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able advantage allow arises arrangement banker become benefit better building called capital capitalist carry causes comes commodity consider consists corn cost cotton course deal demand difficult division of labour doubt earn employed employers employment England equal exchange fact factory fall farm fixed give gold hand important improvements increase interest invention iron keep kind land laws less live loss machines manage materials matter means natural necessary paid person political economy poor possible pounds prevent probably produce profits proportion quantity railways raise reason receive rent requisite rich rise sell shares shillings silver sometimes spend strike supply things trade trades-unions unless usually valuable wages wealth whole workmen
Seite 59 - ... first, the agreeableness or disagreeableness of the employments themselves; secondly, the easiness and cheapness, or the difficulty and expense of learning them; thirdly, the constancy or inconstancy of employment in them; fourthly, the small or great trust which must be reposed in those who exercise them; and fifthly, the probability or improbability of success in them.
Seite 34 - This great increase of the quantity of work which, in consequence of the division of labour, the same number of people are capable of performing, is owing to three different circumstances; first, to the increase of dexterity in every particular workman; secondly, to the saving of the time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another ; and lastly, to the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many.
Seite 130 - Every tax ought to be levied at the time, or in the manner, in which it is most likely to be convenient for the contributor to pay it.
Seite 128 - The subjects of every State ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible in proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in proportion to the revenue they respectively enjoy under the protection of the State .... In the observation or neglect of this maxim, consists what is called the equality 'or inequality of taxation.
Seite 130 - Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as little as possible, over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state.
Seite 58 - Secondly, the wages of labour vary with the easiness and cheapness, or the difficulty and expense of learning the business. When any expensive machine is erected, the extraordinary work to be performed by it before it is worn out, it must be expected, will replace the capital laid out upon it, with at least the ordinary profits.
Seite 9 - that just as physical science was formerly hated, so now there is a kind of ignorant dislike and impatience of political economy." It is plain, therefore, that the low estimate of the studies of our section which is entertained by some members of the Association, is no isolated phenomenon, but is related to a mass of opinion outside the...
Seite 61 - Nothing, at first sight, can seem more reasonable and just ; but when you examine its meaning you soon find that there is no real meaning at all. It amounts merely to saying that a man ought to have what he ought to have. There is no way of deciding what is a fair day's wages.
Seite 8 - The second allegation is therefore the only one with which I am now concerned. In a recent elementary treatise on political economy, by a well-known writer, it is argued :—" We must do one thing at a time; we cannot learn the social sciences all at the same time. No one objects to astronomy that it treats only of the stars, or to mathematics that it treats only of numbers and quantities. . . There must be many physical sciences, and there must be also many social sciences, and each of these sciences...