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employ for their support. The gradual melamor- admission and circulation of air ; and also to draw phosis of the tree into the column, suggests itself, off the water, which collects at the bottom, by indeed, so obviously to the mind, that the progress means of drains, pumps, or steam engines, as the of art, in this instance, scarcely requires to be situation or circumstances require. After the traced. If the first architect used the trunks ex- metallic ores are drawn from the mine, they, actly as he found them, he that worked at greater general, go through several processes before they leisure would infallibly so far improve upon the are in a state fit for use. Some of these are first contrivance, as to select trees of nearly equal size, washed in running water, to clean them from and trim away whatever, in their new situation, loose, earthy particles. They are then piled tosavored of deformity. Taste would gradually re- gether with combustible substances, and burnt, or five; the proportions of that which appeared roasted, for the purpose of ridding them of the beautiful would be ascertained ; and fixed rules sulphur or arsenic with which they may happen would be established.

to be combined, and which rises from them in a The orders originated in the mere necessities of state of fume or smoke. Thus having been freed life; but a refined age adopted and embellished from impurities, they undergo the operation of them. The proportions of the columns were melting, in furnaces constructed according to the regulated by those of the human body. The Doric nature of the respective metals, or the uses to was compared with a man of strong make; the which they are subsequently applied. Ionic, with a woman; and the Corinthian, with a girl.

ORGAN. In Physiology, an instrument by The Tuscan is more massy than the Doric, and which any natural faculty in an animal body is the Composite more gay than the Corinthian. exercised; as the ear, which is the organ of hear

To give a general idea of the orders, it is neces- ing; the eye, which is the organ of sight. sary to observe, that the order is composed of two parts, at the least, viz. the column and entablature; ORGAN IN MUSIC. A wind instrument blowo and of four, at the most, viz. the pedestal, column, by bellows, and containing numerous pipes of vaentablature, and one acroter, or little pedestal, rious kinds and dimensions, which, for its solemnplaced upon the entablature: that the column bas ity, grandeur, and rich volume of tone, is peculiarthree parts, viz. the base, the shaft, and the capital; ly fitted for the purpose for which it is commonly the entablature three, likewise, viz. the architrave, employed. Organs are sometimes of an immense the frieze, and the cornice ; and the pedestal also, size: the organ in the cathedral church at Ulm, in three, viz. the square trunk or die, which makes Germany, is said to be 93 feet high and 28 broad, the body ; the cornice, or head; and the base, the its largest pipe being 13 inches in diameter, and foot of the pedestal.

it having sixteen pair of bellows To determine the proportions of the Tuscan order, any height being given, divide it into ten ORGANS OF ANIMALS. That the organs equal parts, called diameters, that is, parts equal to of animals are essential to their preservation, and the thickness of the shaft at the bottom; and of even to their existence, will appear from considerthese parts or diameters, allow two to the pedestal, ing the construction and properties of the eye, seven to the column, and one and three quarters which is one of the most remarkable and the most to the entablature. The Doric order contains useful. Supposing an animal endured with life twelve diameters and one third ; the Ionic, thirteen and motion, yet still it could not know in what and a half; the Corinthian, fourteen and a half; place to find sustenance, or by what means to avoid and the Composite, fifteen and a third.

danger, without the faculty of sight. This constiIn what is called the Gothic architecture, the tutes in man, as well as in other animals, a refined same variety of proportions, or orders, is observ- kind of feeling, extended to the various objects of able. The Saxon is massive; the Moresk, light; nature and art. The organ of vision is a most and that which is usually distinguished by the lively and delicate instrument of exquisite strucname of Gothic, of a middle character.

ture, through which sensations are conveyed to the The Grecian and Doric modes of architecture mind. Its form is the most commodious that can are adapted to, as they were the produce of, differ- possibly be imagined, for containing the different ent climates: and each of their orders is applicable humors of which it consists, and receiving the to buildings erected for peculiar purposes; as tem- images of all external objects. By its situation in ples, state buildings, and theatres, &c.

the head, it can take in a greater number of ob

jects, than if placed in any other part of the body. ORES. Metals, when found in a state of com- And by its power of motion, it can be turned to bination with other substances, have the name of view those objects, in whatever direction they may ores. They are in general deposited in veins of appear. The wonder of this examination is greaivarious thickness, and at various depths in the ly increased on investigating the more minute parts earth. The mode of obtaining them is to penetrate and mechanism of the eye. The pupil is confrom the surface of the earth to the vein, and then tracted or dilated, according to the distance or reto follow it in whatever direction it may lie. The moteness of objects, or the increase or diminution hollow places thus formed are called mines, and of light. The coverings or tunics are of the firmthe men employed in them are denominated min- est texture, and softest substance. The vitreous,

When the veins are at a great depth, or ex- the aqueous, and the crystalline humors are all retend to any considerable distance beneath the sur-markable for clearness and transparency, and are face of the earth, it is necessary, at intervals, to formed according to the most exact rules of visiou, inake openings, or shaste, to the surface, for the for collecting the rays of light to a point.

ers.

Clumsy and misshapen are the instruments of scek in the distant recesses of the forests, or the art, when coinpared with this finished and beauti- impenetrable fusinesses of the mountains, protecful organ. True it is, that the microscope enables tion from an enemy, whose superior sagacity deus to survey the smaller works of nature, and that tects their arts, and discovers their retreats; who the telescope exalts our prospect to the wonders entraps them with his snares, when not present of the celestial bodies: but these are fixed and himself; and who, lurking behind the thick covert, limited to certain distances, and particular points discharges his unerring instrument of death, and of view; one is adapted to measuring the magni- slays them at a distance so great, as not to awaken tude of a planet, the other to examining the forma- their apprehensions of danger. tion of an insect : but the eye wonderfully accom- It is thus he maintains bis power over all living modates itself to every distance within its own creatures, alike in the frozen regions of the north, extensive sphere. Without diminution of its force, and in the hot and burning plains of the torrid or the energy or distinctness of its powers, it alike zone. Whenever they are discovered by his pensurveys the page of learning, embraces the wide etrating eye, the most savage and hostile tribes prospects of sea and land, and takes in the count- may for a time hold his empire in dispute: but less constellations of the heavens. In what man- their opposition and their force serve only to i ner it can adapt itself to these very different ob- awaken his ingenuity, and call his powers into jects and distances, seems not to be clearly under- more daring action. The horse and the dog, stood by anatomists; we know however enough which enjoy his protection from the earliest period of its effects to see the most evident traces of de- of their lives, are taught to know their master, and sign in its formation, and its most perfect fitness to to adopt many of his babits of life. Upon the the spheres in which different animals move. The lion and the tiger, which the African leads captive study of optics, to which these remarks may lead, froin the forests, or upon the vulture and the eagle, is one of the most pleasing branches of science. which he secures when young, or brings down

The final cause for the production of animals from their rapid and sublime flights, he at first imwas a subject of deep and serious speculation poses the severity of famine, watching, and fatigue, among ancient philosophers: Aristotle, Cicero, to conquer their savage nature, and reduce them Seneca, and Pliny concluded, that all things were to obedience. The dangers of the ocean stop not created for the service of man. In modern times, the pursuits of man ; the sailor catches the raventhis prejudice, so indulgent to the pride of man- ous shark, and transfixes the mighty whale. With kind, has been strengthened rather than weakened, a boldness still more desperate, the fowler of the by more enlarged inquiries, and more intimate north climbs the perpendicular rocks of Norway acquaintance with nature.

or St. Kilda, or lowered from their airy summits The dominion of man is sufficiently extensive which overhang the tempestuous deep, explores to relieve his wants, administer to his luxury, and the nests of the clamorous birds, and plunders indulge his pride, as the lord of the creation. Is them of their eggs and their young. From such there any thing peculiarly august in his counte- arduous labors does man draw the means of his nance, or commanding in his erect figure, which subsistence; from such exertions he acquires peimpresses the most savage beasts of the forest with culiar habits of courage and agility, becomes reterror, and awes them into submission ? Or does conciled to his situation, and enjoys it without rehe derive his superiority from his intellectual pow- pining at the easier lot of others. ers, and his contrivance of various expedients to Thus is constantly executed that primeval law, subdue and tame them? The latter is certainly which secured the empire of the creation to man the more probable supposition. Those animals, by the express voice of divine revelation, even which have not yet become acquainted with his after he had forfeited bis innocence, and was deprowess, meet his first attacks with the most hardy based by guilt. “And the fear of you and the presumption. The albatross and the whale only dread of you shall be upon every beast of the Ay from his presence, when they have felt the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all force of his weapons. The enormous bear of the that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes polar regions boldly advances to meet his attack; of the sea; into your hands are they delivered.' and the ferocious lion of Zaara, confiding in his Genesis ix. 2. strength, ventures singly to engage a whole cara- Much as we may discern in the animal economy van, consisting of thousands; and when repulsed to convince us of the benevolence of nature, there by numbers, and obliged to retire, he still continues are many things, which excite our surprise, and to face his pursuers. On the contrary, in the most for which we cannot readily account. That she populous parts of Africa, when the lion has been should so far in appearance counteract her own frequently hunted by the hardy natives, such is his designs, as to make one animal prey upon another, dread of the buman race, that even the sight of a seems extraordinary; but perhaps this law is not child puts him to fight. In all countries, in pro- so severe as it appears to be, when we consider, portion as man is civilized, the lower ranks of ani- that animals have no presentiment of their fate; mals are either reduced to servitude, or treated as that contracted as their existence is, all of them rebels; all their associations are dissolved, except evidently enjoy that portion of happiness, which is such as will answer his purposes, and all their consistent with their forination and powers. By united strength and natural powers are subdued, the present constitution of the animal system the and nothing remains but their solitary instincts, or life and happiness of its superior orders are prothose foreign habitudes, which they acquire from moted : the bodies of the inferior classes, which human education. Those whose daring, or those from their delicate structure, must more quickly whose timid natures admit not of being tamed, perish, become the materials of sustaining life in

others; and a much larger number is enabled to for to take here a slight view of societies in their subsist in consequence of animals thus devouring origin, in order to discover the nature and the each other, than could be maintained, if they all causes of their earliest civil institutions, and to subsisted upon vegetables ; because it is a received point out some of the circumstances that have opprinciple in physics, that animal food furnishes erated in producing the changes that have taken more nutriment than vegetable substances of equal place. weight.

The Patriarchal State. We can form no idea It is sufficiently evident, that the various tribes of the existence of man in society without suborof insects, by preying upon each other, preserves dination.-A child is no sooner born than it is perthe fruits of the earth from those ravages they fectly dependent upon its parents for its support

, would necessarily suffer, should any one species and every thing it enjoys ;-it is weak and help of them multiply too fast; and even those which less; it looks up to them for assistance, and nature we drive from our habitations are formed for salu- has bestowed upon the parents affections that intary purposes, and consume such substances as duce them to cherish and support it. It is way. would become pernicious to the health of man, if ward and foolish ; nature has also endowed them left to a gradual decay.

with strength to correct its errors.—Reason comes For what reason nature is so prodigal the gradually to be developed.—The child becomes production of animals invisible, as well as visible, sensible of the superior understanding that expeto the unassisted eye; for what cause such ingeni- rience has conferred upon its parents, and, though ous contrivance is bestowed upon their structure, at first, it submitted merely from necessity, it at and so much elegance displayed in their colors length yields to their authority from a conviction and forms; why the more noxious animals should of its propriety and utility. This conviction, as exist, such as the tarantula, the rattlesnake, the the bodily powers increase, and the understanding crocodile, and the izal salya ; are questions which improves, is strengthened by habit and motives of naturalists will not be able to answer, until they gratitude.-Compulsion is then out of the question; are more perfectly acquainted with the general and as society advances, it is from the sway that econoniy of her designs, and the particular relation reason, derived from experience, confers upon him and dependance of one animal upon another. that the patriarch commands respect over his de

scendants, when they have obtained families of ORGANIC REMAINS. A name applied to their own, and have acquired ideas of personal all those animal and vegetable substances which independence, his advice will be attended to when have been dug out of the earth in a mineralized his commands can be no longer obligatory; and state, and serve as strong evidences of the univer- when, from the effects of age, he becomes debilisal deluge, and the changes which ensued. They tated in body and in mind, he will still be treated also afford reason to believe that the matter com- with respect, from a gentle recollection of what posing the solid parts of the globe, has undergone he has been.'. Such is the natural progress of paviolent and extensive revolutions, and that whole triarchal regimen ;-the first which must have classes of vegetables and animals now extinct have prevailed in every society, and what must have existed on the globe, anterior to the present con- given the earliest idea of government in every stitution of things.

country on the globe.

Origin of National Assemblies.—Here, as in ORIGINAL. The first copy, or that from every thing respecting man, the origin of influence which any thing is first transcribed or translated. is merely necessary and casual, and nothing con

ventional. Necessity lays the foundation, and acciORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT. In disquisi- dental circumstances influence the superstructure. tions respecting matters of remote antiquity, his- At the beginning, no idea is formed of the magnitorical facts are involved in obscurity ; and, as in tude that the object may in time acquire ;-provisthe infancy of man, no recollection can be had of ion is made for circumstances as they arise and the ideas that first began to dawn upon the mind; reason and experience model it so as to suit the so neither can we trace, to their origin, in the in- wants or desires of the parties concerned. Men fancy of societies, the customs that then began to being accustomed to venerate their parents, are prevail. In respect to the origin of such customs, naturally disposed, in the infancy of every small iherefore, we niust be satisfied with conjecture and society, to pay respect to the opinion and advice reasonings from analogy with regard to cases in of their elders ;-hence the origin of assemblies, some respects similar, that have fallen under our casually convened for deliberating on matters of own observation. Yet so strong is the influence great importance. The elders, in such assemblies, of custom and babit, when once established on the usually bear sway, as to advice. The senate of actions of men, that it is of much importance to Rome retained, till the very last, the name of discover, as early as possible, those national ideas Patres, so that the whole order of senators were which had begun to take place; for we shall find, called Patricians. The younger and most vigorthat those original notions continue to influence ous are empowered to act under the general dithe conduct of mankind, long after they had been rection of the whole body, swayed by the opinion forced by a change of circumstances to adopt so of the elders. In these first assemblies we can many modifications of these as to make the ideas perceive no mark of compact, nor any other auwhich now prevail seem to bear but a very slight thority than that which a general assembly, withreseinblance to those from which they were de-out any previous deliberation, confers; nor any rived.

idea of its continuance, longer than that opinion It is upon these principles that we shall endeav- | prevails.

Origin of regal Authority.---Extraordinary talents, danger threatens them. In these assemblies, age however, and uncommon exertions, especially in will obtain a voluntary respect, and personal prowwarlike exploits, will always inspire the bulk of ess and daring intrepidity will be admired, as consuch a people with respect and admiration, and stituting superior excellence. In this state of soconsequently will confer upon the person who ciety, the idea of country strongly prevails. In possesses those qualities, in a high degree, a singu- cases of danger they find it necessary to associate lar sway over others, who without any deputation for mutual defence. Extent of territory is, to men to that effect, venerate him, and are influenced by in these circumstances, extremely necessary. An his will. They are pleased, and he acquires a idea of property in territorial possession therefore sway proportioned to the general opinion enter- takes its origin here ;—but this idea of territory tained of his prowess. Their subjection is volun- is only connected with the nation, or the tribe. tary; and they submit to it as long as they feel As no individual could make use of a small spot themselves inclined to do so, and no longer. for his own wants, he is satisfied if the hunting

But if men have been accustomed, for a time, grounds he values most belong to his tribe ; he to view another as greater than themselves, they has no wish to annex any part of it to his own thus imperceptibly lose the idea of equality. The person :-therefore, in this state of society, the idea longer this person is capable of securing this sway, of personal property in land has not yet originatthe more they admire him, and sink themselves in ed; and of course all the intricacies, in respect to their own opinion. He comes, in time, to be civil government, which this engenders, and the thought of a superior nature. His near connex- disputes these give rise to, are entirely obviated. ions participate, in some degree, of the respect The Pastoral State. As men come gradually to paid to him. His family becomes elevated above tame animals, and pass into the state of pastors, others; and thus in time is formed, without fore- the notion they had already imbibed, with regard seeing it, and without concert of any sort, a dis- to territorial property, continues to operate ; but tinction of ranks, which gradually gives rise to new institutions become necessary. It is not hereditary authority and despotism.

enough that the territory belongs to the tribe. In Having given this short sketch of the rise of this case it becomes necessary, when they stop personal rank and hereditary authority, we shall from any migratory journey, in quest of pastures, next endeavor to trace, with somewbat inore dis- by some conventual agreement, to distribute the crimination, the modifications of that authority in land to individuals in such lots as may be found different stages in the progress of civil society. necessary to preserve peace and order among

In the progress from rudeness to refinement in them. Here every man acquires, by degrees, a society, there are three stages that are distinctly notion of personal property in land; but in this marked. In the first, men subsist on the sponta- case his connexion with that land is very slight;neous productions of the earth, and the wild ani- he considers it as his property only so long as till mals they can destroy. Men in this state of soci- the crop upon it, at the present time, be consumed. ety are Hunters.

After that is done, he relinquishes it, and goes in Man gradually acquires a dominion over some quest of fresh pastures elsewhere, within the terof the most gentle animals, tames them, and feeds ritories of the state. In this situation, therefore, thein for his own use. He lives upon the milk of the idea that land is entirely the property of the his focks, clothes himself with their skins, and state, still prevails ; but individuals consider themcats their flesh when other provisions fail. This selves as entitled to make use of its produce exstate of society is called the Pastoral.

clusively, for a time. In time, however, they learn to cultivate the Agriculturists.In temperate climates, where fruits of the earth, and to make these subservient the surface of the country is diversified with bill to their own use, both immediately by furnishing and vale, and where fruits in abundance for man, food to themselves, and mediately by affording and herbage for cattle, are to be found at all seaineat to beasts fit for the sustenance of man. This sons, we can easily conceive an idea that commustate of society has been denominated the Agri- nities may continue to exist, for many ages, in this cultural.

migratory state, without ever acquiring any idea Each of these stages of society give rise to par- of personal property in land. But in less tempesicular notions and institutions; and as men in so- rate climates that cannot be the case. There, the ciety always advance through these stages in the fruits that nature spontaneously produces are less order above enumerated, the ideas and habits that abundant, and are to be found only at one season had become familiar in the one state, continue to of the year. The berbage for cattle also fails enform the basis, and have a great influence on those tirely for a time, and the rigor of the winter's cold of the succeeding period. It is necessary for us, is such as to render the poor protection of a tent therefore, if we wish to acquire a just notion of inadequate for affording the shelter required. To the political institutions that now prevail, to trace guard against this cold, and to provide places for their progress from the first period to the present storing up such fruits for himself, and provender times.

for his cattle, as he can collect during the summer, Hunters.-While men continue to be hunters more solid and permanent habitations become neonly, their civil government will be of the rudest cessary for man. He builds himself a hut, and kind; and, of course, every head of a family will covers it in the most durable and effectual manner be then in a great measure independent. Assem- he can ;—this he effects with no little labor to him blies of the people, however, must be called, to self ;-—and having once reared, he becomes un deliberate on national affairs, and to provide for willing to abandon it.—He considers this therefore the common defence of the whole tribe, when as bis own, and thus gradually begins to acquire some slight notions of fixed personal property in albumen, which first nourishes the chick during land.

incubation; and a yolk, which is so suspended When he has thus attached himself to a place within it as to preserve the side on which the little of fixed residence, he will endeavor to render it as rudiment of the chicken is situated continually commodious to himself as possible. He finds some uppermost, and next to the mother that is sitting plants afford him a more agreeable repast than upon it. The yolk is in great measure received others ;-he tries to cultivate them by art ;-to pre- into the abdomen of the chicken, a little before the vent these plants from being destroyed by cattle, time of its being hatched, and serves for its supthe ground must be inclosed ;-within this inclo- port, like the milk of a quadruped, and like the sure he finds he can cultivate grain, which may be cotyledons of young plants, until the system is bestored up for his own use, and that of his cattle, come sufficiently strong for extracting its own food in winter. He therefore acquires as great a fond- out of the ordinary nutriment of the species. ness for this bit of inclosed land as for his house. • This is mine," he says, “and I will preserve it.' The idea accords with the general sense of men ;

ORRERY. A curious machine, or movement, the community pronounce it reasonable, and de- dies; so called, because one, copied from the orig

for representing the motions of the heavenly bocree, by a tacit consent, that it shall be his, and in inal'invention of a Mr. Graham, was first made the use of it he is protected by universal custom, for the Earl of Orrery; and otherwise known by which gradually forms the basis of law. Of this the name of planetarium. It consists of represenkind of territorial property we find mention made tations of the planets, and of the zodiac, and other by Tacitus, and all the earliest Roman historians lines imagined by astronomers. By means of an who have treated of Germany, under the name of the field of the house. Here too we have the ori- Jorrery, persons who have not leisure to study asgin of that kind of landed property which was tronomy, may, in the space of a few days, obtain afterwards known by the name of Allodial, in dis- phenomena, and, especially, release their minds

a competent knowledge of several of the celestial tinction to those feudal tenures which came into from the common prejudices respecting the motion use at a later period of society in Europe. This of the earth : its principal use being to render the kind of Allodial property, to which the owner theory of the earth and moon intelligible, and to claims no other title than that of possession, ac- make evident to the senses the causes of those quired by transfer from another, or descent, is known till this day in the Shetland isles, that lie appearances that depend on the annual or diurnal off the N. E. coast of Scotland, under the name

rotation of the earth, and the monthly revolutions

of the moon. of Udal property; a kind of tenure that probably once prevailed over all Scotland, though the name of it be now lost in our law books.

ORTHOEPY. The art of correct pronuncia

tion, to be best acquired by hearing public speakORION. In Astronomy, a constellation of the ers, and keeping good company. southern hemisphere, consisting of thirty-seven stars, according to Ptolemy; of sixty-two, accord

ORTHOGRAPHY. That part of grammar ing to Tycho; and of no less than eighty, in the which teaches the nature and properties of letters, Britannic catalogue. The lately improved teles- and the just method of spelling or writing words, copes have discovered several thousand stars in making one of the four greatest divisions or branchthis constellation : of these, there are two of the es of grammar. first magnitude, four of the second, and several of the third and fourth. The stars of the first mag

ORYCTOLOGY. The science which treats nitude are Regel and Betelguese. Those of the of the vegetable and animal remains, found by second, are Bellatrix, on the left shoulder, and digging in the earth, and by breaking rocks: one three in the belt; lying nearly in a right line, and of the most curious subjects of inquiry, for it at equal distances from each other.

shows the gradual progress of the globe to its pre

sent state, and displays numerous genera and speORNITHOLOGY. That branch of natural cies no longer in existence. The whole proves history which considers and describes birds, their that all dry land has more than once been covered natures and kinds, their form, external and internal, by the sea, for marine and land remains alternate and teaches their economy and uses ; also the sev- in the strata ; and that owing to some change, pereral orders and genera in the alphabetical order. haps, in the component and energizing parts of the Birds are divided, according to the form of their atmosphere, the whole of the organized existence bills, into six orders, viz. Accipitres, as eagles, vul- of the globe has been changed also, while future tures, and hawks: Picæ, as crows, jackdaws, hum- changes seem not less probable than the past. ming-birds, and parrots : Anseres, as ducks, geese, Vegetables, in general, have been converted into swans, gulls: Grallæ, as herons, woodcocks, and coal, or stone, and found as trunks, leaves, and ostriches: Gallinæ, as peacocks, pheasants, turkies, fruit, of species not now existing. The animal and common fowls: and Passeres, comprehend- remains are still more perfect and wonderful, in ing sparrows, larks, swallows, &c.

bones, horns, teeth, &c. of unknown kinds; and Birds are distinguished from quadrupeds, by everything seems different and changed, though their laying eggs : they are generally feathered"; the same classes are often found. Remains of some few are hairy, and instead of hands or fore- fish, and sea-shells in vast masses, are found in the legs, they have wings. Their eggs are covered by interior of all countries, and imbedded in rocks on a calcareous shell, and they consist of a white, or the highest mountains.

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