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NATURE IN LIVING FORMS,

ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS PLATES.

ADAPTED TO ELUCIDATE THE

CHART OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM,

BY A. M. REDFIELD,

“Ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee; and the fowls of the air, and they shall
tell thee; or speak to the earth, and it shall teach thee; and the fishes of the

sea shall declare unto thee. Who knoweth not in all these that

the hand of the Lord bath wrought this ?” (Job xil. 7.)

E. B. & E. O. KELLOGG, PUBLISHERS.

87 FULTON ST., NEW YORK.
FREDERICK COHOON, COLUMBUS, OHIO.

DEDICATION

The following work has with my aid been prepared by an esteemed and highly competent friend, to whom I am also much indebted for valuable assistance rendered in connection with the publication of the Chart which it is adapted to elucidate.

Prepared, as it has been, with the utmost care and exactness; with un usual regard to order, and fullness of explanation as to the terms employed, I am sanguine in the belief it will every where meet with a cordial welcome as a suitable accompaniment of the Chart. Though both are capable of being used separately, each will be found to shed light upon the other.

To Teachers, to Parents and Heads of Families, to all who are lovers of Natural History and desire its advancement, I humbly but respectfully dedicate this volume and the Chart it is intended to explain and illustrate.

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ANN M. REDFIELD.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, by

E. B. & E. O. KELLOGG,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Connecticut.

The following work has been prepared as an accompaniment to the "GEN. ERAL VIEW OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM”—a CHART which, in the beautiful and harmonious arrangement of its several parts ; its lucid and orderly classification; its brief but comprehensive statements and explanations, presents the subject in an outline so full and consistent as to make it valuable even to the most scientific naturalist, both for convenient private reference, and as a help or guide in public lectures; while the more uninitiated, and such as are just setting out in the study of Natural History, becoming familiar with the details of the Chart, will, it is believed, desire and be prepared the better to appreciate additional information in relation to the subject; such information it is the aim of this work to impart.

The possessor of the Chart might have recourse to works of two kinds-one purely scientific, like those of Cuvier and others, or the works on Natural History published by State authority ; the other, of a strictly popular character, in which not a single scientific or technical term is employed. The array of unexplained technical language in the former class of works, he would, perhaps, deem repulsive and discouraging; the descriptions of the latter class, he might, as related to the Chart, be often at a loss to apply correctly, though presenting to him the appearance of more interesting details than those which are found in works strictly scientific. The

is adapted to meet the exigencies of such a case. It does not give the "characters” and “descriptions” with the technicality and minuteness of the purely scientific treatise; to do this was found to be incompatible with the desired limits, as well as the general design of this publication; at the same time, it is far from ignoring these things, after the manner of some popular treatises. The “characters” of the Classes, Orders, and Families will here be found given with considerable fullness; the main or prominent ones of the genera and species are also usually given: not in all cases in a separate and formal manner, but occasionally are blended with other particulars relating to the general habits of animals, or interspersed

with illustrative anecdote. In most, if not all cases, the reader will, from the statements made, be able to form some correct and consistent ideas as to the genera and species noticed. When more full discriminations are desired, reference can be had to other and larger works.

The medium character of this volume, and its relation to the extremely wide range of topics presented on the Chart, have increased the difficulty of preparing it within limits so restricted. To have furnished an amusing work composed chiefly or entirely of anecdotes or kindred material, would have been, comparatively, an easy task. In its present form, this work will perhaps not be unacceptable to such as are already somewhat acquainted with Natural History in its scientific aspects and relations; while others, the young especially, may, from the use of this volume, pass, by an easy transition, to the study of larger works and those more purely scientific. To TEACHERS in particular, is this volume respectfully commended. Questions are added to each section with special reference to its use in Acade. mies and Common Schools.

It is proper to remark that this work is not published as containing the results of original observation, excepting to a limited extent: mainly it embodies materials newly moulded and arranged, but derived from approved standards, and some of the latest issues relating to the subjects of which it treats. The range of reference and comparison has been extensive ; the results of protracted investigation are sometimes condensed into a single brief paragraph or sentence. This work will be found orderly and harmonious in several respects in which some other publications betray confusion and inconsistency; in the explanation of scientific terms, also, it is unusually full. Neither on the Chart, nor in this volume has the aim been to give all the different names which may have been applied by naturalists to a particular object; for this there was not room; and besides, in the case of some, such a course might have tended to confuse rather than really enlighten. Many of the pictorial illustrations are original, and with the accompanying explanations, will be found to add much to the interest and intrinsic value of the work.

It is confidently trusted that the CAART, with this explanatory volume, will be welcomed in Seminaries generally; and be accepted as valuable auxiliaries by all lovers of physical science. May they tend to create and foster widely a taste for the study of nature; and by the developments which they make, and the researches and meditations to which they lead, awaken loftier and more worthy thoughts of the Infinite Creator,

SYRACUSE, March 1, 1868.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.

SUB-KINGDOMS, four: VERTEBRATES, ARTICULATES, MOL

LUSKS, RADIATÉS.
VERTEBRATES : Grand Divisions: WARM and COLD BLOODED :

The Warm BLOODED Division includes MAMMALS and BIRDS. 1. MAMMALS, three sub-classes, nine orders.

FIRST SUB-CLASS, UNGUICULATA, (with nails or claws.) (1.) Bimana, (Two-handed) Man. (2.) QUADRUMANA (Four-handed). Three families.

Simiado, Apes, Baboons, Monkeys of the Old World.

Lemurido, Lemurs.
(3.) CARNIVORA (Flesh-eating Quadrupeds).
Sub-order, CHEIROPTERA (Hand-winged) Bats.
(DIGITIGRADA'(walking on the toes). Three families.

Felidce, Cats, Lions, Tigers, &c.
Canidoe, Dogs, Wolves, &c.

Mustelida, Weasels, &c.
PLANTIGRADÁ (walking on the soles of the feet). Two families.

Urside, Bears, Racoons.

Phocida, Seals, Walruses, &c.
TRUE INSECTIVORA (Insect-eaters). Four families.

Talpida, Moles.
Sorecido, Shrews.
Erinaceade, Hedge-hogs.

Tupaiade, Banxrings (of the Indian Archipelago).
(4.) MARSUPIALIA (Pouched Quadrupeds). Four sections.

Sarcophaga (Flesh-eaters). Dasyuri.
Ovo-viviparous.

1 Entomophaga (Insect-eaters). Opossums.
** Carpophaga (Fruit-eaters). Phalangers.

Poephaga (Grass-eaters).' Kangaroos.
Sub-order Rhizophagà (Root-eaters). Wombats.
2 MONOTREMATA (Monotremes). Echidna and Ornithorhyncus or

Water-Mole.

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