to their | Jan. 10, Feb. 11. Jan. 23.

nest trees. Black hellebore (helleborus niger) fl. . Jan. 10

Apr. 27. Snowdrop (galanthus nivalis) A.

Jan. 10

Jan. 18, Mar. 1. White dead-nettle (lamium album) fl. Jan. 13. ..Mar. 23, May 10. Trumpet honeysuckle, fl.

Jan. 13 Common creeping crowfoot (ranuncu-i

Jan. 13. .. Apr. 10, May 12. lus repens) fl. House-sparrow (fringilla domestica)

Jan. 14

Feb. 17, May 9.
chirps.
Dandelion (leontodon taraxacum) i. ! Jan. 16, Mar. 11. Feb. 1, Apr. 17.
Bat (vespertilio) ap. .

Jan. 16, Mar. 24. Feb. 6, June 1; last Spiders shoot their webs .....:

. Jan, 16 .'

seen Nov. 20. Butterfly, ap. . .

Feb. 21, May 8; last . . . . Jan. 16 . s

seen Dec. 22. Brambling (fringilla montifringilla) ap. Jan. 16 .

Jan. 10—31. Blackbird (turdus merula) whistles.. Jan. 17

Feb. 15, May 13.
Wren (sylvia troglodytes) sings . Jan. 17.

Feb. 7, June 12.
Earthworms lie out. . . . . Jan. 18, Feb. 8 .
Crocus (crocus vernus) fl. . . . Jan. 13, Mar. 18. Jan. 20, Mar. 19.
Skylark (alauda arvensis)

Jan. 12. Feb. 27; sings Ivy casts its leaves.

Jan. 22.

still Nov. 13. Helleborus hiemalis, f.

Jan. 22–24 . Feb. 28, Apr. 17. Common dor or clock (scarabæus ster

Feb. 12, Apr. 12; last

Jan. 23 . . corarius) .

seen Nov. 24. Peziza acetabulum, ap. . . . Jan. 23 . Helleborus virid. fi.

Jan. 23, Mar. 5. Hazel (corylus avellana)

Jan. 23, Feb. 1 . Jan. 27, Mar. 11. Woodlark (alauda arborea) sings

Jan. 24. Feb. 21. Jan. 28, June 5. Chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) sings

Jan. 24, Feb. 15. Ja Feb. 26, Jack-daws begin to come to churches. Jan. 25, Mar. 4 .

[seen Sept. 8. Yellow wagtail (motacilla flava) ap. Jan. 25, Apr. 14. Apr. 13, July 3, last Honeysuckle (lonicera periclymenum)l. Jan. 25 ... Jan. 1, Apr. 9. Field or procumbent speedwell (vero- } nica agrestis) fl.

Mar. 15. Feb. 12, Mar. 29. . .

. Nettle butterfly (papilio urticæ) ap. .

Jan. 27. Apr. 2 || Mar. 5, Apr. 24; last

seen June 6. White wagtail (motacilla alba) chirps . Jan. 28.

Mar. 16. Shell-snail (helix nemoralis) ap. . .

Jan. 28, Feb. 24. Apr. 2, June 11. Earthworms engender .

Jan. 30 . Barren strawberry (fragaria sterilis) fl.. Feb. 1, Mar. 26. Jan. 13, Mar. 26. Blue titmouse (parus cæruleus) chirps. Feb. 1. . Apr. 27. Brown wood-owls hoot . . . . Hen (phasianus gallus) sits

Feb. 3 . . . March S, hatches. Marsh titmouse begins his two harsh

Feb. 3 sharp notes.

. .. Gossamer floats.

Feb. 4, Apr. 1 . Musca tenax, ap.

Feb. 4, Apr. 8 . Laurustine (viburnum tinu

Feb. 5 .. Jan. 1, Apr. 5. Butcher's broom (ruscus aculeatus) fl. . Feb. 5. . . Jan. 1, May 10. Fox (canis vulpes) smells rank.

Feb. 7 . . . May 19, young Turkey-cocks strut and gobble . Feb. 10 : [brought forth. Yellow-hammer (emberiza citrinell

Feb. 12 : .. Feb. 18, Apr. 28. sings . . . . . . i

Feb. 13, Mar. 8; last Brimstone butterfly (papilio rhamni) ap. Feb. 13, Apr. 2

seen Dec. 24. Green-woodpecker(picus viridis) makes

Feb. 13, Mar. 23. Jan. 1, Apr. 17. a loud cry · · · · · } Raven (corvus corax) builds . .. Feb. 14—17. }

Apr. 1, has young

ones June 1. Yew-tree (taxus baccata) fl. . . . Feb. 14, Mar. 27. Feb. 2, Apr. 11. Coltsfoot (tussilago farfara) i. .

Feb. 15, Mar. 23. Feb. 18, Apr. 13. Rooks (corvus frugilegus) build

Teb. 16, Mar. 6. Feb. 28, Mar. 5.

Jan. 27,

| Feb. 2

.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

Feb 26, Mar. 31: Mar. 9 Apr. 20.

Feb. 27, apr. 5 :
Feb. 28, Mar. 24:

Partridges (perdix cinerea) pair .. Feb. 17... | Feb. 16, Mar. 20.
Peas (pisum sativum) sown.

: Feb. 17, Mar. 8 . Feb. 8, Mar. 31. House-pigeon (columba domestica) has Feb. 18 . . Feb. 8.

young ones . . Field-crickets open their holes

Feb. 20, Mar. 30. Common flea (pulex irritans) ap. . . Feb. 21-26. Pilewort (ficaria verna) fi.

Feb. 21, Apr. 13. Jan. 25, March 26. Goldfinch (fringilla carduelis) sings . . | Feb. 21, Apr. 5 . | Feb. 28, May 5. Viper (coluber berus) ap. . . . Feb. 22, Mar. 26

Feb. 23, May 6, last

seen Oct. 28. Wood-louse (oniscus asellus) ap. .. Feb. 23, Apr. 1 : April 27, June 17. Missel thrushes pair

Feb. 24
Daffodil (narcissus pseudonarcissus) fl. : Feb. 24, Apr. 7 . Feb. 26, Apr. 18.
Willow (salix alba) H.

Feb. 24, Apr. 2 . | Feb. 27, Apr. 11.
Frogs (rana temporaria) croak. .Feb. 25
Sweet violet (viola odorata) f.

Feb. 26,

Feb. 7, Apr. 5.
Phalana tinea vestianella, ap. .

Feb. 26.
Stone-curlew (otis medicnemus) clamours Feb. 27, Apr. 24. June 17.
Filbert (corylus sativus) fl.

Feb. 27

Jan. 25, Mar. 26. Ring-dove cooes.

Feb. 27,

| Mar. 2, Aug. 10. Apricot tree (prunus armeniaca) fl. .

Feb. 28, A pr. 5. Toad (rana bufo) ap. . . . . .

March 15, July 1. Frogs (rana temporaria) spawn . . Feb. 28, Mar. 22

Feb. 9, Apr. io, tad.

poles Mar. 19. Ivy-leaved speedwell (veronica hede- | Mar. 1, Apr. 2 . Feb. 16, Apr. 10.

rifolia) fi.. Peach (am vgdalus persica) fl. . ! Mar. 2, Apr. 17 . Mar. 4. Apr. 29. Frog (rana temporaria) ap..

Mar. 2, Apr. 0 | March 9.1
Shepherd's purse (thlaspi bursa pas-

Mar. 3... Jan, 2, Apr. 16.
toris) fl. .
Pheasant (phasianus colchicus) crows ? March 3—29 . Mar. 1, May 22.
Land-tortoise comes forth

Mar. 4, May 8.
Lungwort (pulmonaria officinalis) ft. . Mar. 4, Apr. 16 . Mar. 2, May 19.
Podura, fimetaria ap..

Mar. 4.
Aranea scenica saliens, ap.

Mar. 4. Scolopendra forficata ,ap. . . . .

Mar, 5-16. Wryneck (jynx torquilla) ap. . . Mar. 5, Apr. 25 March 26, April 23,

last seen Sept. 14. Goose (anas anser) sits on its eggs . . | Mar. 5. . : March 21. Duck (anas boschas) lays

Mar. 5 .

March 28. Dog's violet (viola canina) i. . . . Mar. 6, Apr. 18 . Feb. 28, Apr. 22. Peacock butterfly (papilio io) ap. . . Mar. 6. . . Feb. 13, Apr. 20, last Trouts begin to rise

Mar. 7-14.

{seen Dec. 25. Field beans (vicia faba) planted . . Mar. 8 . . . | Apr. 29, emerge. Blood-worms appear in the water

Mar. 8.

[ones. Crow (corvus corone) builds.

Mar. 10

July ], has young Oats (avena sativa) sown.

Mar. 10–18 .. Mar. 16, Apr. 13. Golden-crowned wren (sylvia regulus)? | Mar. 12. Apr. 301

Apr. 15, May 22, seen

Dec. 23, Jan. 26. Asp (populus tremula) Al...

Feb. 26, Mar. 28. Common elder (sambucus nigra) 1. . Mar. 13-2

Jan. 24, Apr. 22. Laurel (prunus laurocerasus

Mar. 15, Ma Apr. 2, May 27.
Chrysomela Gotting. ap. . . .

Mar. 15.
Black ants (formica nigra) ap. . . . Mar. 15, Apr. 22. | Mar. 2, May 18.
Ephemera bisetæ, ap. .

Mar. 16.
Gooseberry (ribes grossularia) 1

Mar. 17, Apr. 11. Feb. 26, Apr. 9. Common stitchwort(stellaria holostea)fi. Mar. 17, May 19. Mar. 8, May 7. Wood anemone (anemone nemorosa) il. Mar. 17, Apr. 22. Feb. 27, Apr. 10. Blackbird (turdus merula) lays. ..

Mar. 17

Apr. 14, young ones

May 19. Raven (corvus corax) sits . . . | Mar. 17 . .: Apr. , builds. Wheatear (sylvia cenanthe) ap. .

Mar. 13, May 23, . . Mar. 18—30. }|

seen Oct. 26.

sings

[ocr errors]

.

[ocr errors]

.

: Mar. 12

ng. ap. sus) A.?".

« ZurückWeiter »