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poor people, they have finally refused to deliver us a man in exchange for those set at liberty by our cruisers on parole. A letter, which I enclose, from Captain Mitchell, will show the treatment of the late flags of truce from Boston. There is no gaining any thing from these barbarians by advances of civility or humanity.

Enclosed I send for Congress the justification of this court against the accusation published in the late English memorials. With great esteem, &c.


Introducing Thomas Hutchins.

Passy, 16 March, 1780. SIR, The bearer of this, Captain Hutchins, a native of New Jersey, but many years in the English service, has lately escaped from England, where he suffered considerably for his attachment to the American cause. He is esteemed a good officer and an excellent engineer, and is desirous of being serviceable to his country. I enclose his memorial to me, a great part of which is consistent with my knowledge; and I beg leave to recommend him to the favorable notice of Congress, when any affair occurs in which his talents may be useful. I have the honor to be, &c.


* MEMORIAL OF THOMAS HUTCHINS. " To his Excellency, Benjamin Franklin, minister plenipotentiary from

the United States of America, at the court of France; "The memorial of Thomas Hutchins, a native of New Jersey, in Amer

ica, and late a captain and engineer in the British King's service, humbly sheweth,

“ That your Excellency's memorialist was, in the month of August last, taken into custody by virtue of a warrant from Sir John Fielding, TO THOMAS BOND.

Passy, 16 March, 1780. DEAR SIR, I received your kind letter of September the 22d, and I thank you for the pleasing account you give me of the health and welfare of my old friends, Hugh Roberts, Luke Morris, Philip Syng, Samuel Rhoads, &c., with the same of yourself and family. Shake the old ones by the hand for me, and give the young ones my blessing. For my own part, I do not find that 1 grow any older. Being arrived at seventy, and considering that by travelling further in the same road I should probably be led to the grave, I stopped short, turned about, and walked back again; which having done these four years, you may now call me sixtysix. Advise those old friends of ours to follow my example; keep up your spirits, and that will keep up

of the city of London, in which your memorialist was charged with high treason, for having conveyed information to, and corresponded with, the friends of the United States of America in France. That your memorialist was committed to and kept in Clerkenwell prison, opwards of seven weeks, loaded with irons, put among felons, and treated with every kind of severity and insult, and forbidden to see or write to his friends.

“That, after several long examinations at the Board of Trade, the British ministers thought proper to discharge him from prison; and, being reduced to great distress by his pay both as captain and engineer being stopped, and being also refused payment of an account which the British government owed him (to the amount of eight hundred and sixtynine pounds, nineteen shillings sterling), he was obliged to take lodgings in a garret, within the verge of the court. Your memorialist was offered two thousand guineas for his captain's commission; but, although he had frequently petitioned to sell it from the beginning of the war between the United States and Great Britain, he was as often refused; and, about three weeks before he was committed to prison, he was offered a majority in one of the new regiments then raising, which he would not accept, as he would not bear arms against his countrymen. Therefore, on the 11th of this month, (February,) finding himself treated with contempt by the British officers, and despairing of obtaining liberty

your bodies; you will no more stoop under the weight of age, than if you had swallowed a handspike.

I am glad the Philosophical Society made that compliment to M. Gérard. I wish they would do the same to M. Feutry, a worthy gentleman here; and to Dr. Ingenhousz, who has made some great discoveries lately respecting the leaves of trees in improving air for the use of animals. He will send you his book. He is physician to the Empress Queen. I have not yet seen your piece on inoculation. Remember me respectfully and affectionately to Mrs. Bond, your children, and all friends.* I am ever, &c.


P. S. I have bought some valuable books, which I intend to present to the Society; but shall not send them till safer times.

to sell his commission, he sent his resignation to Lord Amherst, both as captain and engineer, and in a private manner withdrew from Great Britain and came into France entirely destitute of money; choosing rather to abandon his coinmission (though the whole of his fortune) and incur a loss of two thousand nine hundred and sixty-nine pounds, nineteen shillings sterling, (exclusive of his appointment as engineer), than continue in a service altogether irksome and painful to him. Your memorialist begs leave further to represent, that he has served with reputation as a British officer more than twenty-two years, (eighteen whereof he was constantly employed as an engineer,) and that he is most anxjously solicitous of entering into the army of the United States. For these considerations, your memorialist humbly hopes that your Excellency will be pleased to recommend his request, sufferings, and losses to the honorable Congress of the United States, and your memorialist as in duty bound, shall ever pray, &c.

“ Thomas Hutchins." On Mr. Hutchins's return to the United States, he was appointed by Congress geographer to the southern army. He died at Pittsburgh, April 28th, 1789, having rendered much and valuable service to his country by his personal enterprise, and by publications on the topography and geography of several parts of the United States, in preparing which he relied chiefly on his own observation.

• Dr Bond, to whom this letter was written, was an eminent physi. cian of Philadelphia.


Alliance with France.

Passy, 16 March, 1780. DEAR SIR, I received your kind favor by Captain Chavagnes, which I communicated to the minister of marine, who was much pleased with the character you give of the Captain. I have also yours of November 12th, by your grandson, who appears a very promising lad, in whom I think you will have much satisfaction. He is in a boarding school just by me, and was well last Sunday, when I had the pleasure of his company to dinner with Mr. Adams's sons, and some other young Americans. He will soon acquire the language; and, if God spares his life, may make a very serviceable man to his country.

It gives me infinite satisfaction to find, that, with you, the wisest and best among our people are so hearty in endeavouring to strengthen the alliance. We certainly owe much to this nation; and we shall obtain much more, if the same prudent conduct towards them continues, for they really and strongly wish our prosperity, and will promote it by every means in their power. But we should at the same time do as much as possible for ourselves, and not ride (as we say) a free horse to death. There are some Americans returning hence, with whom our people should be upon their guard, as carrying with them a spirit of enmity to this country. Not being liked here themselves, they dislike the people; for the same reason, indeed, they ought to dislike all that know them. With the sincerest respect and esteem, I am ever my dear friend, yours most affectionately,



Passy, 16 March, 1780. SIR, I have just received the letter you have done me the honor to write to me, and shall immediately deliver the packet it recommends to my care.

I will take the first opportunity of mentioning to M. Gérard what you hint, relative to our not entertaining strangers so frequently and liberally, as is the custom in France. But he has travelled in Europe, and knows that modes of nations differ. The French are convivial, live much at one another's tables, and are glad to feast travellers. In Italy and Spain, a stranger, however recommended, rarely dines at the house of any gentleman, but lives at his inn. The Americans hold a medium. I have the honor to be, &c.



Passy, 18 March, 1780. DEAR SIR, I received your letter relating to the bullets of the engineer in Denmark, and shall write thither accordingly. I have also just received yours of the 13th. Mr. Ross writes to me, that he finds a difficulty in passing the goods to you from L'Isle Noirmoutier. I do, therefore, now desire you, if practicable, to call at or off that island, in order to take them on board, their speedy and safe arrival in America being of the greatest consequence to the army. I have sent my despatches by Mr. Wharton, who set off yesterday morning. When they arrive, and you have got the cloth

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