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same time give good counsel, and wisdom to make use of it.
You have lost by this mad war, and the barbarity with which it has been carried on, not only the government and commerce of America, and the public revenues and private wealth arising from that commerce, but what is more, you have lost the esteem, respect, friendship, and affection of all that great and growing people, who consider you at present, and whose posterity will consider you, as the worst and wickedest nation upon earth. A peace you may undoubtedly obtain by dropping all your pretensions to govern us; and, by your superior skill in huckstering negotiation, you may possibly make such an apparently advantageous bargain, as shall be applauded in your Parliament; but, if you cannot, with the peace, recover the affections of that people, it will not be a lasting nor a profitable one, nor will it afford you any part of that strength, which you once had by your union with them, and might (if you had been wise enough to take advice) have still retained.
To recover their respect and affection, you must tread back the steps you have taken. Instead of honoring and rewarding the American advisers and proHe was a faithful brother of the Moravian fraternity fifty-five years; the latter part of his life was spent literally in going abouv doing good, and his charities were confined to no sect. He married a lady of the Moravian nation and religion, but had no children, and was a widower some years before his death. Mr. Hutton possessed strong sense, with quick feelings and apprehensions, which the illumination of his countenance evinced even at seventy, though his difficulty of hearing was such, that he could only converse by the assistance of an ear-trumpet. He was highly esteemed by their present Majesties, and well known to many of the nobility and men of letters; nor was he refused admittance to the highest ranks, even at Buckingham-House, though his ardent benevolence inclined him greatly to neglect his own dress, that he might the better feed the hungry and cover the naked. — W. T. F.
moters of this war, you should disgrace them; with all those who have inflamed the nation against America by their malicious writings; and all the ministers and generals who have prosecuted the war with such inhumanity. This would show a national change of disposition, and a disapprobation of what had passed.
In proposing terms, you should not only grant such as the necessity of your affairs may evidently oblige you to grant, but such additional ones as may show your generosity, and thereby demonstrate your good will. For instance, perhaps you might, by your treaty, retain all Canada, Nova Scotia, and the Floridas. But if you would have a real friendly as well as able ally in America, and avoid all occasion of future discord, which will otherwise be continually arising on your American frontiers, you should throw in those countries. And you may call it, if you please, an indemnification for the burning of their towns, which indemnification will otherwise be some time or other demanded.
I know your people will not see the utility of such measures, and will never follow them, and even call it insolence and impudence in me to mention them. I have, however, complied with your desire, and am, as ever, your affectionate friend,
P. S. February \2lh. — I wrote the above some time before I received yours, acquainting me with your
• At this time, it seems, a rumor was current in Paris, that a reconciliation had been effected by a treaty in America. The rumor originated in England, and came to the ears of Count de Vergennes. He wrote on the subject to Dr. Franklin and Mr. Deane, who replied; "The news you have received from England cannot be true; no treaty would be entered into with Howe by Washington when the Congress was at hand; and Howe could have no propositions to make, but such as were authorized by the act of Parliament, and had been long since
speedy and safe return, which gave me pleasure. I doubted after I had written it, whether it would be well to send it; for as your proud nation despises us exceedingly, and demands and expects absolute and humble submission, all talk of treaty must appear impudence, and tend to provoke rather than conciliate. As you still press me by your last to say something, I conclude to send what I had written, for I think the advice is good, though it must be useless; and I cannot, as some amongst you desire, make propositions, having none committed to me to make; but we can treat, if any are made to us; which, however, we do not expect. I abominate with you all murder, and I may add, that the slaughter of men in an unjust cause is nothing less than murder; I therefore never think of your present ministers and their abettors, but with the image, strongly painted in my view, of their hands, red, wet, and dropping with the blood of my countrymen, friends, and relations. No peace can be signed by those hands. Peace and friendship will, nevertheless, subsist for ever between Mr. Hutton and his affectionate friend, B. F.
rejected, viz. Pardon, upon Submission. In short, we esteem the story of a treaty in America to be merely an artifice of the stockjobbers to keep up the funds." — February 1st.
Mr. Hutton had recently been in Paris. Immediately after his return to London, he wrote to Dr. Franklin as follows.
"I got to my own house in seventy-three hours from Paris. I shall never forget your kindness to me, and your kind intentions to serve my brethren. The sensation I had of the certain miseries of war, that would attend all parties embarked in it, caused my heart almost to break. I always thought it a sad misfortune, that there was such a thing as war upon earth. When I left England, I fancied that you and Mr. Deane could treat about peace. I wished it ardently; but, having no commission, nor any thing to offer, I was sorry to hear nothing on your side, that I could mention, as a ground to treat upon, to such as I fancied could give it weight I was a loving volunteer, loving both people with no common ardor, a friend to peace, a hater of discord, with horror at all bloodshed, wishing you secure in your liberties, and guarded for ever against all apprehensions. I did, before I set out, and I do now still at this moment, and I think on better grounds, believe that any thing short of absolute independency almost would be practicable, and could take place. There is such a spirit and temper now in the nation, that I cannot think independency could be ventured to be proposed. If you and Mr. Deane could give me any hint of any thing practicable, you considering not only your case but ours, I will venture to try what could be done. I know your handwriting, as well as I do your heart. Direct your answer to me, Queen's Row, Pimlico, Westminster, under cover to M. Court de Gebelin, Rue Pompee, Paris, who will put a cover over it; and my friend Mr. Fullerton will, without examination, forward it safe to me in the packet of Lord Stormont." — London. January 27th, 1778.
TO DAVID HARTLEY.
American Prisoners in England. — Conduct of France in Regard to the United Slates. — Change of Ministry necessary for a Conciliation.
Passy, 12 February, 177a
A thousand thanks for your so readily engaging in the means of relieving our poor captives, and the pains you have taken, and the advances you have made, for that purpose. I received your kind letter of the 3d instant, and send you enclosed a bill of one hundred pounds. I much approve of Mr. Wren's prudent, as well as benevolent conduct in the disposition of the money, and wish him to continue doing what shall appear to him and to you to be right, which I am persuaded will appear the same to me and my colleagues here. I beg you will present him, when you write, my respectful acknowledgments.
Your "earnest caution and request, that nothing may ever persuade America to throw themselves into the arms of France, for that times may mend, and that an American must always be a stranger in France, but that Great Britain may for ages to come be their home," marks the goodness of your heart, your regard for us, and love of your country. But, when your nation is hiring all the cut-throats it can collect, of all countries and colors, to destroy us, it is hard to persuade us not to ask or accept aid from any power, that may be prevailed with to grant it; and this only from the hope, that, though you now thirst for our blood, and pursue us with fire and sword, you may, in some future time, treat us kindly. This is too much patience to be expected of us; indeed, I think it is not in human nature.
The Americans are received and treated here in France with a cordiality, a respect, and affection they never experienced in England when they most deserved it; and which is now (after all the pains taken to exasperate the English against them, and render them odious as well as contemptible,) less to be expected there than ever. And I cannot see why we may not, upon an alliance, hope for a continuance of it, at least, as much as the Swiss enjoy, with whom France has maintained a faithful friendship for two hundred years past, and whose people appear to live here in as much esteem as the natives. America has been forced and driven into the arms of France. She was a dutiful and virtuous daughter. A cruel mother-in-law turned her out of doors, defamed her, and sought her life. All the world knows her innocence, and takes her part; and her friends hope soon to see her honorably married. They can never persuade her return and submission to so barbarous an enemy. In her future prosperity, if she forgets and forgives, it is all that can be reasonably expected of her. I believe she will make as good and useful a wife as she did a daughter, that her husband will love and